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there is a very wide distance in civili- | Government aid, when given merely zation between the people and the in default of private enterprise, should government: as in those which have be so given as to be as far as possible been conquered and are retained in a course of education for the people subjection by a more energetic and in the art of accomplishing great more cultivated people. In many parts objects by individual energy and volunof the world, the people can do nothing tary co-operation. for themselves which requires large | I have not thought it necessary here means and combined action; all such to insist on that part of the functions things are left undone, unless done by of government which all admit to be the state. In these cases, the mode in | indispensable, the function of prohibitwhich the government can most surely ing and punishing such conduct on the demonstrate the sincerity with which part of individuals in the exercise of it intends the greatest good of its their freedom, as is clearly injurious to subjects, is by doing the things which other persons, whether the case be one are made incumbent on it by the help of force, fraud, or negligence. Even in lessness of the public, in such a manner the best state which society has yet as shall tend not to increase and per-reached, it is lamentable to think how petuate but to correct that helpless- great a proportion of all the efforts and ness. A good government will give all talents in the world are employed in its aid in such a shape, as to encourage merely neutralizing one another. It and nurture any rudiments it may find is the proper end of government to reof a spirit of individual exertion. It duce this wretched waste to the smallest will be assiduous in removing obstacles possible amount, by taking such meaand discouragements to voluntary en- / sures as shall cause the energies now terprise, and in giving whatever facili spent by mankind in injuring one ties and whatever direction and guid another, or in protecting themselves ance may be necessary: its pecuniary against injury, to be turned to the means will be applied, when practi- legitimate employment of the human cable, in aid of private efforts rather faculties, that of compelling the than in supersession of them, and it powers of nature to be more and more will call into play its machinery of re- subservient to physical and moral wards and honours to elicit such efforts. good.




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