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merrily to apply to this case an observation of Hero-
dotus, who says, that the most useful animals are the
most fruitfal in their generation; whereas the species
of those beasts that are fierce and mischievous to man-
kind are bnt scarcely continued. The historian in-
scances in a hare, which always either breeds or brings
fortb; and a liuness, which brings forth but once, and
then loses all power of conception. But, leaving my
friend to his mirth, I am of opinion, that in these latter
ages we have greater cause of complaint than the an-
cients had. And since that solemn festival is ap-
proaching, which calls for all the power of oratory,
and wbich affords as noble a subject for the pulpit as
any revelation has taught us, the design of this paper
shall be to show, that our moderns have greater ad-
vantages towards true and solid eloquence, than any
which the celebrated speakers of antiquity enjoyed.
· The first great and substantial difference is, that
their common places, in which almost the whole force
of amplification consists, were drawn from the profit
or honesty of the action, as they regarded only this
present state of duration. But Christianity, as it exalts
morality to a greater perfection, as it brings the consi-
deration of another life into the question, as it proposes
rewards and punishments of a higher nature and a
longer continuance, is more adapted to affect the
minds of the audience, naturally inclined to pursue
what it imagines its greatest interest and concern. If
Pericles, as historians report, could shake the firmest
resolution of his hearers, and set the passions of all
Greece in a ferment, when the present welfare of his
country, or the fear of hostile invasions, was the sub-
ject : what may be expected from that orator, who
warns his audience against those evils which have no
remedy, wben once undergone, either from prudence
or time? As much greater as the evils in a future state
are than these at present, so much are the motives to
persuasion under Christianity greater than those which
mere moral consideration could supply us with. But

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what I now mention relates only to the power of mov. ing the affections. There is another part of eloquence, which is indeed its masterpiece; I mean the marvellous or sublime. In this the christian orator has the advantage beyond contradiction. Our ideas are so infinitely enlarged by revelation, the eye of reason has 80 wide a prospect into eternity, the notions of a Deity are so worthy and refined, and the accounts we have of a state of happiness or misery so clear and evident, that the contemplation of such objects will give our discourse a noble vigour, an invincible force, beyond the power of any buman consideration. Tully requires in his perfect orator some skill in the nature of heavenly bodies, because, says he, his mind will become more extensive and unconfined; and when he descends to treat of human affairs, he will both think and write in a more exalted and magnificent manner. For the same reason that excellent master would have recommended the stady of those great and glorious mysteries which revelation has discovered to us; to which the noblest parts of this system of the world are as much inferior as the creature is less excellent than its Creator. The wisest and most knowing among the heathens had very poor and imperfect notions of a future state. They had indeed some uncertain hopes, either received by tradition, or gathered by reason, that the existence of virtuous men would not be determined by the separation of soul and body: but they either disbelieved a future state of punishment and misery; or, upon the same account that A pelles paint. ed Antigonus with one side only towards the spectator, that the loss of his eye might not cast a blemish upon the whole piece; so these represeuted the condition of man in its fairest view, and endeavoured to conceal what they thought was a deformity to human nature. I have often observed, that whenever the above-mentioned orator in his philosophical discourses is led by his argument to the mention of immortality, he seems like one awaked out of sleep; roused and alarmed with the dignity of the subject, he stretches bis imagination to conceive something uncommon, and, with the greatness of his thoughts, casts, as it were, a glory round the sentence. Uncertain and unsettled as he was, he seems fired with the contemplation of it. And nothing but such a glorious prospect could have forced so great a lover of truth as he was, to declare his resolution never to part with bis persuasion of immortality, though it should be proved to be an erroneous one. But had be lived to see all that Christianity has brought to light, bow would he have lavished out all the force of eloquence in those noblest contemplations which human nature is capable of, the resurrection and the judgment that follows it? How bad his breast glowed with pleasure, when the whole compass of faturity lay open and exposed to his view ? How would his imagination have burried him on in the pursuit of the mysteries of the incarnation? How would he have entered, with the force of lightning, into the affections of his hearers, and fixed their attention, in spite of all the opposition of corrupt nature, upon those glorious themes which his eloquence hath painted in such lively and lasting colours ?

This advantage Christians have; and it was with no small pleasure I lately met with a fragment of Longi. nns, which is preserved, as a testimony of that critic's judgment, at the beginning of a manuscript of the New Testament in the Vatican library. After that anthor has numbered up the most celebrated orators among the Grecians, he says, “ add to these Paul of Tarsus, the patron of an opinion not yet fully proved." As a heathen, he condemns the Christian Religion; and, as an impartial critic, be judges iu favour of the promo. ter and preacher of it. To me it seems, that the latter part of his judgment adds great weight to his opinion of St. Paul's abilities, since, under all the prejudice of opinions directly opposite, he is constrained to acknow. ledge the merit of that apostle. And no doubt, such as Longinus describes St. Paul, such he appeared to the

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inbabitants of those countries which he visited and blessed with those doctrines he was divinely commissioned to preach. Sacred story gives us, in one circumstance, a convincing proof of his eloquence, when the men of Lystra called him Mercury, “ because he was the chief speaker," and would have paid divine worship to him, as to the god who invented and presided over eloquence. This one account of our apostle sets his character, considered as an orator only, above all the, celebrated relations of the skill and influence of Demosthenes and his contemporaries. Their power in speaking was admired, but still it was thought buman: their eloquence warmed and ravished the hearers, bat still it was thought the voice of man, not the voice of God. Wbat advantage then had St. Paul above those of Greece or Rome? I confess I can ascribe this excellence to nothing but the power of the doctrines he delivered, which may have still the same influence on the hearers; which have still the power, when preached by a skilful orator, to make us break out in the same expressions, as the disciples, who met our Saviour in their way to Einmaus, made use of;.“ Did not our hearts burn within us, when he talked to us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?" I may be thought bold in my judgment by some; but I must affirm, that no one orator has left us so visible marks and footsteps of his eloquence as our apostle. It may perhaps be wondered at, that in his reasonings apon idolatry at Athens, where eloquence was born and flourished, he confines himself to strict argument only; but my reader may remember what many authors of the best credit bave assured us, that all attempts upon the affections and strokes of oratory were expressly forbidden by the laws of that country, in courts of judicature. His want of eloquence therefore here, was the effect of his exact conformity to the laws: but his discourse on the resurrection to the Corinthians, his barangae before Agrippa upon his own conversion, and the necessity of that of others, are truly great, and

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may serve as full examples to those excellent rules for the sublime, which the best of critics bas left us. The som of all this discourse is, that our clergy have no further to look for an example of the perfection they may arrive at, than to St. Paul's harangues; that when he, under the want of several advantages of nature, as he himself tells us, was heard, admired, and made a standard to succeeding ages by the best judges of a different persuasion in religion, I say, our clergy may learn, ihat, however instructive their sermons are, they are capable of receiving a great addition; wbich St. Paul has given them a noble example of, and the Christian religion has furnished them with certain means of attaining to.

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Numquam aliud natura, aliud sapientia dixit.

JUVENAL. * Good taste and nature always speak the same.” WHEN the four Indian kings* were in this country

about a twelvemonth ago, I often mixed with the rabble, and followed them a whole day together, being wonderfully struck with the sight of every thing that is new and uncommon. I have since their departure employed a friend to make many inquiries of

• “ The Spectator is written by Steele, with Addi. son's help; it is often very pretty. Yesterday it was & made of a noble hint I gave him long ago for his TatFlers, about an Indian king, supposed to write his tra. vels in England. I repent he ever had it. I intended to have written a book on that subject. I believe he has spent it all in one paper, and all the under hints there are mine too; but I never see him nor Addim

-Swift's Letter to Mrs. Johnson, dated Lon. don, April 28, 1711.


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