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be called three of the most respectable inhabitants of every parish were solemnly sworn to make diligent inquiry if there were any Lollards, or any suspected of Lollardism, or any who had English books in their houses, or had anything singular in their way of living within their parish, and to send an account in writing to the archdeacon, twice every year, of their names and all other circumstances. By this means a strict search after the Lollards was set on foot, prodigious'numbers of them were detected, thrown into prison, cruelly harassed, and persecuted. So great, indeed, was this primate's hatred of the Lollards, that, by his influence, & very severe law was passed against them by the Parliament held at Leicester A.D. 1415, in which it was enacted that “The chancellor, the judges of both benches and of assize, all justices of the peace, sheriffs, mayors, and bailiffs, should take an oath, at their admission to their offices, to do everything in their power to extirpate all Lollards out of the kingdom, and to assist the ordinaries in persecuting the Lollards.”
Lut great changes were effected in dress during this age, as well as in architecture and religion. The tight sleeves of the preceding reigns were now out of fashion, and wide, deep appendages called pokys, and shaped like a bagpipe, were worn indifferently by servants as well as masters ; they were commonly called the devil's receptacles, for whatever could be stolen was popped in them. Some were so long and so wide that they reached to the feet, others to the knees, and were full of slits. As the servants were bringing up pottage, sauces, &c., these pokys“would go into them and have the first taste.” Physicians were dressed in scarlet, according to Chaucer, “furred well, as such an one ought to be;" and the serjeantat-law's dress was a medley coat with a girdle of silk, ornamented with small bars or stripes of different colours. The miller was clothed in a white coat and a blue hood, and was armed with a sword and buckler. His hose on holidays were of red cloth, when he also twisted the tippet of his hood about his head-a custom that was fashionable among the gallants.
To the decoration of the garter—so well known, with its inimitable and chivalric motto-was added, in the time of Richard II., the badge of the white hart, which was worn by all his courtiers and adherents, both male and female, cither embroidered on their dresses or suspended by chains or collars round their necks. This device seems to have been derived from Richard's mother, whose cognizance was a white hind. In the wardrobe accounts of that King is an entry of a belt and sheath of red velvet, embroidered with white harts crowned with rosemary branches. One of the few friends who attended the unfortunate Prince after his capture by the Earl of Northumberland was Jenico d'Artois, a Gascon, who still wore the device of his master—that is to say, a white hart—and would not put it from him, neither by threats nor persuasion ; by reason whereof, when the Duke of 1/creford understood it, he caused him to be committed to prison within the castle of Chester. “This man,” says Hollingshed, “was the last which bare that device, and shewed well thereby his constant heart towards his master.” The white hart still remains, painted, of a colossal size, on the wall over the door leading to the east cloister from the south aisle of Westminster Abbey. It is generally represented crowned, collared, and chained, and couchant under a tree. Other badges of this monarch were the sun in his splendour, and the pod of the planta genista, or broom, with which, indeed, the robe of his monumental effigy is covered.
The curcoats of the knights of the garter were, in the seventh year of Richard II., made of “violet ingrain;" in the eleventh year it was white, and in the fifteenth and nineteenth of long blue cloth; and the military costume partook of the sumptuous extravagance of the age.
Milan was the grand emporium from whence the most splendid suits were forwarded to the chivalry of Europe. The most characteristic novelty was the visor of the bascinet; and, as a most interesting subject, we give the following
WOMES WITH HELMETS.
engraving from an illuminated MS. copy of the “Roman de la Rose” of this date, in which are several figures of females armed with sword, spear, and shield, and wearing the visored bascinet and camail. Some of these extraordinary visors were hooked like the beak of a bird ; the bascinet itself was richly ornamented round the edges, and a band of the most splendid workmanship encircles it like a diadem. The “bascinet a visieri" was worn only in war. In tournaments the viscr was removed, and the helmet, surmounted by its mantling wreath and crest, placed over the bascinet.
The trade of Britain, to which we have before so frequently referred, met with many obstructions at this period; and the foreign or domestic wars, in which our kings were so constantly engaged, retarded for a time the progress which commerce was making. Another great drawback to the success of the merchants was the fact that our kings had so few ships of their own that, whenever they had occasion to transport their armies, they pressed into their service all the ships as well as all the sailors that could be found—than which nothing more ruinous to trade could be devised.
Thus, to give one example out of many, Henry V., at his first invasion of France, A.D. 1415, pressed all the ships (and fine ships they were, as our engraving testifies) in all the ports of England, of twenty tons and upwards, to transport his army to the Continent. The consequence was that, after the wars were over, the sailors and merchants were so influenced, and had imbibed so much of the martial spirit, that plunder and petty piracy on their own account soon became quite a common practice. This obliged the mariners of other nations to make loud com plaints; and, when they could not obtain redress (which was often the case), they
were compelled to make reprisals, which increased the dangers of navigation and interrupted the intercourse between the countries even when they were not at war. But, be the policy of the kings what it might; one thing is certain, that the inhabitants of this country were very soon fully awake to the importance of being masters of the seas; and, in a rhyming pamphlet, written about 1433, it is asserted “that, if the English kept the seas, and especially the narrow seas, they would compel all the world to be at peace with them, and court their friendship;" and, if the dominion of Britannia is continued as hitherto (for the greater part, at least) for the good of the whole as well as the especial benefit of herself, long, long may she retain her sovereignty as mistress of the seas !
M. S. R.
WHERE may repose be found ?
Life's pilgrimage ended
Tire 'tween-deck of the Oceanic presented, by the melancholy light of a single lantern that hung in the centre, a very picturesque scene.
Against both sides, on which the berths were erected in tiers, lay as many men as could find room ; and strange and peculiar was the sight, as, from the open bunks, here an arm, there a leg, there a head even, hung out, and the snoring and heavy breathing sounded from every corner. The Oceanic, besides, did not possess sufficient berths for all the passengers ; so on the chests and boxes, which were arranged in the centre, lay and hung all sorts of sleeping forms, frequently in the most neck-breaking positions, stealing from the god of sleep an hour of rest, in which they were continually interrupted by the repeated noises and movements.
In one corner there sat, by the pale light of an almost expiring tallow candle, two men playing cards, with the silent, carnest manner of those whose happiness or ruin depends on the chances.of the coloured pieces of paper.
The lantern had been put out, and gloom occupied the narrow space in which all, with the exception of the two gamblers, lay buried in sleep, when suddenly a head was raised cautiously behind the German's chest-in which he had foolishly stated his money was kept-a pair of restless grey eyes looked round for a moment, and were then fixed immoveably on the two gamblers.
All was silence; only the uniform breathing of the sleepers, or the monotonous sounds of the engines, or, at times, a half-suppressed oath from one of the gamblers, broke the quiet.
The observer gently raised an arm, and carefully examined the padlock that fastened the chest, felt the keyhole, and then, almost noiselessly, produced a number of small keys from his pocket, several of which he tried. At length one fitted; the padlock yielded and fell with a loud crash on the floor, as it slipped through the thief's trembling hand.
*Go to the devil!" a dreamer near him muttered, and stretched forth his long limbs on a chest, which was at the most three feet square, so that his head hung down at one end, his feet at the other.
The thief, alarmed by his own noise as well as the unconscious ejaculation of the sleeper, sank back and remained motionless.
** There's something just fallen,” the German's wife said, as she nudged him. "Get up and look !"
“It was something on the engine,” the man muttered, half asleep, without paying any further attention to the remark.
The wife listened for a little while, but, as all remained quiet, she fell back again on her pillow.
The thief, after lying for a quarter of an hour nearly motionless behind the chest, opened the iron hasp very gently and cautiously, and, raising the lid a little way, thrust in his arm to feel for the money, which, according to the German's statement, was in it. After feeling several things in it, his hand suddenly fell on the desired object, which consisted of a small, heavy bag, containing the whole wealth of the poor emigrants. He slowly seized it, and pulled it, as carefully as he could, quite up, to take it out without a sound, when a long Kentuckian, who had been turning and twisting for a long while, woke up just above him, and, stretching his limbs, rose on his elbow as high as the low roof of his bunk permitted.
“Confound the hard mattress !" he said, as he kicked his heel against the bed on which he lay, “and the carpenter too, who has not made the berth long enough for a man who is an inch or two above six feet to stretch himself comfortably: Oh! oh!” he shouted, turning and rolling afresh, "I wish it was morning!"
With lightning speed the thief had withdrawn his hand, which held the booty he so confidently thought his own, and sank back again, grinding his teeth in the shade of the chest.
In a short while the former silence prevailed in the cabin, and carcfully and quickly the hidden form of the thief again rose behind the chest, gently raised the lid, pushed in his arm, seized the money-whose position he was now well acquainted with-and, holding the iron hasp firmly with his left hand, to prevent it rattling against the bolt, he pulled out his arm, clutching the treasure securely this time in his iron fingers.
He then let the lid fall, fastened the iron, and was just going to hang on and lock the padlock, when a fresh interruption again prevented him.
“I say, neighbour," a man stretched on the floor close to him cried, in whose face the feet of the man reclining on the chest repeatedly fell, “ I wish you'd pay a little more attention to your long walking-sticks, or I'll bite 'em for you! Do you think I placed my brain-pan here for you to wipe your feet on ?"
“Wood-pile! wood-pile!" the mate's voice now sounded through the 'tweendecks. "Wood-pile, boys! Get up here, get up!"
Then he walked round to the various bunks and shook the sleepers, taking little hced whether those he roused were bound to carry wood or not.
Stretching and yawning, the several passengers rose and rubbed their sleepy eyes, looking for their hats and caps—for, in other respects, they were quite dressed—while the mate stirred up the slowest to make haste or “get fixed," as he expressed it; but he still held the lantern close to the face of the other slumberers, to discover those who, in the darkness, would try to get off work.
The suddenly-aroused sleepers made extraordinary grimaces when they opened their eyes and saw a bright flame not three inches from them.
An elderly man lay fast sleeping, with his hands quietly folded over his chest, when the mate bent over him and cried, holding the lantern close to him
“Do you carry wood ?" The man, hardly understanding the meaning of the words, but aroused by their sound, opened his eyes, and, seeing the bright light close to him, he hulloed with all his lungs, "Fire !"
“ What's up?" asked the mate, springing back in surprise and alarm at the sudden exclamation. • What the deuce are you hulloing so for ?" he continued with a laugh, when he saw the other sitting before him, with staring eyes and widely-opened mouth. “Come, man, recover your senses—you won't be hurt !"
“What, in God's name, do you want ?" “Do you carry wood?" the mate asked.