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of shield above, and a longitudinal flat dish to carbonic acid; the latter of which may beneath; aperture placed on the right side, be driven off by heat, if necessary. within the shield; four feelers, situate above If chalk, marble, lime-stone, spar, or any the mouth, with an eye at the tip of each other specimens of this earth, containing of the larger ones. There are sixteen carbonic acid, be exposed to continued igspecies ; L. lævis : body black, and almost nition, they give out carbonic acid and without wrinkles, found among the moss water, to the amount of nearly half their late in the autumn, five lipes long; body weight. The remainder, consisting chiefly glossy, with undulate, transverse striæ on the of lime, has a strong tendency to combinashield; narrower and not so much wrinkled tion, and attracts water very powerfully. as the next. L. ater; hody black and fur- The addition of water to lime produces a rowed with deep wrinkles : of this species very considerable heat, attended with noise, there are five or six varieties, differing in and agitation of the parts, which break colour and size ; the dusky-brown with a asunder; a considerable vapour arises, yellowish mouth, a streak on each side ; is which carries up with it part of the lime; found in woods, meadows, fields, and gar- and a phosphoric light is seen, if the exdens; is from one and a half to tive inches periment be made in the dark. Lime thus long; crawls slowly, and leaves a slime saturated with water is said to be slaked. upon whatever it passes over. L. alba, is Water dissolves about one five-hundredth white, and is found in woods and groves; part of its weight of lime, and is then called from three to five inches long. L. hyalinus; lime-water. This solution bas an acrid body hyaline; feelers obselete, with a taste, and turns syrup of violets to a green brown line reaching from the feelers to the colour. If lime-water be exposed to the shield ; inhabits mossy places, and is very open air, the lime attracts carbonic acid, destructive to the young shoots of kidney. and is by this means converted into chalk; beans ; belly with numerous interrupted which, not being soluble in water, forms a wrinkles. L agrestes ; body wbitish, with crust on the surface, formerly called cream black feelers : five varieties, of which some of lime, which, when of a certain thickness, have the power of secreting a large quantity breaks, and falls to the bottom: and in this of mucons from the under surface, and way the whole of the lime will in time be forming it into a thread like a spider's web; separated. If the fire have been too vioby this means it often suspends itself, and lent in the burning of lime, the stones bedescends from the branches of trees, or any come hard, sonorous, and incapable of abheight it had crawled np to. It is found in sorbing water with the requisite degree of gardens, pastures, and groves, from May avidity. This effect seems to arise from till December. One of the varieties of this part of the calcareous earth having entered species is that which has been recommend- into fusion with the clay, flint, or other ed to be swallowed by consumptive per contaminating earths, with which it forms sons; it is half an inch long, and when a glass that covers and defends the rest. touched it sticks as if dead to the fingers. The paste of lime and water, called mor
LIME, or calcarcous earth, predominates tar, has a degree of adhesion and ductility, in most stones which are soft enough to be though much less than clay. When dry, it scratched with a knife. These are chalk, is more or less friable, like chalk. A mix. lime-stone, marble, spars, gypsum, or plaster- ture of sand, or broken earthen vessels, stone, and various others. As the lime is greatly increases its firmness, which it most frequently combined with carbonic seems to effect by rendering it more diffi. acid, it is usual for mineralogists to drop a cult for the parts to be removed with resmall quantity of nitric acid upon the stones spect to each other. When mortar is left they are desirous of classing; and if they to dry by the gradual evaporation of its froth by the escape of the acid, they con- superfluous water, it is very long before it clude that lime enters into the composition. obtains its utmost degree of firmness. But To obtain pure calcareous earth, powdered if dry quick-lime be mixed with mortar, it chalk most be repeatedly boiled in water, gradually absorbs the superfluous water, which will deprive it of the saline im- and the mass becomes solid in a very short purities it freqnently contains. It must time. See MORTAR. then be dissolved in distilled vinegar, and Lime has an affinity for tannin, whence precipitated by the addition of concrete it is probable that a portion of it is retained volatile alkali. The precipitate, when well in tamned leather, perhaps not to the imwashed and dried, will consist of lime united provement of its quality. It lias an edul
corative power with respect to animal oils, 2 pet9,32 -p; then there being no vaby combining with the putrid gelatine in riation of the signs in the equation, all the them; but its action on them in forming a values of y must be negative ; and consesoap is too strong to admit of its being used quently the quantity e, by which the values for this purpose with advantage, unless in of x are diminished, must be greater than small quantities. Feathers, however, may the greatest positive value of x; and, conbe very conveniently cleaned by steeping equently, be the limit of the roots of three or four days in strong lime-water, the equation x'— px? +9x-r=o. and afterward washing and drying them. It is sufficient, therefore, in order to find
Though infusible in the strongest heats the limit, to inquire what quantity substiof our furnaces, it is nevertheless a very
tuted for x, in each of these expressions powerful flux with regard to mixtures of x?-- px?+qx-r, 3 x — 2 px +9, 3 x the other earths. These are all fusible by - P, will give them all positive ; for the a proper addition of lime. Compounds are quantity will be the limit required. still more fusible ; for any three of the five Having found the limit that surpasses the well-known earths may be fused into per- greatest positive root, call it m. And if fect glass, if they be mixed together in you assume y=m- X, and for x substitute equal portions, provided the calcareous be y, the equation that will arise will have one of them.
all its roots positive; because m is supposed The earthý part of animals is chiefly, if to surpass all the values of x, and consenot altogether, calcareous: in most cases it quently m — x(=y) must always be afis unite with phosphoric acid, but fre- firmative. And, by this means, any equaquently with the carbonic.
tion may be changed into one that shall have LIME-stone. The native indurated car- all its roots affirmative. bonate of lime. It is usually more or less Or, if -- n represent the limit of the nebluish from iron, and of a granulated frac- gative roots, then by assuming y=r+n ture; and it is connected with lime by igni- the proposed equation shall be transforined tion in lime-kilns, for the purpose of making into one that shall have all its roots affirmamortar. See LIME; also MORTAR. tive; for + n being greater than any nega
LIMEUM, in botany, a genus of the tive value of x, it follows that y=x+n Heptandria Digynia class and order. Na- must be always positive. tural order of Holoracæ. Portulaceæ, Jus. What is here said of the above cubic sieu. Essential character : calyx five-leaved; equation, may be easily applied to others; petals five, equal; capsule globular, two- and of all such equations, two limits are celled. There are three species, all natives easily discovered, viz. 0, which is less than of the Cape of Good Hope.
the least; and e, found as above, which LIMIT, in a restrained sense, is used by surpasses the greatest root of the equation. mathematicians for a determinate quantity But besides these, other limits still nearer to which a variable one continually ap. the roots may be found; for the method of proaches; in which sense the circle may be doing which, the reader may consult Macsaid to be the limit of its circumscribed and laurin's Algebra. inscribed polygons. In algebra, the term
LIMITATION, a certain time prescriblimit is applied to two quantities, one of ed by statute, within which an action must which is greater, and the other less, than be brought, which is generally twofold ; another quantity; and in this sense it is used first in writs, by several acts of parliament, in speaking of the limits of equations, where- and, secondly, to make a title to any inheby their solution is much facilitated. ritance, and that is by the common law.
Let any equation, as x'— p .22 xqx— On penal statutes, all actions, suits, bills, p=o be proposed ; and transform it into indictments, or informations, for any forthe following equation :
feiture limited to the king, his heirs or sucy' + 3 ey? + 36y tes
cessors only, shall be brought within two - Py? - 2 pey--pe?
years after the offence committed, and not tayt qe
after. All such actions, &c. except the
statutes of tillage, which give the penalty Where the values of y are less than the re- to the king and a common informer, are spective values of x, by the difference e. limited to one year next after the offence If you suppose e to be taken such as to committed ; and if not sned for by the inmake all the coeficients of the equation of former, they may be sued for by the king, y positive, viz, e-petye-r, 3é - anỳ time within the two years, after that
year is ended; and where a shorter time is actual means of knowing whether the debt limited by any penal statutę, the prosecu- is due, and therefore a very slight acknowtion must be within that time. 31 Eliz. ledgment removes the objection to the suit.
LIMNING, the art of painting in water All actions of trespass, of assault, battery, colours, in contradistinction to painting, wounding, imprisonnient, or any of them, which is done in oil colours. See PAINTare to be commenced within four years next after the cause of such actions or suits, LIMODORUM, in botany, a genus of and not after: 21 James I. c. 16. All ac- the Gynandria Diandria class and order. tions of trespass, quare clausum fregit; all Natural order of Orchideæ. Essential chaactions of trespass, detinue, trover, and re- racter : pectary one-leafed, concave, pediplevin; all actions of account, and upon the celled, within the lowest petal. There are case, (other than such accounts as concern thirteen species. the trade of merchandise between mer
LIMONIA, in botany, a genus of the chant and merchant); all actions of debt, Decandria Monogynia class and order. grounded upon any lending, or contract Essential character : calyx five-parted; pewithout specialty (that is, not being by tals five ; berry three-celled; seeds solitary. deed or under seal); all actions of debt for There are seven species, of which L. penta, arrearages of rent; and all actions of as. phylla, five-leaved limonia, is an elegant sault, menace, battery, wounding, and im- fragrant shrub, very common in most uncul. prisonment, shall be commenced within the tivated lands in Coromandel, but chicfly time and limitation as followeth, and not under large trees, where birds have dropped after: that is to say, the said actions upon the seeds. It flowers all the year. The the case (other than for slander), and the whole plant, when drying in the shade, said actions for account, and the said ac
diffuses a pleasant permanent scent; the tions for trespass, debt, detinue, and reple. flowers are exquisitely fragrant; birds eat vin, and the said action for trespass quare the berries greedily. clausum fregit, within six years after the
LIMOSELLA, in botany, a genus of cause of such action : 21 James I. c. 16. In
the Didynamia Angiospermia class and orall these statutes there is an exception in
der. Nataral order of Preciæ. Lysimarelation to infants, lunatics, and femes co- chiæ, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx verts, allowing them a further time after five cleft; corolla five-cleft, equal; stamina they are in a sitnation which enables them approximating by pairs; capsule one-celled, to sue. As to the exception with respect two-valved, many-seeded. There are two to merchant's accounts, it extends to actions on accounts current only, in which the species, viz. L. aquatica, common mudgiving credit on one side is an acknowledge. Wort, or bastard plantain ; and L. dianment of the debt on the other; but when the account is settled between merchant Pentrandria Digynia class and order. Es
LINCONIA, in botany, a genus of the and merchant, it must be sued for like any sential character: petals five, with a nectaother debt; and if all the articles are on one side, the account is not taken out of celled. There is but one species, viz. L.
reous excavation at the base; capsule two. the statute. An acknowledgment of the deht prevents the operation of the statute alopecuroidea, a native of the Cape of
Good Hope, in watery places among the of limitations, and also a payment upon ac
mountains. count; but as it is convenient that suits shonld not be delayed so long that vouchers
LINDERA, in botany, so named from cannot be produced, settlements should re
J. Linder, a Swede, a genus of the Hexangularly be enforced. A writ also may be dria Monogynia class and order. Essential sned out to save the statute of limitation, character: corolla six-petalled; capsule. as it is called, and though never sued, yet. There is only one species, viz. L. umbellata,
a native of Japan. if it is regularly entered, and continued upon the record, the snit may be effectually LINDERNIA, in botany, a genus of prosecuted long after, and being commenc- the Didynamia Angiospermia class and or. ed within time, the action may be main- der. Natural order of Personatæ. Scrotained out. This is in conscience rather a phulariæ, Jussieu. Essential character: mode of evading the statute. It is gene- calyx five-parted; corolla ringent, with the rally considered as an unfair defence to re- upper lip very short; stamina the two lower ly upon the statute, when the party has the with a terminating tooth, and a sub-lateral anther; capsule one-celled. There are three tic and of the equator when they are pro species.
jected on the plane of the former. LINE, in geometry, a quantity extended Line of direction, in mechanics, that in length only, without any breadth or wherein a body actoally moves, or would thickness. It is formed by the flux or nio- móve, if it were not hindered. It also detion of a point. See Fluxion.
notes the line that passes through the cen. Lines in perspective, are, 1. Geometri- tre of gravity of the heavy body to the cal line, which is a right line drawn in any centre of the earth, which must also pass manner on the geometrical plane. 2. Ter- through the fulcrum, or support of the restrial line, or fundamental line, is a right heavy body, without which it would fall. line wherein the geometrical plane, and that Line of gravitation, of any heavy body, of the picture or draught intersect one ano- a line drawn through its centre of gravity, ther, formed by the intersection of the and according to which it tends downwards. geometrical plane, and the perspective Line of the swiftest descent, of a heavy plane. 3. Line of the front, is any right body is the cycloid. See Cycloid. line parallel to the terrestrial line. 4. Ver- LINES on the plain scale, are the line of tical line, the common section of the verti- chords, line of sines, line of tangents, lipe tical and of the draught. 5. Visual line, of secants, line of semitangents, line of the line or ray imagined to pass from the leagues ; the construction and application of object to the eye. 6. Line of station, ac. which see under MATHEMATICAL INSTRUcording to soine writers, is the common MENTS, SAILING, &c. section of the vertical and geometrical LINEs on Gunter's scale, are the line of planes. 7. Objective line, the line of an numbers, line of artificial sines, line of arti. object from whence the appearance is ficial tangents, line of artificial versed sines, sought for in the draught or picture. line of artificial sines of rhumbs, line of arti
Lines, in dialling, are, 1. Horizontal line, ficial tangents of the meridian line, and line the common section of the horizon and the of equal parts ; for the construction and dial plane. See DIALLING. 2. Horary application whereof. See GUNTER's scale. lines, or hour-lines, the common intersec. Lines of the sector, are the line of equal tions of the hour-circles of the sphere, with parts, or line of lines, line of chords, line of the plane of the dial. See HORARY. 3. sines, line of tangents, line of secants, Substylar line, that line on which the style line of polygons, line of numbers, line of or cock of a dial is duly erected, and the hours, line of latitudes, lipe of meridians, representation of such an hour circle as line of metals, line of solids, live of planes; is perpendicular to the plane of that dial. for the construction and use whereof, see 4. Equinoctial line, the common intersec. SECTOR. tion of the equinoctial and plane of the Lines, in fortification, are those of apdial.
proach, capital, defence, circumvallation, LINE of measures, is used by Onghtred, contravallation, of the base, &c. See Ap. to denote the diameter of the primitive cir- PROACH, &c. cle in the projection of the sphere in plano, To Line a work, signifies to strengthen a or that line in which the diameter of any rampart with a firm wall; or to encompass circle to be projected falls. In the stereo. a parapet or moat with good turf, &c. graphic projection of the sphere in plano LINE, in the art of war, is understood of the line of measures is that line in which the disposition of an army, řanged in order the plane of a great circle perpendicular of battle, with the front extended as far as to the plane of the projection, and that may be, that it may not be flanked. See oblique circle which is to be projected, ARMY. intersects the plane of the projection; or it LINE of battle, is also understood of the is the common section of a plane passing disposition of a fleet on the day of engagethrough the eye point and the centre of the ment, on which occasion the vessels are primitive at right angles to any oblique usually drawn up as much as possible in a circle which is to be projected, and in straight line, as well to gain and keep the which the centre and pole of such circle advantage of the wind, as to run the same will be found.
board. Line of direction on the earth's axis, in LINE, ship of the, a vessel large enough the Pythagorean system of astronomy, the to be drawn up in the line, and to have a line connecting the two poles of the eclip. place in a sea-fight. See SHIP. VOL, IV.
LINE, in feucing, that part of the body LINEN, in commerce. The linen maopposite to the enemy, wherein the shoul- nufacture was probably introduced into ders, the right arm, and the sword, ought Britain with the first settlements of the always to be found; and wherein are also Romans. The flax was certainly first planted to be placed the two feet at the distance of by that nation in the British soil. The eighteen inches from each other. In which plant itself indeed appears to have been sense a man is said to be in his line, or to originally a native of the east. The wool. go out of his line, &c.
len-drapery would vaturally be prior in its LINE of the synodical, in reference to some origin to the linen, and the fibrous plants theories of the moon, is a right line sup- from which the threads of the latter are posed to be drawn through the centres of produced, seem to have been first noticed the earth and sun; and, if it be produced and worked by the inhabitants of Egypt. quite through the orbits, it is called the In Egypt, indeed, the linen manufacture line of the true syzygies :· but a right line appears to have been very early; for even imagined to pass through the earth's cen- in Joseph's time it had risen to a consider. tre, and the mean place of the sun, is called able height. From the Egyptians the the line of the mean syzygies.
knowledge of it proceeded probably to the LINE, in genealogy, a series or succes. Greeks, and from them to the Romans. sion of relations in various degrees, all de. Even at this day the flax is imported among scending from the same common father. us from the eastern nations; the western Direct line, is that which goes from father kind being merely a degenerate species of to son; being the order of ascendants and it. In order to succeed in the linen manudescendants. Collateral line is the order of facture, one set of people should be conthose who descend from some common fined to the ploughing and preparing the father related to the former, but out of the soil, sowing and covering the seed, to the line of ascendants and descendants : in this weeding, pulling, rippling, and taking care of are placed uncles, aunts, cousins, nephews, the new seed, and watering and dressing the &c.
flax till it is lodged at home : others should LINE was also formerly a French measure, be concerned in the drying, breaking, containing the twelfth part of an inch, or scutching, and heckling the flax, to fit it the hundred and forty-fourth part of a foot. for the spinners; and others in spinning Geometricians conceive the line, notwith- and reeling it, to fit it for the weaver : standing its smallness, to be subdivided into others should be concerned in taking due six points.
care of the weaving, bleaching, beetling, Lines, in music, the name of those and finishing the cloth for the market. It strokes drawn horizontally on a piece of is reasonable to believe, that if these seve. paper, op and between which the charac- ral branches of the manufacture were car. ters and notes of music are disposed: their ried on by distinct dealers in Scotland and number is commonly five; when another is Ireland, where our home-made linens are added, for one, two, or more notes, it is manufactured, the several parts would be called a ledger-line.
better executed, and the whole would be Lines, in heraldry, the figures used in afforded cheaper, and with greater protit. armories, to divide the shield into different LING, in ichthyology, the cirrated gadus parts, and to compose different figures. with two black fins, and with the upper These lines, according to their different jaw longest ; a fish called by authors aselforms and names, give denomination to the lus longus. See Gadus. pieces or figures which they form, except LINGUATALA, in natural history, a the straight or plain lines.
genus of the Vermes Intestina class and orLINEAR numbers, in mathematics, such der. Body depressed, oblong; mouth as have relation to length only; such is a placed before, surrounded with four pasmumber which represents one side of a sages. There is bat a single species, viz. plane figure. If the plane figure be a square L. serrata, inbabiting the lungs of the hare. the linear number is called a root.
LINNÆA, in botany, so named in ho. LINEAR problem, that which may be nour of the celebrated Linnæus, a genus of solved geometrically, by the intersection of the Didynamia Aogiospermia class and or. two right lines. This is called a simple der. Natural order of Aggregatæ. Capri. problem, and is capable but of one solu- foliæ, Jussieu. Essential character : calyx tion.
double, of the fruit two-leaved, of the