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idleness and sloth, sometimes under the fair shew of sanctity. Whereas certain it is that all honest callings and vocations of men, they are God's own ordinance; in performing them we do God service; bis oral qui bene laborat; the works have the force of a prayer, as implicitly desiring God to concur with his own means. They are likewise in the nature of sacrifices, as being actions well pleasing and commanded by God himself. Think them not base; do not neglect them with any foolish fancy and conceit of thine own purity; for God hath appointed them, and he shall one day take the accounts of thy labour in this kind. But the general practise of this world is to give over all painful, manual and laborious professions, and to desire to live by their wits; as if the Btate of man were wholly angelical, and that his hunger could be satisfied with knowledge, his thirst quenched with sweet meditation, and his back clothed with good precepts ; or as if every part should ambitiously aspire to the perfection of an eye. For scholars are infinite; lawyers, innumerable; cities swarm and abound with multitudes, and every company complains of company: but tillage, husbandry, and manual labour, were never more neglected. We do not desire to gain from nature, so to benefit oursel ves and to enrich the whole kingdom: but we desire, with the fineness and quiddities of our own wits, to gain from others; and we must breed up our children as clerks in some office. And hence it is, that our wants were never so great; the tricks and shifts of many were never so shameful and dishonest; for they that know best to live riotously in a wasteful course of expence, know least what belongs to the labour and difficulty in getting."— Goodman's FaM of Man, p. 246.

More Drunkenness in England than in

TuEGennans, "though they will not offer any villany or injury to him that refuseth to pledge him the whole (which I have often

seen in England to my great grief), yet they will so little regard him, that they will scarce vouchsafe to converse with him. Truly I have heard Germany much dispraised for drunkenness before I saw it; but that vice reigneth no more there, that I could perceive, than in other countries. For I saw no man drunk in any place of Germany, though I was in many goodly cities, and in much notable company. I would God the imputation of that vice could not be almost as truly cast upon mine own nation, as upon Germany. Besides I observed that they imposed not such an inevitable necessity of drinking a whole health, especially those of the greater size, as many of our English gallants do; a custom, in my opinion, most barbarous, and fitter to be used among the rude Scythians and Goths than civil Christians; yet so frequently practised in England, that I have often most heartily wished it were clean abolished out of our land, as being no small blemish to so renowned and well governed a kingdom as England is." — Cobtat's Crudities, vol. 2, p. 288.

Few Books recommended by Dona Olira.

"De la Sapiencia te digo que puedes ser felice sin etta, que poco saber te basta. Con este librito, y Fray Luys de Granada, y la Vanidad de Estela, y Contemptus Mundi, sin mas libros puedes ser felice; haziendo parados en la vida, contemplando tu ser, y entendiendote a ti mismo; y mirando al camino que Uevas, y adonde vat & parar, y contemplando este mundo, y sus maramllas, y el fin del; y leyendo un rato cada dia en los dichos libros, que es buen genero de oration."Dona Oliva Sabuco, Coloquio de la Naturaleza del Hombre, fol. 103.

Wordswhat they ought to be.

Wobds.—" lis doivent porter leur sens et leur signification, et jamais ils ne doivent estre obscurs. Le mot n'est qu'un habit qu'on donne a l'imagination, pour en re147


vestir la pensee, et la mieux faire connoistre par les couleurs dont ello est depeinte : mais c'est un habit qui ne la doit point couvrir; c'est une coifure, et non pas un masque; elle doit la parer et luy servir d'ornement, et non pas la cacher aux yeux, et l'enveloper d'un deguiseuient."—La Pretieuse, torn. 2, p. 444.

A Reformers Notion of the Uses of Government.

"Oct of Britain most people conceive it to be one of the duties of government,— one which individuals cannot exercise, — to make roads. Remembering this, led me to speculate, as the snow fell, as to the real extent to which governments—considered as some individuals different from, and separate from the mass of society, regulating the whole — are necessary for its good. I remembered, that what was considered formerly as one of their most important duties, the creation of a proper currency, had recently been performed in a much more commodious manner by individuals, as bankers, and that paper circulation had only become inconvenient through governments interfering with it; that, probably, all the now hateful duties of a police might be better performed by the individuals of the society taking on themselves, as every man now partially does, the duty of learning what his neighbour's conduct is, and speaking of it freely and openly, and treating him according to his behaviour. It is very evident that everything regulated by the opinion of the whole society, not directed by the previously formed opinions of some few men, must be always regulated, in the best possible manner, agreeable to the wisdom and knowledge of the whole society. What Ib directed by a few men, can only be regulated by the wisdom and knowledge they possess; and it must be better every society should be regulated by all its wisdom and knowledge, rather than by a part of these estimable qualities. I can hardly tell with what narrow bounds this speculation led

me to circumscribe the duties of governments ; nor how much the reverence which I, in common with every man, had been taught to pay them, dwindled in my imagination."— Travels in the North of Germany, by Thomas Iioduskin, p. 73.

English Blackguards the Worst.

"In truth, a riotous and a drunken woman is almost an unknown character except in the sea-ports and among the lower classes of Britain. There is something either in the greater inequality of the different classes of our people, or in the force of our moral opinions, which condemns the sinning part of our population to a state of rough brutality,—of profligate and boisterous licentiousness,—of active and devilish vice,—which glances in rags, in filth, and drunkenness, on the eye, and sounds, in imprecations, on the ear, and which I have never seen in any other part of the world but in Britain. Single specimens of this sort of character may be seen in Paris, but it is found in masses only in the neighbourhood of Wapping, of St. Giles, and of our sea-ports. Our activity is conspicuous, not only in virtue, but in vice; and the latter is carried to loathsome excess. Licentiousness, and perhaps cruelty and revenge, may be the characteristics of other people; but it is only in our country that hard and disgusting brutality is combined with profligacy. This sort of character may be owing, in both countries, to commerce, or to activity of mind; but much of it is to be attributed to a severity of opinion, which not only condemns the sin, but has no charity for the sinner. Calvinism is the predominant religion of Friezland; and it too frequently classes enjoyment as vice, and pushes those who have made one false step into the abyss of misery. In other countries frailties are regarded with more tenderness, and those who are addicted to any one vice are not compelled to be utterly vicious. To whatever causes the difference of charact er which 148


has been mentioned may be owing, it is, I think, certain, that one reprobated vice brings after it, in our country, many other vices, and more misery than in other countries." — Travels in the North of Germany, by Thomas Hodgskin, p. 282.

Journeymen living with their Employers in Germany. Once a custom here.

"The fact that many of the journeymen tradesmen still live with their employers, is a specimen of the equality and homely state of society in Germany. The progress of refinement, if such an alteration can be called refinement, seems to be, to banish this homely state. It once existed in England. Both masters and journeymen, I believe, like our present mode better; and an individual cannot decide that their judgement is wrong. I can but remark, however, that when masters describe the former state as a 'grovelling situation,' they like the present one better, chiefly because it ministers to their pride; and, while they boast their democratic feelings, it lessens the distinction between them and their employers, and makes a more marked boundary between them and their journeymen. It renders more perfect that aristocracy of wealth, which is already stronger in our country than in any other. It can only be known from the experience of future ages, if this aristocracy, now first coming to its full growth, be not more pernicious than that aristocracy of birth which is sinking to decay, and which has so long been the plague of the world." — Travels in the North of Germany, by Thomas Hodgskin, Vol 2, p. 162.

Sunyan on Ex-tempore Prayer.

"It is at this day wonderful common, for men to pray Ex-tempore also: To pray by a Book, by a premeditated set Form, is now out of fashion. He is counted nobody now, that cannot at any time, at a minute's warning, make a Prayer of half an hour

long. I am not against Ex-tempore Prayer, for I believe it to be the best kind of praying; but yet I am jealous, that there are a great many such prayers made, especially in pulpits and public meetings, without the breathing of the Holy Ghost in them: For if a Pharisee of old could do so, why may not a Pharisee do the same now? Wit, and reason, and notion, is not screwed up to a very great height; nor do men want words, or fancies, or pride, to make them do this thing. Great is the formality of Religion this day, and little the power thereof. Now when there is a great form and little power (and such there was also among the Jews, in the time of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ), then men are most strangely under the temptation to be hypocrites; for nothing doth so properly and directly oppose hypocrisy, as the power and glory of the things we profess. And so on the contrary, nothing is a greater temptation to hypocrisy, than a form of knowledge of things without the savour thereof. Nor can much of the power and savour of the things of the Gospel be seen at this day upon professors (I speak not now of all) if their actions and conversations be compared together. How proud, how covetous, how like the World in garb and guise, in words and actions, are most of the great professors of this our day! But when they come to Divine Worship, especially to pray, by their words and carriage there one would almost judge them to be Angels in Heaven."—Bhutan's Works, vol. 2, p. 677.

Prayer with Devotion.

"The Pharisee is said to pray with himself; God and the Pharisee were not together, there was only the Pharisee and himself. Paul knew not what to pray for without the Holy Ghost joined himself with him, and helped him with groans unutterable; but the Pharisee had no need of that; 'twas enough that HE and himself were together at this work, for he thought with

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out doubting that HE and himself together could do. How many times have I heard ancient men, and ancient women, at it, with themselves, when all alone in some private room, or in some solitary path; and in their chat, they have been sometimes reasoning, sometimes chiding, sometimes pleading, sometimes praying, and sometimes singing; but yet all has been done by themselves when all alone. but yet so done, as one that had not seen them must needs have concluded that they were talking, singing, and praying, with company; when all that they had said, they did it with themselves, and had neither auditor nor regarder.

"So the Pharisee was at it with himself; he and himself performed, at this time, the Duty of Prayer."—Buntan's Works, vol. 2, p. 678.

All Mischief commences in the Name of God, says Luther.

"I Remember that Luther used to say, In the name of God begins all Mischief. All must be father'd upon God j the Pharisee's Conversion must be father'd upon God; the right or rather the villany of the outrageous Persecution against God's People, must be father'd upon God. God, I thank thee, and Blessed be God, must be the burthen of the Heretick's song. So again, the Freewilier, he will ascribe all to God; the Quaker, the Ranter, the Socinian, &c. will ascribe all to God. God, I thank thee, is in every man's mouth, and must be in tailed to every error, delusion, and damnable doctrine that is in the world: But the name of God, and their doctrine, worship, and way, hangeth together, and the Pharisee's doctrine; that is to say, nothing at ■11; for God hath not proposed their principles, nor doth he own them, nor hath he commanded them, nor doth he convey by them the least grace or mercy to them; but rather rejecteth them, and holdeth them for his enemies, and for the destroyers of the world."—Bhutan's Works, vol. 2, p.

A Man hanged upon his own Self-ac-

"Since you are entered upon stories, I also will tell you one, the which, though I heard it not with mine own ears, yet my author I dare believe: It is concerning one old Tod, that was hanged about twenty years ago, or more, at Hartford, for being a thief. The story is this: At a Summer Assize holden at Hartford, while the Judge was sitting upon the Bench, comes this old Tod into the Court, cloathed in a green suit, with his leathern girdle in his hand, his bosom open, and all in a dung sweat as if he had run for his life; and being come in, he spake aloud as follows: My Lord, said he, here is the veryest rogue that breathes upon the face of the earth: I have been a thief from a child: When I was but a little one, I gave myself to rob orchards, and to do other such like wicked things; and I have continued a thief ever since. My Lord, there has not been a rubbery committed this many years, within so many miles of this place, but I have either been at it, or privy to it. The Judge thought the fellow was mad: but after some conference with some of the Justices, they agreed to indict him, and so they did, of several felonious actions: to all which he heartily confessed guilty, and so was hanged with his wife at the same time." —Bunyan's Works, vol, 2, p. 737.

Spirits haunt precious Mines.

"Modern authors," says Fuli.br, " avouch that malignant spirits haunt the places where the precious metals are found: as if the Devil did there sit abrood to hatch them, cunningly pretending an unwillingness to part with them; whereas indeed he gains more by one mine minted out into money, than by a thousand concealed in the earth." —Pisgah View, p. 8.



The World's round Dance.

"—The Uniform Spirit through compassion sends his servants or ministers to the Humanity, both at evening and morning, and also sometimes in the night; and demands of her whether she have not yet danced herself a-weary in the confused Round Dance (that is, whether she yet sees not the blind unquietness of the World): but if the Humanity hath still her chiefest lust or desire to the earthly Round Dance, then she can give no answer to the Messengers of the Uniform Spirit, because she understands not the language of the Messengers; and the reason is this, because the Messengers of the Uniform Spirit speak the Hebrew tongue.

"(The which signifies a passover out of the flesh into the spirit; and that the Humanity also should turn from the flesh to the spirit, and pass over from her wild restless heathenish Round Dance into the true quiet uniform spirit.)

"Which Hebrew language is not spoken at the heathenish wild Round Dance. Therefore the brutish Humanity cannot speak this language in her heathenish confusion, unless she apply herself to learn the Hebrew tongue.

"But if she will not pay for her schooling to learn the Hebrew language, then she shall never be able to give the messengers of the uniform speech any answer: for they know not the heathenish speech, and the Humanity understands not the Hebrew language; therefore there can be no conference held to uniformity."—Spiritual Journey of a Young Man, Sfc, 1659, p. 164.

Sow Hemp-seed. "Sow hempseed among them, and nettles will die."

So Tatxob the Water-Poet, in his Praise of Ilempseed:

"Besides, this much I of my knowledge know, That where Hemp grows no stinking weed can grow:

No cockle, darnel, henbane, tare, or nettle,
Near where it is can prosper, spring, or settle;
For such antipathy is in this seed
Against each fruitless undeserving weed,
That it with fear and terror strikes them

Or makes them that they dare not show thenhead.

And as in growing it all weeds doth kill, So, being grown, it keeps its nature still; For good men's uses serves, and still relieves, And yields good whips and ropes for rogues and thieves."

Etymology of Pretieuse. "uhe Pretieuse donne un prix particulier a toute chose, quand elle juge, ou quand elle loue, ou quand elle censure: comme par exemple, les choses les plus communes et les plus triviales qui ramperoient dans un discours,ou du moins n'iroient tout au plus qu' a la superficie du goust, et ne donneroient qu'un tendre et foible plaisir, ou a celuy qui le liroit, ou qui l'ecouteroit, augmenteroient de prix par le seul debit de la Pretieuse, a qui l'art est familier d'elever les choses, et de les faire valoir. C'est sans doute la raison de ce mot que Ton a donne a nostre socidte."—La Pretieuse, torn. 2, p. 467.

The Footman Ship.

"the Foot-man Sh ip, with her Regiment: — The sailors, the most part and best of them, are bred in a kingdom of much fertility and plenty, called Realdine, where, after they have all their youth been accustomed to wear brogues and truzes, their fare being many times shamrocks, oatenbread, beans, and butter-milk, armed upon stark naked, with a dart, or a skeane, steeled with the spirit Usquebaugh, then they cross a ditch of eight hours sail, and land in the most flourishing kingdom of Triabnie, where by their good Foot-man-Ship they are turned out of their old habits, into jackets of good preterpluperfect velvet, plated with silver,

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