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flower five-parted, superior; corolla bell- instructions in physiology, and put him into shaped; berry dry, three-celled. There is a systematic method of studying botany, but one species, viz. L. borealis, two-flow, according to Tournefort's arrangement, ered linnæa, a native of the north of Eu- which was then looked upon as the most rope.
scientific. LINNÆUS, CHARLES, Carl von Linné) In 1727, Linnæus was entered at the Unithe most ensinent naturalist of this age, and versity of Lund; he lodged in the house of the founder of modern botany, was born in Stobæus, a physician, who possessed a good 1707, at Rashult, in the province of Sma- library and museum of natural history. He land, in Sweden, where his father resided as appears here to have paid for his entertain. assistant minister to the parish of Stenbro- ment by various little services, such as that hult. The father, Nils, who was the son of of forming a hortus siccus,' and acting as a peasant named Bengtson, had, on going an amanuensis. It was, however, only into orders, assumed the name of Linnæus, by accident that his host came to know the which was therefore the proper name of extent of his studious ardour. The mother young Charles. Nils was attached to the of Stobæus having observed that the candle culture of his garden, which he had stocked in his chamber was burning at unseasonwith some of the rarer plants in that cli- able hours, was induced, through fear of mate, and it is to the delight with which fire, to complain of it to her son. Stobæus this spot inspired Charles, from his earliest thereupon entered his chamber at a late childhood, that he himself ascribes his bota- hour, and found him diligently occupied nical passion. A remarkable quickness of with reading. Siruck with this proof of his sight, a hardy constitution, and a retentive thirst after improvement, he gave Linnæus memory, gave him the corporeal and men- the free use of his library, and admission to tal requisites for indulging his disposition, his table. The advice of Rothman, howand thus he was marked out for a naturalist ever, caused the young student, in 1728, to almost from his cradle. His father intend- quit Lund, and to remove to Upsal for the ing him for his own profession, sent him to sake of the superior advantages it afforded. the grammar school at Wexio at the age of His father advanced him the sum of about ten, whence he was removed at the age of eight pounds sterling, which he was informseventeen years to the higher seminary, call. ed was all the paternal assistance he was to ed the gymnasium. In neither of these situ- expect. Thus he was turned out upon the ations was he distinguished for his profici- world while yet but a learner in the profesency in the ordinary studies of a literary sion by which he was to get his bread. His education; but he made a rapid progress little patrimony was soon exhausted, and in the knowledge of plants, which he ar. he was reduced to depend upon chance for dently pursued, both by frequent excursions a meal. Unable to pay even for the mendin the fields, and by the unwearied perusaling of his shoes, he was obliged to patch of such books on the subject as he was them himself with folded paper, and not able to procure. When his father, in withstanding his sanguine temper, he could 1726, came to Wexio for the purpose of not forbear repenting that he had left his inquiring into his improvement, he was comfortable situation at Lund. much mortified to find his son declared At length, in the autumn of 1729, as he utterly unfit for a learned profession by tu- was intently examining some plants in the tors, who advised that he should be put to university garden, he was accosted by Dr. some handicraft trade. In this perplexity Olof Celsius, professor of divinity, and an he applied to the physician, Rothman, who eminent naturalist, who was then engaged was also lecturer in natural philosophy, the in preparing a work on the plants mentionly branch of academic study for which oned in the scripture. A little conversation young
Linnæus had shewn any inclination. soon apprised him of the extraordinary This person discovered in him talents, which botanical acquisitions of the student, and though not fitted to make him a theologian, perceiving his necessitous circumstances, were not ill adapted for another profession, he took him to live in his own house. It and he proposed that of physic. As the was in this year that an account in the Leipfather's circumstapces were very narrow,
sic Commentaries of Vaillant's Treatise on Rothman offered to take the youth gratui- the Sexes of Plants, engaged him in an tously into his own house during the year accurate examination of the stamina and that remained for him to finish his course in pistils of flowers, and finding a great varithe gymnasium; he also gave him private ety of structure, he conceived the idea of a
new systematic arrangement, founded on Gronovius, who, upon being sliewn in mathe sexual parts.
He drew np a trea- nuscript the first sketch of the “ Systema tise on this principle, which was shewn to Naturæ,” requested it might be printed at Celsins, and by him to the botanical pro- his own expense. This was accordingly fessor, Rudbeck, who had the liberality to done at Leyden, in 1735, in a tabular form bestow on it his warmest approbation. As occupying twelve folio pages. By the adthe professor's advanced age made him de- vice of Gronovius he waited on Boerhaave, sirous of a deputy in the office of lecturing, who, on conversing with him, became senLinnæus, in 1730, was appointed to this sible of his singular attainments in botany, office, and was also taken by Rudbeck and advised him to remain in Holland. into his own house as tutor to his sons. Munificence was not among that great
The court of Sweden having issued an man's excellencies, and a verbal message, order that the academy at Upsal should by way of introduction to Burmann at Am. send a proper person to travel through Lap- sterdam, was the principal favour that Linland, Linnæus, who had a strong inclination næus received from him. That eminent to visit that country, was chosen for the botanist, who was there engaged on his office. He set out in May, 1732, very work on the plants of Ceylon, took the slenderly provided as a scientific traveller, Swede into his house, and treated him with all his baggage with himself being carried great liberality. His library and collections on a single horse. This tour would have were of much use to Linnpus, who there been much more interesting to science had published his excellent work, the “ Funit been taken when he was further advanced damenta Botanica,” the basis of his system. in his studies, and better equipped for mak- While he was in this situation, Mr. Clifford, ing observations. Its chief fruits were a an opulent merchant of Amsterdam, who had "flora lapponica," and some curious medi- a fine garden of exotics, having heard of the and economical facts.
merit of Linnæus from Boerhaave, preHaving learnt the art of assaying metals vailed upon Burmann to part with him, at the mines of Calix, he gave lectures on and took him to his country house at Hartethat subject and mineralogy in general, camp, near Haerlem. after his return. He improved himself in In 1736 Linnæns, at Mr. Clifford's ex. this branch of knowledge by a visit to the pence, paid a visit to England. There were mining country round Fahlun, at the end of at that time few distinguished botanists in 1733. He found, however, that a doctor's this country, and Dillenius was the person degree would be necessary to his further whom he was most desirous of seeing; advancement, and in order to obtain this, Linnæus went to him at Oxford, and at money was necessary. For this purpose he first met with a cool reception, the old was advised by a friend to turn his thoughts botanist having been offended with some of towards a matrimonial connection with his innovations : after a little conversation, some lady of fortune, and having an intro- however, he liked him so well, that he de. duction to the family of Moræus, the town tained him a month, and strongly urged physician of Fahlun, he ventured to make him to take up his abode at Oxford and his addresses to his eldest daughter Eliza- share his salary as professor. Dr. Shaw, the beth, and was favourably received. His traveller, Martyn, Miller, and Collinson, also indigent circumstances gave him little hopes showed him much civility; but Sir Hans of obtaining the father's consent; but to Sloane did not pay the attention to him his surprise he only required a delay until which might have been expected from such his exertions should open a path to a com- a votary of natural history. Linnæus re. fortable settlement. Lionæus therefore re- turued to Holland enriched with many new solved to travel in quest of fortune and a plants for Clifford's garden, the description degree, and having accumulated his little of which, under the title of “ Hortus Clif. savings, to which were added those of his fortianus," appeared in a splendid publicafaithful Elizabeth, he set out for Holland in tion in 1737, drawn up by him and arrangthe spring of 1735.
ed accordin to his new system. He had At Harderwyck, as the cheapest univer. already, in the same year, presented to the sity, he took the degree of doctor of physic, botanical world the essence of that system maintaining for his thesis, “ Nova Hypo- in the first edition of his “Genera Planthesis Febrium Intermittentium.” He vi
tarum.” sited Leyden and Amsterdam, and was par- In the year 1738, having received intel. ticularly noticed by Dr. John Frederic ligence that he was in danger of being
rivalled in his pretensions to his mistress, preference. But the resignation of Rou. by the influence another had obtained with berg, the medical professor, having made her father, he thought it necessary no long- another vacancy, that chair was given to er to delay his return. As soon, therefore, Linnæus, with the condition that he and as he was able, after his recovery from a Rousen should divide the business of the severe illness, he took his way through the two professorships between them ; and to Low Countries to Paris. At that capital he the former were allotted the departments of had recommendations to the Jussieus, who the botanic garden, materia medica, simioreceived him with great kindness, and made logy, diætetics, and natural history in genehim known to Reaumur and other emioentral. Before his removal to Upsal, he was naturalists, and showed him all the curiosi- engaged by the States to travel through the ties of the place. At a visit to the Aca- southern provinces of Sweden, for the pur. demy of Sciences, it was announced to him pose of collecting such information as might that he was elected a corresponding mem- tend to the improvement of agriculture and ber. The attachment of the French to the manufactures. In this tour he was accommethod of their eminent countryman, panied by six pupils, and he performed the Tournefort, was unfavourable to the recep- task to the satistaction of the States: its tion of the Linnæan system among them, result was printed. He entered on his probut he had reason to be satisfied with the fessorship in the autumn of 1741, on which personal attention which he experienced. occasion he pronounced a Latin oration At Ronen he embarked for Sweden, where, “ On the necessity of travelling one's own on his arrival, he immediately proceeded to country.” His own past exertions in this Fahlun, and was formally betrothed to the respect rendered it a very entertaining and object of his affections. In the month of interesting composition. In the same year September he went to Stockholm, in order he made the tour of the islands of Oeland to try his fortune as a physician; but he and Gothland, by order of the States; and found that his fame as a botanist had either in subsequent years he travelled, by the not reached thither, or was of no service to same requisition, through West Gothland him as a practitioner. At length, however, and Scania. Exclusive of these exertions he obtained the confidence of some young his abode was henceforth fixed at Upsal, men of rank, who gave him considerable and the remaining history of his life is employment. A private meeting of men of only that of his literary and scientific la. science being formed in the capital, Lin- bours, and of the honours and distinctions, næus was made an associate, and had the which were accumulated upon him. precedency for the first three months : this One of his first cares was to improve and institution was the parent of the Royal new model the academic garden. He proAcademy of Stockholm. His reputation cured the erection of several new buildings, made him known to Count Tessin, Marshal arranged the plants according to his own of the Diet, by whose influence a salary system, and founded a museum of natural was conferred upon him, with the condition history in part of the green-house. In of his giving public lectures on botany in 1745 he published the tirst edition of his the summer, and on mineralogy in the win- “ Flora Succica," an admirable specimen of ter. That nobleman also procured for him a local catalogne, and the pattern of all the post of Physician to the Navy, and gave those which have since been made
upon the him a general invitation to his table. His Linnæan system.
In the next year apaffairs now wore so prosperous an aspect, peared his “ Fauna Suecica," or Catalogue that he would no longer delay his union of the Animal Kingdom in Sweden, arwith his betrothed Anna-Elizabeth Moræa, ranged also according to his own method. and they married in June, 1739.
In the numerous and difficult class of inThe death of Rudbeck, professor of bo- sects be adopted an entirely new method tany at Upsal, in 1740, opened to Linnæus of arrangement, which has been adopted a prospect of the literary situation which by most later entomologists. His merits, had always been the object of his wishes, in indeed, with respect to this class of natural which he might devote himself entirely to productions, stands next to those with rethe improvement of natural history, unin- spect to the vegetable productions. The terrupted by the cares of medical practice. same accurate inspection was requisite in He had, however, a competitor, Rousen, both, and from the immense number of this ancient rival and antagonist, whose subjects in each, it was equally necessary superior academical claims obtained the in both to search out for minute diversities
LINNÆUS. whereon to found an artificial classification. his name C. Von Linné. In the mean time The credit he was now acquiring in his own honours of a literary kind had been accumu. country appeared in his election to the post lating upon him from foreign countries, of Secretary to the Academy of SciencesBesides many learned societies of inferior at Upsal, in a medal of him struck at the rank, he was aggregated to the Imperial expence of some noblemen in 1746, and in Academy, to the Societies of Berlin, Lonhis nomination by the king to the rank and don, and to the Academy, and finally was title of archiater, in 1747. He now also nominated one of the eight foreign members began to exert his influence in procuring of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, being the mission of his young disciples to differ- the first Swede that had obtained that disent parts of the globe, in order to make tinction. The remote city of Upsal was discoveries in natural history and economy; visited by many strangers, attracted by his a circumstance by which he is distinguished reputation, which extended throughout Eu. above all other naturalists, and which has rope, and the number of students in its redounded equally to his own glory, and to university was doubled. His correspon. the public advantage. The travels of Kalm, dence included almost all the eminent culti. of Osbeck, of Hasselquist, of Lofling, were vators of natural history; and he was contithe fruits of his zeal in this point. To Lin. nually receiving from all parts tributes of næus may also be ascribed that curious col. books, plants, and specimens which enabled lection of treatises, which, under the name him to complete his vast plan of carrying of “ Ainænitates Academicæ,” began to be a new systematic arrangement through published in the year 1749, and were con- every department of nature. This he eftinued to a number of volumes. They are fected by the completion of his great work, academical theses held under Linnæus in “ Systema Naturæ,” which had grown in his professional capacity, and may be re- successive editions from a few tables to two, garded as containing his own doctrines and and finally, to three volumes, and received opinions on most of the points discussed. his finishing hand in 1768. In this perform
The work of Linnæus, which Haller ance Linnæus is the methodiser, and the terms his “ Maximus Opus et Æternum," nomenclator of all the known productions appeared in 1753. It was the “ Species of the three kingdoms of nature.
His Plantarum,” in two volumes, 8vo. contain- classifications are all so far artificial, that ing a description of every known plant, he constitutes divisions and subdivisions arranged according to his sexual systenr. from minute qualities in the subject, which The description, however, is independent serve very well as external marks, but freof any system, as being founded on the quently have little relation to its essential essential character of each species, with a character, and therefore bring together further reference to the generic description things in their nature very dissimilar. They given in the “ Genera Plantarum.” In are framed, liowever, with wonderful inge. this publication Linnæus first introduced nuity, and have undoubtedly produced a his admirable invention of trivial names, or more accurate indentification in all the epithets taken from the most prominent branches of natural history than before prespecific mark of the subject, or from some vailed. This is the first step to an exact other characteristic circumstance. The history of any subject, and it is ignorance specific descriptions are given in the pre- that treats it with contempt as a mere nocise form of a definition, with a great vari. menclature. Althongh arrangement was the ety of terms of his own invention, simple point at which Linnæus peculiarly laboured, and compound, forming, as it were, a new yet many of his smaller works prove his botanical language. If in these terms be great attention to matters of use and curiohas not aimed at a classical purity, he has sity; and no school has contributed so in general formed them upon correct ana- much to a thorough knowledge of the pro. logy; and it cannot be denied that they are ductions of nature as the Linnæan. With excellently adapted for their purpose. In regard to the particular parts of his sys. the same year he was created by the king a tem, the botanical was tlie most generally Knight of the Polar Star, an honour which received, and bids the fairest for duration. had never before been conferred on a lite. The entomological, though possessing gitat rary character. His elevation to the rank excellence, has in some measure been of vobility, by the king's sign manual, took abrogated by the more comprehensive but place eight years after, in 1761, but ante- more difficult method of Fabricius. Those dated 1757, and from that time he wrote in the other branches of zoology are gene.
rally in use, but have been improved or pay much attention to the ornaments of rivalled. The mineralogical has been en• • words. In society he was easy and pleatirely set aside by the great advances made sant; in his domestic relatious kind and in chemical knowledge. Linnæus also car- affectionate, and in the ordinary commerce ried his methodising plants into the science of life upright and honourable. His views of of medicine, and published a classified nature impressed him with the most devout “ Materia Medica,” and a system of noso- sentiments towards its author, and a glow logy, under the title of “ Genera Morbo- of unaffected piety is continually breaking rum.” Neither of these, however, are con- forth throughout his writings. If it be sidered as happy efforts, and he can generally true that men of real merit are scarcely rank among the improvers of his modest estimators of themselves, he was an proper profession, except as having brought exception to the rule ; for vanity was his into notice some popular remedies, and greatest foible, and no panegyrist could recorded some curious dietetical observa- surpass what he has written to his own tions.
praise in his diary. He was, however, A moderate degree of opulence (consi. totally free from envy, and bestowed apderable indeed relatively to the country in plause liberally where it was deserved; nor which he lived) attended the honour and did his love of fame cause hiin to descend reputation which Linnæus enjoyed. He to personal controversies with antagonists. was enabled to purchase an estate and villa He left a son and four daughters. The forat Hammerby, near Upsal, which was liis mer was joint professor of botany with his chief summer residence during the last fif- father, and succeeded to his medical chair : teen years of his life. Here he had a mu- he was well acquainted with botanical seum of natural history, on which he gave science, but had none of his father's genius. lectures ; and here he occasionally enter. The eldest danghter, Elizabeth-Christiana, tained his friends, but with that æconomy had a turn for observation, and became which had become a habit with him, and known by her discovery of the luminous which the possession of wealth, as is fre- quality of the flower tropæolum, communiquently the case, rather straightened than cated to the academy at Stockholm. relaxed. His vigour and activity continued Of the numerous works of Linnæus, and to an advanced period, though his-memory, their different editions, particnlar cataoverburthened with such an immense load logues are given in the works from which of names, began to fail after his sixtieth this article is composed. Stover's Life of year. An attack of apoplexy, in May Linnæus. Pulteney's General View of the 1774, obliged him to relinquish the most Writing's of Linnæus, second edition, by laborious parts of his professional duties, Dr. Maton, with the Diary of Linnæus, by and to close his literary toils. In 1776 a himself. second seizure rendered him paralytic on LINNET. See LINARIA. the right side, and reduced him to a deplor- LINOCIERA, in botany, so named from able state of mental and bodily debility. Geofroy Linocier, Physician at Tournon, in An ulceration of the bladder was the con- the Vivarais, a genus of the Diandria Mo. cluding symptom which carried him off, on nogynia class and order. Essential characJanuary 10, 1778, in the seventy-first year ter : calyx four-toothed; corolla four-petalof his age. A general mourning took place led; anthers connecting two opposite petals at Upsal, at his death, aud his body was at the base; berry two-celled. attended to the grave with every token of LINSEED, the seed of the plant linum. respect. His memory received distinguish. LINSPINS, in the military art, small ed hovours, not only in his own country, pins of iron which keep the wheel of a canbut from the friends of science in various non, or waggon, on the axletree ; for when foreign nations.
the end of the axletree is put through the Linnæus was below the middle stature, nave, the linspin is put in to keep the wheel but strong and muscular. His features from falling off. were agreeable, and his eyes were uncom- LINSTOCK, in the military art, a monly animated. His temper was lively, wooden staff, about three feet long, npon ardent, irritable ; his indignation warm, and one end of which is a piece of iron which his industry indefatigable. He had a large divides in two, turning from one another, share of natural eloquence, and a good having each a place to receive a match, and command of language, though his perpe. a screw to keep it fast: the other end is tual study of things did not permit him to pointed, and shod with iron, to stick in the