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" By necessaries I understand, not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without. "
Political Economy: An Inquiry Into the Natural Grounds of Right to Vendible ... - Сторінка 155
автори: Samuel Read - 1829 - 398 стор.
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Ecological Economics: An Introduction

Michael Common, Sigrid Stagl - 2005 - 592 стор.
...founding father of economics, Adam Smith, as writing in the eighteenth century that: 'By necessities I understand, not only the commodities which are indispensably...people, even of the lowest order, to be without.' In the essay on the virtues of economic growth cited in section 6.4.1, Keynes distinguished between...
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Poverty, Work, and Freedom: Political Economy and the Moral Order

David P. Levine, S. Abu Turab Rizvi - 2005
...has a moral and historical element is well known. Smith tells us that a worker's necessities include "not only the commodities which are indispensably...creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without" (Smith 1937: 821). The process of change in cultural norms was seen to be slow enough that subsistence...
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The Economic Implications of Aging Societies: The Costs of Living Happily ...

Steven A. Nyce, Sylvester J. Schieber - 2005 - 396 стор.
...Smith who classified consumer goods as "either necessaries or luxuries." He classified necessaries as "not only the commodities which are indispensably...people, even of the lowest order, to be without." 12 While this concept of minimal need is absolute, it is not universal. For example, Smith explained...
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Jane Austen in Context

Janet Todd - 2005 - 467 стор.
...the 'competence'. Adam Smith defined the term competence in its broadest social inclusion, that is, 'whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent...creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without'.4 But, as John Trusler, a contemporary economist, writes in his Domestic Management (1819),...
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The Poverty Wars: Reconnecting Research with Reality

Peter Saunders - 2005 - 158 стор.
...in The Wealth of Nations (1776, p. 351) as a lack of basic necessities, where necessities include: (N]ot only the commodities which are indispensably...necessary for the support of life but whatever the custom renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without. Over two centuries...
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Globalization and Social Stress

Grzegorz W. Kołodko - 2005 - 268 стор.
...poverty line does not satisfy the Adam Smith understanding of necessities which must include not just "the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life" but those which "the custom of the country renders indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order...
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The Transformation of England: Essays in the Economic and Social History of ...

Peter Mathias - 2005 - 324 стор.
...long ago, when both material standards and levels of expectation were so different: 'By necessities I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably...creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without. [1] Even with United Nations investigations into the adequacy of diets in poverty, which are potentially...
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Poverty in America: A Handbook

John Iceland - 2006 - 223 стор.
...Wealth of Nations, he defined the lack of "necessaries" as the experience of being unable to consume "not only the commodities which are indispensably...people, even of the lowest order, to be without." 3 More recently, Peter Townsend observed that people are social beings who assume many roles in a community—...
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Child Poverty and the Canadian Welfare State: From Entitlement to Charity

Shereen T. Ismael - 2006 - 111 стор.
..."The Market Basket Measure is based on the concept of 'necessities' which was defined by Adam Smith as 'whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent...creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.'"37 While the poverty rate generated by the preliminary MBM was comparable to that generated...
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Poverty in the Roman World

Margaret Atkins, Robin Osborne - 2006
...define poverty thresholds. Adam Smith's leather shoes are the conventional example: By necessaries I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but what ever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even the lowest order,...
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