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By this inexorable process large layers of the capitalist class
are expropriated and compelled to identify themselves with the
If an employer is unable to purchase new machin
ery, if he is unable to produce as cheaply as his competitors,
he is driven into bankruptcy.
Thus the ranks of the capitalist
class are thinned out and the class is made more powerful.
Mills and factories become the property of ever fewer men.
is a significant fact that a few men control huge aggregations
In the second place, competitors have, to a great ex
They wipe out all differences among them
selves and present a united front in their war upon labor. Competition among capitalists is disappearing, due to the displacement of human skill by machines and the increase in
capitalist power through concentration in the possession of
the means of production and distribution.
Industry is high
ly corporate and at times monopolistic.
This is a day of
trusts and interlocking directorates.
Finally, the Employing Class, the Business Class,
organizes Merchants', Manufacturers', and Employers' Asso
ciations corresponding to the solidarity of the mechanical and industrial concentration. Through these associations
they control governments and courts.
By injunctions of the
judiciary and the use of military power they seek to crush, with brutal force, all efforts of Labor at resistance.1
Or, when the other policy seems more proiitable, they delude and
betray those whom they would rule and exploit. "The Repub
lican party, likewise the Democratic, is a party 1.'Industrial Union Manifesto."
capitalist class," said De Leon; "every man who is posted
knows that; the conduct of its Presidents, Governors, Judges,
Congresses, and Legislatures can leave no doubt upon the
These conditions breed the class struggle.
working class and the employing class have nothing in com
,2 mon, declares the W. I. I. U. According to De Leon,
"Whatever the interests may be of a class whose material
welfare towers up, and the interests of the class whose
material welfare and all that thereupon depends, sinks
perpendicularly and in even tempo with the former's rise,
whatever these two sets of interests may be, they
can have nothing in common.
The relations between these
two sets of interests are..... the relations between the
..3 vampire and the victim.
The working class and the em
ploying class have nothing in common, any more than it is
possible, said De Leon, "to divide an apple in such a way
that each shall have the bigger chunk.
It is foolish to
prate about the "mutuality", the "brotherhood", the "iden
tity of interests", of the Capitalist Class and the Working
Between these two classes a struggle must go on un
til private ownership in the means of production is abolished
1. Daniel De Leon, "What Means This Strike?" 27. 2. Constitution of W. I. I. U., Preamble. 3. Daniel De Leon, "Socialist Reconstruction of Society," 20-21. 4. Ibid, 21.
and working men enjoy the full fruit of their labors.
In this industrial warfare the employers' line of battle and methods of warfure correspond to the solidarity of
industrial concentration, while working men still form their
fighting organizations on lines of long-gone trade divisions.
At present, quick and united action on the part of workers is
hampered by the craft form of organization, which requires per
mission from international officers before a legal strike can
The recent steel strike would illustrate their anal
A union which hopes to fight the Steel Trust success
fully, the W. I. I. U. would say, must be organized in the
same way that the Steel Trust is.
The Steel Trust authority
is not divided or sub-divided.
It is a unit.
All power over
that mighty industry is centralized in the hands of the Board
Against a united master class the A. F. of L.
pitted a labor union twenty-four times divided; for there are
twenty-four craft unions which clčim jurisdiction over differ
ent groups of Steel Trust employes.
Every trade has a separ
ate independent union.
Labor, also, the W. I. I. U. insists,
must learn to centralize and concentrate its mighty economic
Not only are the various crafts in the same industry
organized separately, but they sign contracts which expire
at different times.
They are not free to support each other
if they would. So craft unionism becomes an "accomplice in capitalist criment and a"scourge to the working class. "I
Consider an illustration which De Leon used in 1905 and see
1. Daniel De Leon, "Socialist Reconstruction of Society," 20.