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caricatures of tigers, one would not look for heroism. The too heavy for the fastenings which confined their trunnions, great arm of the infantry, however, is the dreaded gingall, or the carriages being far too light for the guns, the unfortuthe long heavy gun from which such extraordinary missiles, nate Chinese artillerymen had loaded the guns across their besides the heavy 3 lb. ball, are projected from considerable middle with large double bags of shot, like panniers across a distances. The field-gingalls require each two men to carry donkey's back, to prevent the gun from jumping. The guins and work them ; they are supported on three-legged wooden were elevated or depressed by wedges; they could be made stands, or on an upright wooden stand resting on three to traverse with the carriages ; and they were worked with wooden feet, sharpened so as to stick in the ground. Some springs and rammers like our own, but of inferior make. times, but not always, these stands are made so as to shut up. The shot were of iron, both solid and hollow; some being The infantry regiments consist of as many as 3,000 men each ; obviously the spoil of our last unlucky expedition, and others and they are indicated by characters and figures worn on a being clever imitations. They had copied our naval fusee,-a sort of band which fits obliquely across the chest.
matter quite in their way, as ingenious pyrotechnists,--to the The artillery soldiers are not distinguishable at a distance astonishıment of those who exanined them; but their hollow from the infantry, but amongst the dead within the Taku shot or shell did not burst correctly. It may be mentioned forts they could be detected lying near their gingalls, amongst that no mortars for vertical shell firing were found. Both those who had properly fought the large guns.
iron and lead bullets, very well cast, were seen in abundance ; However long the Chinese have been acquainted with gun and bags of pistol-shot, for the heavy gingalls of the forts, powder, they do not seem to have succeeded in applying it in which require three or four men each to work them. any original manner in war. Their pyrotechny has more of We should be doing John Chinaman an injustice were we show than service in it. They possess very large old-fashioned to omit all mention of his fire-balls, his gigantic Roman canguns of native make, built up of pieces of iron, hooped Iles, and his stink-pots. The fire-balls, -about the size of an together ; but these are practically useless. They have a apple or a closed fist, are made of some composition, enclosed few very fine brass guns of considerable size, but rather small in whity-brown paper cases, and have a small fusee or slow bore, evidently cast in China, having some Chinese charac. match stuck in them. They are sometimes thrown by the ters, or what our informant humourously spoke of as land; but a favourite practice, at night only, seems to be to “ conversation," upon them. The best guns in the Taku fill a cannon with fire-balls, and, by the aid of a small charge forts were, however, some of our own 32-pounders which of powder, to fire them up into the air, and so,-as is done by had been taken from the sunk and abandoned gunboats us with blue lights,-expose the movements or position of an of our expedition last year. These large guns were placed enemy in the dark. Large hollow sticks, six inches in in the embrasures of the parts of the fortifications called diameter, and filled with flat circular black cakes, composed of cavaliers, which were approached by an open ramp some combustible substances, are, in reality, huge Roraan behind. The embrasures, constructed of earth and wood, cardles. Hundreds of them were found in the Taku forts. were lined with plates of tin, for protection against fire They are also used at night; and being placed erect in the and concussion; they were covered over head, and were very ground, vomit forth their luminous discs of many-coloured skilfully blinded towards the river, with large shutters made fire, at regular intervals, up into the air, where they continue of dried hides stretched on wooden or bamboo frames. burning till they descend, and turn, for a minute or two, the Besides these largest guns, there were found, in the forts, darkness into à lurid day. The stink-pots are like balls, two or three of our own 21 lb. howitzers, and a great number covered with coarse paper. They contain an inflammable comof 12 lb. iron carronades, evidently bought from Europeans, position, in which, probably, nothing more noxious than probably from English or American merchant ships. resinous substances have a place. They are the same as There were likewise many still smaller guns, 3 or 4 pounders, those which have been long used by the eastern pirates, who both brass and iron, which were of native manufacture. throw them from the mast-heads of their own junks on to the Numerous gingalls, with their stands, heavier than those decks of any ship which they may attack. Except in close carried into the field, were also found in the several forts. quarters, they are, of-course, uceless. The Chinese make use Lastly, strange to reflect upon, hundreds of cross-bows, of a of nothing which resembles our old hand-grenade,-i.e. no very curious construction, were discovered, upon and within hand fire-ball, which bursts and discharges contained the walls. The stock of these bows, about three feet and a missiles around. half in length, heavy and bent down at its hinder end, is sup- It is hardly necessary to do more than call to mind the
ported near its middle by a wooden pin or foot, which rests on Chinese flags, which secm to be a sort of " institution the wall; the bow-part, not three feet long, is made of some with them. Large and small, square and swallow-tail, of tough but elastic wood ; the string is of gut or tendon ; the cotton or of silk, beautiful or shabby, plain, coloured, or arrows are of wood, about one foot in length, tipped with an decorated with embroidered dragons, there they were all iron point or nail fixed into them, and feathered in three rows along the parapets. The Chinese cannot fight without them. with very short feathers. Above the bow is fixed a curious No less important to them in warfare are the gongs and long, deep, but narrow box, in which about a dozen arrows wooden rattles, and other musical or unmusical instruments, can lie one above the other ; at the bottom of this box is a by means of which the bustling movements of their troops groove, in which the lowest arrow lies. By means of a long are spirited, and their often ticklish courago inflamed before lever, fixed at one side, the bow-string is stretched back into the commencement of an action. a wooden pin ; and by a further movement of the same lever, It is time, however, that we turned from those details of the string is loosened from this pin, and the lowermost arrow the armature of our late wily foes, to their discipline and is discharged, another immediately falling down on to its conduct in the fort and field. place. These bows are strongly and ingeniously fitted with. The Tartar cavalry are merely the most irregular of irre. out any iron fastenings or mechanism in them. The arrows gular horse. They are not divided into small and convenient are propelled with great force for about seventy yards ; beyond masses, like our troops and regiments. They have no that distance they are useless. A few of our men were hit manceuvres, and clearly could never execute or withstand a and hurt, but no one was killed by them. What a singular charge, such as is the pride and power of our cavalry spectacle! A civilized people clinging, in the ignorance or brigades. They come upon the field like a flock of wild animals, desperation of their unequal contest with the wielders of an swarming on one or more points of view, and riding about Armstrong shell, to the rude weapons of an almost forgotten amongst each other, for hours perhaps, at a respectful distance,
Between and on each side of the larger guns in the and then disappear entirely. When bent on a serious attack, cavaliers, were the numerous smaller guns of all sizes, and they spread out, like the ancient Parthian or Scythian horse, the gingalls; and between these, the matchlock and the cross - into a long semicircle or crescent, composed of very loose bow.
files, and in double, treble, or quadruple rois,-indeed, in The pieces of artillery, large and small, were mounted the loosest order or disorder. In the recent conflict they on heavy or light wooden carriages, like those of ships' guns, stood the Armstrong shells very well, and advancing within which moved over the hard beaten earth of which the forts a couple of hundred, and at length about a hundred, yards, were so well constructed. In some instances, the guns being opened a promiscuous discharge of matchlock balls and
The Enfield rifles, however, quickly astonished and gone up into the land of the stranger,-emphatically the them ; and, in spite of the harangues of an officer in the front, stranger,-to encounter the unknown difficulties of a march the continuous emptying of a saddle here and there quickly on the capital of au cinpire numbering 300,000,000 souls. All told upon the hindmost ranks, who, turning round, were fol. praise to them for their rapid and complete success! But lowed by all the rest, and together were seen no more. the sooner the real strength, or rather weakness, of the
As to the behaviour of the infantry in the field, there is military power of China is known, and the sooner we let but little to say. It is known that in the civil war with the the Chinese know that we know it, the less falsehood they Taiping rebels, the two opposite parties begin to fire at each will have to conceal, and the less inducement they will have other with their gingalls when least two miles apart, and to practise their old policy of the exclusion of others and the continue this system sometimes for days. At length, one seclusion of themselves. party,-- it is quite a toss up which,-bolder than the other, advances, when its opponents run away. The meeting of GEOLOGY OF THE ISLE OF PORTLAND. * such infantry with Europeans can have, when it happens, The Island of Portland is remarkable, not only for its im. but one result.
mense breakwater, now in course of construction, for the The Chinese, like most people, fight better behind walls military importance has been made lately to assume, and than in the field ; and when they have a chance, as in the case for the fine naval harbour it will soon afford, but also for its of our stranded and disabled gunboats in the Peiho disaster, primeval history,--for what it was ere ships of war, or land their artillerymen show great promptitude and skill in the defence, or man himself were upon the earth. Geologically, rapid deliverance of a crushing fire. From the copiously. it possesses very special interest. Dr. Fitton said that “ few armed cavaliers and parapets of the Taku forts a similar re- places, probably, in the world exhibit with such clearness ception had doubtless awaited the allies in any approach from phenomena of more extraordinary interest, or of greater in. the sea ; and an attack from that quarter might again have portance to theory;" and this is true, although the island is cost us dear, so many were the smaller guns arranged all but four miles in length and one and a half miles in width at round the walls. But the poor fellows were outflanked, and its widest part. taken from the land side in the rear. Turning their guns The stone so famous in London, and over half England, as round from the embrasures, they fought for a time, and “Portland stone,” is derived from this island, although the bravely, against the science of Armstrong, quite unprotected, term “Portland stone” is applied geologically, and also or " in the open;" but the contest was short ; and the rapid commercially, at times, to stone from corresponding series of fall of two forts, with great slaughter, led to the abandon-beds in other localities. St. Paul's Cathedral is built of real ment of the rest. Their own artillery did but little mischief. Portland stone, taken from the Grove quarries, on the East It may be remarked, in conclusion, on this head, that they Cliff. Finished in the year 1700, it is still in almost perfect had no floating batteries in the rivers ; and, so far as appeared, condition, except in those parts exposed to the south and no movable field batteries in the interior. Such field-guns south-west winds. In all other parts, the carvings of flowers as were met with were placed in fixed positions, in a sort of and fruit and other ornaments, although much blackened, entrenchinent.
are nearly as perfect as when first executed. Many other When the northern forts gave in, the prisoners were sent buildings give similar evidence as to the value for building over the river, by the great boom thrown across it, the strength purposes of the stone of the Isle of Portland. Whenever it has and ingenuity of construction of which wero undeniable. been well selected from the proper beds, it has lasted almost Possibly, the wounded were, as on the former occasion, sent without injury. The “New Church,” erected on the island over thus during the engagement; but no surgical appliances in 1776, is in a perfect state of preservation, even exhibiting of any kind, no bandages or splints, were found on any of the the original tgol-marks; while in “ Bow and Arrow Church,” wounded left behind, nor indeed were any such articles lying which is some centuries old, the stone is for the most part in about in readiness to be used. Stores of grain and thousands equally perfect condition. It is curious that several frustra of watır melons were, however, at hand. It is not known of columns, and other blocks of stone, which were quarried at whether native doctors attend at, or even near, the scene of the time of the erection of St. Paul's Cathedral, are now action,
lying in the island, near the quarries from which they were The Tartar huts, erected in the various entrenched camps, hewn; and that although these blocks are covered with lying in the open country, or found within the entrenched walls lichens, and have been exposed to all the vicissitudes of a of their various towns, deserve a closing paragraph. Their marine atmosphere for more than a hundred and fifty years, ground plan is oblong, being about eight or ten feet wide by they still exhibit beneath the lichens their original form, even ten or twelve deep. They are covered in by an arched top, to the marks of the chisels which were employed in shaping the arch springing from one side to the other, and are closed them. This is the more remarkable, when we consider that by flat walls at the front and back. They are constructed of stone taken from the same quarries, and used in the construcfascines of reeds bent over from side to side, and covered with tion of St. Paul's Cathedral, has, in many instances, in the a plaster of mud. In the front of the but, where the roof parts exposed to the south and south-west winds, begun to projects over like a pent, is a low central door, having moulder away. windows closed, often with glass, but sometimes with pre- A feature of the Isle of Portland, not less interesting than pared paper, on each side of it
. The interior is divided by a its beds of unrivalled building stone, is what is locally called wooden partition, having also its door and two paper windows, the “Dirt Bed.” This is an earthy deposit, now about a into a front or eating room and a back bed chamber. The foot in thickness, composed of the actual soil which nourished floor, sometimes of beaten earth, and always dry, is usually the roots of an ancient forest. It is generally described as of wood; and there are wooden tables, iron pots for boiling, being black, but it is really of a dark gray colour, with here and outside, in front, very frequently an iron plate, supported and there patches of a sooty black substance. The most on stones, like the Scotch girdle or Irish girdle, for baking remarkable circumstance connected with this bed is not its bread. The bed is a large raised quadrilateral mass of earth mere preservation, but the place and manner of its preserand stones, near one end of which is a hole or flue, in which vation, since it lies between two hard beds, each of which has a fire may be made to warm the primitive couch. In the undergone all the changes incident to a passage from mud to better huts, sheep-skins and dog-skins and other skins were stone. found lying about in the bed chamber; so that the one Numerous fossils are found in the dirt-bed, and are called common bed (for each hut has several inhabitants, sometimes by the quarrymen crows' nests” and “birds' nests." The all soldiers, sometimes a soldier and his family) is by no quarrymen believe them to be the petrified nests of birds means a bed of thorns. The campaigner in China may indeed who built in the branches of the trees which once grew upon bring back a hint or two to our damp and dreary Aldershott this ancient soil. The botanist, however, recognises in them
The object of these sketchy outlines of our recent antagonists in their most warlike aspect will not, we trust, be mis- • Handbook to the Geology of Weymouth and the Island of Portland, Wild Notes understood. It is not intended to detract one jot from the on the Natural History of the Coast and Neighbourhood. By Ronekt Damox,
Accompanied by a Map of the District, Geological Sections, Plates of Fossils merit of that brave handful of men, who have left their ships Coast Views, and numerous other Mustrations. London : Stanford. 1860.
the forms of tropical plants, the nearest living species to from a mucous fluid which is secreted in a gland situated at which are the Zamia Pungens, which now flourishes at the the base of the mussel's foot, from which it is expelled, appaCape of Good Hope, and the Cycas Revolata, now growing in rently at the will of the animal, into a furrow, where it is the tropics. Of the Cycas Revoluta we recently saw a fine spun into threads. These threads, considering that they are specimen in Kew gardens, and at once traced its close resem-finer than the thinnest strand of silk, are of wonderful blance to a fossil Cycadite from Portland in our cabinet. strength. By means of them the mussel will anchor himself, The presence of these Cycadites in the dirt-bed is a proof not only to foreign substances, but to other mussels. It is a that, at the time of their flourishing, the climate of Portland common thing for a whole community of mussels to be bound was of a temperature nearly equal to that which now prevails together, not by the cords of love, but by the cords of their at New Holland and at the Cape of Good Hope.
beards. Every reader who is acquainted with the Brighton Fossil trees are also found in the dirt-bed. From their pier must have often seen huge masses of the common mussel number and the position of their remains it may be inferred attached to the piles and projecting wood-work, and hanging that they grew as close to each other as the trees of a modern therefrom securely by their beards. When a strong tide is forest. The prostrate trunks lie near to the stumps from coming in, it is interesting to watch how the thundering which they have been severed, and generally lie nearly north waves dash upon the bunches of mussels, and make them and south,—that is, in the direction of the length of the rattle and swing, but without dislodging them. Examine a island. The stumps, many of which are of great bulk, still bunch closely, and you will find that each shell is affixed to stand erect in their original positions, and as their roots fill its neighbour something after the fashion in which Alpine and fit cavities in the underlying stone, the latter must have travellers are accustomed to tie themselves to each other for been in a soft state while the trees were growing. The trees safety, while the mass is attached to the wood by a number all bleong to the family of Coniferæ, or trees which bear of central ropes, each consisting of many threads of byssus, cones, in which their seeds are contained. Like the Cycadites, bound together by a subtle gelatinous fluid. Unravel a piece they must have demanded for their growth a much higher of one of these central cables, and it will be almost like unratemperature than now prevails in our islands; and when one velling a piece of hempen rope, except that each separate stands upon the isle of Portland now, and marks its utterly thread will be found to be complete, and capable of supportsterile aspect,-for, except in the grounds around Pennsyl. ing its due proportion of whatever weight the cable is in. vania Castle, and on a few spots which have very recently tended to bear. been brought into cultivation, there is scarcely a tree or a The case of the Bideford bridge is not the only one in shrub in the whole island,
,-one cannot but be struck with which man has availed himself of the binding power of the the strong contrast between the present era and those pri. mussel. The French engineers have done the same at meval epochs when over all this little island tall Conifers Cherbourg. When forming the breakwater there they threw arose, and round, rough-scaled, feather-branched Cycadites many tons of mussels upon the loose masses of rock of which spread out, and hot sunbeams glowed between the branches the breakwater is composed, in the expectation that, in the and tufts, and the glowing sea reflected back the burning course of time, the mussels would spin out their beards, and beams, and not a human being stood upon the island, or saw thereby bind together the huge stones with a firmness which one of its trees in its greenness and glory.
would enable them to defy the waves, and that the destrucWe must here terminate our geological glance at the isle tiveness of the billows would thus be kept down by an aggre. of Portland, but there is no reason why our readers should gate of fine filaments woven by their own inhabitants. not continue it for themselves. All who are interested in So much for one brief "glimpse of ocean life.” Other geological science should visit this little island, and explore books may afford us an opportunity of inviting the reader ta its most interesting strata and fossils. To all who may do so take other such glimpses by-and-by. we can confidently commend the little book whose title is given at the head of this article. It is one of the very best
SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA. local companions in print that we have ever met with. It is The issue of bronze coins, now in progress, will amount, it simply written, free from all affectation, very neatly illus- is understood, to 6,000 tons, and consist of about 500,000,000 trated, correct, and intelligible to beginners in the study of pieces. The rate of production at present averages four geology, who will find it serviceable to them, in addition to hundred coins per minute. The metal used consists of ninetyany special interest they may take in Portland or Weymouth. five parts of copper, four parts of tin, and one part of zinc,
and is by far the hardest metal ever coined. It requires to GLIMPSES OF OCEAN LIFE.*
be annealed several times before it becomes malleable enough Such is the title of one of the prettiest of the many recently to yield to the impress of the dies ; and after all precautions published books having reference to the sea-side and the have been taken frequently splits under the blow. aquarium. It may be commended to every reader desiring The new electric light, invented by Professor Way, hasknowledge respecting the habits, haunts, and behaviour in been applied to photography, with great success. According captivity of such molluscous animals as may be obtained on to the Photographic News, "the results obtained by this most British sea-coasts.
mercury medium are very rapid, the exposure required being Some of the most interesting portions of Mr. Harper's less than in daylight,” while the pictures are unexceptionvolume relate to the common mussel. This mollusc is ve y able. The same journal, in alluding to the American inven. tenacious of life. On placing in sea-water specimens kept in tion,--of which we gave an account last month,--by wlueh the pocket by accident for several days, they have been found photographic impressions can be printed at the rate of 12,600 to be quite lively and well. It is commonly believed that its an hour, mentions that “our ingenious American cousins have byssus, or thread beard, is poisonous ; but this notion is alto- turned these remarkable printing facilities to good practical gether erroneous. By means of this byssus it is accustomed account, for at the recent presidential election portraits of the to attach itself to foreign substances very tenaciously, and candidates were extensively circulated amongst the 'sweet this habit has been taken advantage of for the benefit of man. voices,' and, in many cases, deposited in the ballot boxes." A curious instance is exhibited at Bideford, in the case of the The next thing will probably be, that photographs will be well-known bridge of twenty-four arches which stretches substituted for woodcuts in our illustrated newspapers. across the Torridge river, near the mouth of the Taw. The The report of the Commission appointed to consider Colonel tide flows so rapidly at this spot that the bridge cannot be Sir Henry James's plan of reducing the ordnance maps kept in repair by mortar. “The corporation, therefore, keep from one scale to another by means of photography, has just boats in employ to bring mussels to it, and the interstices of been printed by order of the Secretary of War.
The report the bridge are filled by hand with these mussels. It is sup- approves of the system, and states that it will effect a saving ported from being driven away entirely by the strong fibres of £35,000 in the printing of the entire series of maps. The these mussels fix to the stone-work.” These fibres are formed process is called "photo-zincography," and is as follows:
The sheet to be reduced is hung against a wall, in a suitable Glimpses of Ocean Life; or, Rock-Pools and the Lessons they Teach. By Jonx light, and a negative photograph of it taken on glass, the size HARPER. With numerous Illustrations by the Author. London: Nelson and Sons., 1860. Pp. 40. price is.
of the negative being in accordance with the required scale of
reduction. . The negative is then printed on a special kind of storms from the south-east, the characters are as clear as sensitized paper, the impression developed, and the sheet on though engraved yesterday. which it is printed carefully dried. The next step is to trans- In a paper on guano which M. Bousingault lately presented fer the photographic map from this sheet to a plate of zinc, to the French Academy of Sciences, it is stated that the to which end a plate of zinc is highly polished with fine emery. richest qualities of this valuable manure are found on the The paper on which is the photographic map is brushed over coast of Peru, between the second and twenty-first parallels with a peculiar kind of greasy ink, and then carefully floated of south latitude. Fish, which constitute the food of the in hot water, when the ink leaves those parts of the paper guanaes,- -such being the name of the birds which chiefly which have not been acted upon by the light, but adheres contribute the guano,-are more plentiful in the waters which tenaciously to those parts which have been so acted upon. The wash this coast than anywhere else in the world. They are map, which has now a thick layer of ink on all its lines and often cast ashore in shoals even in calm weather. The guano letters, is again carefully dried, and is then pressed between is sometimes found in two strata, or layers, the lowest being sheets of porous paper damped with nitric acid and water. at a depth of several yards, and being itself fifteen to twenty When thus damped with dilute nitric acid, it is laid on the yards in thickness. Between this lower layer and the upper zinc plate, and heavily pressed, which causes the zino to re- one is a bed of old alluvial soil, and since this old alluvium is ceive on its surface an accurate etching of the photographic known to be the product of an era long preceding the date of map. The zinc plate is then ready for printing the ordnance man’s introduction upon the earth, the deposit of gaano must maps of commerce.
have commenced at a period many thousand years anterior to Another method of transferring photographic pictures to that epoch. As guano contains five times as much nitrogen surfaces from which impressions can be taken in the printing (which is the principal fertilizing agent in manures) as is press has recently been patented. In this process gelatine contained in the same weight of fish, and as the guano is impregnated with bi-chromate of potash, and is then ex- deposits, before they were worked, contained 578,000,000 posed in the ordinary way to light transmitted throngh a quintals of guano, the birds which deposited it must have negative. When exposed to moisture, the prepared gelatine on consumed, according to M. Bousingault, at least 2,268,000,000 which a photographic picture has thus been printed becomes quintals of fish. elevated and depressed in exact accordance with the lights and A weed which is common in England and in many parts of shadows imprinted upon it, and in this state can be used as a the continent, and which is known scientifically as Ornithopus matrix for a mould of metal to be deposited by the galvanic Perpuniltus, and commonly in England as Bird's Claw," battery, which metal mould can then be printed from in the turns out to be a highly nutritive food for cattló. It has for
a long time been cultivated by the Portuguese, who use it as An assertion in a leading article in the Times, to the effect fodder with great advantage. It has recently been cultivated that nothing was known in this country with respect to the experimentally in France, and the experiment bis been climate of Pekin, has led Sir John Herschel to direct attention attended with great success. It is said to “thrive best in a to a remarkable “series of meteorological observations, made damp soil,-above all in a soil abounding in potash.” Expeand registered, by order of the Russian government, by M. riments with it, as a food for cattle, are about to be made in Scatchkoff and his assistants, at that capital, during every this country. single hour of erery day and night consecutively throughout " The Bull Dog Machine" is the name given by Sir F. the years 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, and 1855." These Leopold M'Clintock to a new instrument designed by him observations have been published, and copies have been pro- for the purpose of bringing up “bottom" in deep-sea soundsented by the Russian government to various learned bodies, ings. It consists of two metal scoops hinged together, and and also to many individuals of scientific eminence. From kept open during their descent by means of a heavy weight. these observations, it appears that the climate of Pekin When the scoops touch the bottom, the weight becomes de is subject to much more extreme variations than that of tached, and the scoops fly together, gathering between them London. The mean temperature of the whole year in Pekin some pounds of mud or sand, or whatever else the bottom is. 52 deg., and in London 49 deg., Fah.; the mean temperature may consist of. An India-rubber band of very great strength of the hottest month, July, is 82 deg. in Pekin, and in London keeps the instrument closed while it is being drawn up to the 63 deg. ; and the mean temperature of the coldest month, surface. It has received its canine appellation from the January, is 24 deg. in Pekin, and 36 deg, in London. The circumstance of the original model having been constructed summer of Pekin is thus nineteen degrees hotter than a on board H.M.S. Bulldog. London summer, and the Pekin winter ten degrées colder The Bulldog is the vessel in which Sir F. Leopold M'Clinthan a London winter. There were days, however, in each tock went out to survey the proposed route for the projected of the six years over which the observations extend, when the North American Telegraph. It will be remembered, that, thermometer at Pekin fell below 9 deg., while on one occa- after the failure of the Atlantic telegraph, several plans for sion, in 1852, it went down as low as 2 deg.
telegraphically uniting England with America were proposed, It is reported that lithium and strontium have been one being to lay cables from Scotland to the Faroe islands, detected in London water by means of spectrum analysis, and from the Faroe Islands to Iceland, from Iceland to Greenland, that by the same means it has been determined that the and from Greenland to Labrador, the line thence to be carried mineral waters of Krenznach and Dureckeim contain a metal overland through Canada to the United States. This route not hitherto known. “The chloride of this new metal,” we having been strongly recommended to government, it was are told, “gives a very interesting spectrum, formed of two resolved to despatch an expedition to survey it, and to take deepblue fringes, of which one coincides with the blue band of sea soundings, and the command of this expedition was given strontium, and the other is situated a little above the first."
to Sir F. Leopold M'Clintock, who set out on the 24th of June. The new metal has not yet received a distinctive name. He has now returned and reported the results obtained.
The decay of parts of the new Houses of Parliament, and Twenty-four deep-sea soundings were made between the Faroe the discussion which has thence arisen with respect to the Islands and Iceland, the bottom being found at depths varydesirability of coating building stones with “water-glass," ing from 63 to 682 fathoms, and consisting of sand and a or other preparations of silica, have led Sir H. Rawlinson to few shells. Between Iceland and Greenland thirty sound. call attention to the fact, noticed by him years ago in the ings were taken; the depth varying from 22 to 1,572 fathoms, East, that the ancients were accustomed to adopt this plan and the bottom being sand and rock. Between Greenland for the preservation of their public buildings from atmospheric and Labrador sixteen soundings were made, the minimum influences. He mentions that the cuneiform inscription of depth being found to be 86 fathoms, the maximum depth Darius Hystapes, cut on the rock of Belustan by the Persians, 2,032 fathoms, and the bottom light ooze. In Iceland, good presents unmistakable traces of a varnish on the face of it, landing places for a cable were observed at Honlford and much harder than the limestone rock beneath, and that when Mariahaven, while on the Greenland coast three suitable pieces of the surface of the tablet are chipped off they have spots were found. The coast of Labrador was not examined the appearance of opaque glass. Although cut nearly two This expedition has established that animal life cou be thousand four hundred years ago, and exposed ever since to maintained in the sea at much greater depths thou had been previously supposed. Until now the belief has been that Barrera-Gemas and Jewels; their History, Geography, hemistry, and Air,
from the Earliest Ages down to the Present Time. By Madame be Barrera animal life cannot exist at depths below five hundred fathoms,
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