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occupy its place in the centre of the flame; pours, nothing of it was seen. The followneither does it, when there, erlarge the di- ing flowers emitted fashies, more or less ameter of the flame, so as to prevent the ac. vivid, in this order : 1. The marigold, cacess of air to its interval part. When its lendula officinalis. 2. Monk's-hood, tropælength is too great for the vertical position, olum majus. 3. The orange lily, lilium bulit bends on one side ; and its extremity, com
biferum. 4. The Indian pink, tagetes paing into contact with the air, is burned to tula et erecta. ashes, excepting such a portiou as is defend- To discover whether some little insects ed by the continual afflux of melted wax, or phosphoric worms might not be the cause which is volatilized and completely burved of it, the flowers were carefully examined, by the surrounding flame. We see, there- even with a microscope, without any such fore, that the difficnlt fusibility of wax ren- thing being found. From the rapidity of ders it practicable to burn a large quantity tiie flash, and other circumstances, it may of finid by means of a small wick; and that be conjectured that there is something of this small wick, by turning on one side in electricity in' this phenomenon. It is well consequence of its flexibility, performs the knovim, that when the pistil of a flower is operation of snuffing upon itself, in a much impregnated, the pollen bursts away by its more accurate manner than it can ever be elasticity, with which electricity may be performed mechanically.
combined. But M. Haggern, after having Mr. Henry made some experiments on observed the flash from the orange liiy, the the light afforded by the combustion of dif- anthere of which are a considerable space ferent gases, and found, that it was appa. distant from the petals, found that the light rently in the ratio of the oxygen that enter- proceeded from the petals only ; whence le ed into combination with the hydrogen they concludes, that this electric light is caused contained. Thus, 100 parts of pure lydro- by the pollen, whiclı, in flyiag off, is scat. gen gas required from 50 to 54 of oxygen; tered on the petals. Whatever be the 100 of gas from oak, 42; from moist char- cause, the effect is singular and highly cucoal and from dried peat, each 50; from rious. lamp. oil 156; from coal 140; from wax Light house, a building erected upon a 166; pure olifiant gas 210. Tallow is cape or promontory on the sea coast, or nearly on a par with oil. The production upon some rock in the sea, and having on its of light from the first four was so trilling, top in the night-time a great fire, or light that they did not seem applicable to eco- formed by candles, which is constantly atnomical purposes.
tended by some careful person, so as to be Light from plants. In Sweden a very seen at a great distance from the land. It curious phenomena has been observed on
is used to direct the shipping on the coast, certain flowers by M. Haggern, lecturer in that might otherwise run a-shore, or steer natural history. One evening he perceived an improper course, when the darkness of a faint flash of light repeatedly dart from a
the night and the uncertainty of currents, marigold. Surprised at such an unconimon
&c. might render their situation with regard appearance, he resolved to examine it with to the shore extremely doubtful. Lampattention; and, to be assured it was no de- lights are, on many accounts, preferable to ception of the eye, he placed a man near
coal fires or candles; and the effect of bim, with orders to make a signal at the these may be increased by placing them moment when he observed the light. They either behind glass hemispheres, or before both saw it constantly at the same moment. properly disposed glass or metal resectors, The light was most brilliant on marigolds of which last method is now very generally an orange or flame colour; but scarcely visi- adopted. See Beacons. ble on pale ones. The flash was frequently LIGHTFOOTIA, in botany, so named seen on the same fower two or three times in honour of John Lightfoot, a genus of the in quick succession, but more commonly at Polygamia Dioecia class and order. Essenintervals of several minutes: and when seve. tial character: calyx four-leaved ; corolla ral flowers in the same place emitted their none : female and hermaphrodite, stigma light together, it could be observed at a sessile; berry umbilicated, one-celled, with considerable distance. This phenomenon from three to six seeds. There are three was remarked in the months of July and species, all shrubs. August at sunset, and for half an hour when LIGHTNING. It is now universally the atmosphere was clear; but after a rainy allowed, that lightning is really an electriday, or when the air was loaded with va: cal explosion or phenomenon. Philosophers had not proceeded far in their expe- Messrs. Dalibard and Delor, followed by riments and inquiries on this subject, before M. Mazeas, and M. Monnier. they perceived the obvious analogy between Nor had the English philosophers been lightning and electricity, and they pro- inattentive to this subject. Mr. Canton, duced many arguments to evince their simi- however, succeeded in July, 1752; and in larity. But the method of proving this the following month Dr. Bevis and Mr. hypothesis, beyond a doubt, was first pro- Wilson observed nearly the same appearposed by Dr. Franklin, who, about the ances as Mr. Canton had done before. By a close of the year 1749, conceived the prac- number of experiments Mr. Canton also ticability of drawing lightning down from soon after observed, that some clouds were the clouds. Various circumstances of re- in a positive, while some were in a negative semblance between lightning and electri. state of electricity; and that the electricity city were remarked by this philosopher, of his conductor would sometimes change and have been abundantly confirmed by from one state to the other five or six times later discoveries, such as the following: in less than half an hour. Flashes of lightning are usually seen crooked
How it happens that particular parts of and waving in the air; so the electric the earth, or the clouds, come into the opspark drawn from an irregular body at posite states of positive and negative elecsome distance, and when it is drawn by an tricity, is a question not absolutely deterirregular body, or through a space in which mined: though it is easy to conceive that the best conductors are disposed in an irre- when particular clouds, or different parts of gular manner, always exhibits the same ap- the earth, possess opposite electricities, a pearance. Lightning strikes the highest discharge will take place within a certain and most pointed objects in its course, in distance; or the one will strike into the preference to others, as hills, trees, spires, other, and in the discharge a flash of masts of ships, &c. so all pointed conduc. lightning will be seen. Mr. Canton queries tors receive and throw off the electric fluid whether the clouds do not become possessed more readily than those that are terminated of electricity by the gradual heating and by flat surfaces. Lightning is observed to cooling of the air ; and whether air suddenly take and follow the readiest and best con- rarefied may not give electric fire to clouds, ductor; and the same is the case with elec. and vapours passing through it, and air tricity in the discharge of the Leyden phial; suddenly condensed receive electric fire from whence the Doctor infers, that in a from them. Mr. Wilcke supposes, that the thunder-storm it would be safer to have air contracts its electricity in the same manone's clothes wet than dry. Lightning ner that sulphur and other substances do, burns, dissolves metals, rends some bodies, when they are heated and cooled in contact sometimes strikes persons blind, destroys with various bodies. Thus, the air being animal life, deprives niagnets of their virtue, heated or cooled near the earth, gives elecor reverses their poles; and all these are
tricity to the earth, or receives it from it; well-known properties of electricity. and the electrified air being conveyed up
To demonstrate, however, by actual ex. wards by various means, communicates its periment, the identity of the electric fluid electricity to the clouds. Others bave quewith the matter of lightning, Dr. Franklin ried, whether, since thunder commonly contrived to bring lightning from the hea. happens in a sultry state of the air, when it vens by means of a paper kite, properly seems charged with sulphureous vapours, fitted up for the purpose, with a long fine the electric matter then in the clouds may wire string, and called an electrical kite, not be generated by the fermentation of which he raised when a thunder storm was sulphureous vapours with mineral or acid perceived to be coming on: and with the vapours in the air. With regard to places electricity thus obtained, he charged phials, of safety in times of thunder and lightning, kindled spirits, and performed all other Dr. Franklin's advice is, to sit in the middle such electrical experiments as are usually of a room, provided it be not under a metal exhibited by an excited glass globe or cy. lustre suspended by a chain, sitting on one linder. This happened in June, 1752, a chair, and laying the feet on another. It is month after the electricians in France, in still better, he says, to bring two or three pursuance of the method which he had be- mattresses, or beds, into the middle of the fore proposed, had verified the same theory, room, and folding them double, to place but without any knowledge of what they the chairs upon them; for as they are not had done. The most active of these were so good conductors as the walls, the light
ning will not be so likely to pass through seldom used as firewood, but is of great use them. But the safest place of all is in a to the sugar-planters for making wheels hammock hung by silken cords, at an equal and cogs to the sugar-mills. It is also fredistance from all the sides of the room. Dr. quently wrought in bowls, mortars, and Priestley observes, that the place of most other utensils. It is imported into Engperfect safety must be the cellar, and es- land, in large pieces of four or five hundred pecially the middle of it; for when a person weight each, and from its hardness and is lower than the surface of the earth, the beauty, is in great demand for various artilightning must strike it before it can pos- cles in the turnery ware, and for trucks of sibly reach him. In the fields, the place of ship blocks. The wood, gum, bark, fruit, safety is within a few yards of a tree, but and even the flowers of this plant, have not quite near it. Beccaria cautions persons been found to possess medicinal virtues. not always to trust too much to the neigh- LIGULA, in natural history, a genus of bourhood of a higher or better conductor the Vermes Intestina. Body linear, equal, than their own body, since he has repeatedly long; the fore-part obtuse ; the hind-part found that the lightning by no means de- acute, with an impressed dorsal suture. scends in one undivided track, but that bo- There are two species, riz. L. intestinalis, dies of various kinds conduct their share of L. abdominalis; the former is found in the it at the same time, in proportion to their intestines of the merganser and guillemot: quantity and conducting power. See Frank- about a foot long, and exactly resembling a lin's Letters, Beccaria's Lettre dell' Ellet- piece of tape : of the latter there are, at tricessimo, Priestley's History of Electricity, least, eight varieties described as inhabiting and Lord Mahon's Principles of Electri. the intestines of fish : they are found princity.
cipally in the mesentery, emaciating the fish Lord Mahon observes, that damage may they infest, and cansing them to grow be done by lightning, not only by the main deformed. When they escape from the stroke and lateral explosion, but also by body they penetrate through the skin : they wbat he calls the returning stroke, by which are sometimes solitary, and sometimes greis meant the sudden and violent return of garious, about half a line thick, and from that part of the natural sbare of electricity six inches to five feet long. which had been gradually expelled from LIGUSTICUM, in botany, locage, a ge. some body or bodies, by the superinduced nus of the Pentandria Digynia class and elastic, electrical pressure of the electrical order. Natural order of Umbellatæ, or atmosphere of a thunder-cloud.
Umbelliferæ. Essential character: fruit The ancient notion of a thunderbolt, or, oblong, five-grooved on both sides ; corolla stony mass, falling at the stroke of lightning, equal, with involute entire petals. There seems to have obtained no small degree of are eight species, of which L. levisticum, force from the modern observations and re- common lovage, has a strong, fleshy, perensearches concerniug stones which have fal- nial root, striking deep into the ground, len from the atmosphere. See Stones, composed of many strong fleshy fibres, cometeoric. From which it appears, that vered with a brown skin, possessing a hot other substances as well as water are not aromatic smell and taste. The leaves are unfrequently condensed and precipitated large, composed of many leaflets, shaped from the air, and exhibit the most astonish- like those of Smallage, but larger and of a ing degrees of heat and electricity during deeper green; stems six or seven feet high, their condensation.
large and channelled, dividing into several LIGNUM rita. The lignum vitæ tree is branches, each terminated by a large uma native of the West Indies, and the warmer
bel of yellow flowers. It is a native of the parts of America : there is also a species, a
Alps, of Italy, the South of France, Silesia, native of the Cape of Good Hope. It is a &c. large tree, rising at its full growth to the LIGUSTRUM, in botany, privet, a geheight of forty feet, and measuring from tif- nus of the Diandria Monogynia class and teen to eighteen inches in diameter; having order. Natural order of Sepiariæ. Jasmia hard, brittle, brownish bark, not very neæ, Jussieu. Essential character: corolla thick. The wood is firm, solid, ponderous, four-cleft; berry four-seeded. There are very resinous, of a blackish yellow colour three species, of which L. vulgare, common in the middle, and a hot aromatic taste. privet, is a shrub about six feet in height, It is so hard as to break the tools which are branched, the bark of a greenish-ash colour, employed in felling it; and is, therefore, irregularly sprinkled, with numerous prominent points ; branches opposite, the married with a fortune of one thousand young ones Dexible and purplish ; leaves pounds. opposite, on short petioles, smooth on both Being now his own master, he followed sides ; panicle about two inches in length, the bent of his inclinations, which led him somewhat pyramidal ; corolla white, but to follow the puritanical preachers. Aftersoon changes to a reddish brown. Privet wards turning his mind to judicial astronois found wild in most parts of Europe, and my, in 1632 he became pupil, in that art, in Japan, in woods and hedges; it flourishes to one Evans, a profligate Welsh parson; best in a moist soil.
and the next year gave the public a speci. LIKE quantities, or Similar quantities, men of his skill, by an intimatio: that the in algebra, are such as are expressed by the King had chosen an unlucky boroscope for same letters, to the same power, or equally the coronation in Scotland. In 1634, getrepeated in each quantity; though the ting a manuscript copy of the “ Ars Nonumeral co-efficient may be different: thus, ticia” of Cornelius Agrippa, with alterations, 4 a and 5 u are like quantities ; so also are he drank in the doctrine of the magic circle, 3 z2 and 9 z2; and likewise 5 bd y? 10 bdy and the invocation of spirits, with great But 40 and 8 b are not like quantities; nor eagerness, and practised it for some time; are 4 a and 4 a'.
after which be treated the mystery of reLIKE figures, the same as SIMILAR figures. covering stolen goods, &c. with great conAll like figures have their homologous lines tempt, claiming a supernatural sight, and in the same ratio. Like plane figures are in the gift of prophetical predictions; all the duplicate ratio, or as the squares of their which he well knew how to turn to good homologous lines or sides; and like solid advantage. figures are in the triplicate ratio, or as the Meanwhile he had buried his first wife, cubes of their homologous sides.
purchased a moiety of thirteen houses in the LILIUM, in botany, lily, a genus of the Strand, and married a second wife, who, Hexandria Monogynia class and order. Na- joining to an extravagant temper, a terma. tural order of Coronariæ. Lilia, Jussieu. gant spirit which he could not lay, made Essential character: corolla six-petailed, him unhappy, and greatly reduced his cirbell-shaped, with a longitudinal nectareous cumstances. line; capsule, the valves connected by can- With this uncomfortable yoke-mate he cellated hairs. There are eleven species, removed, in 1636, to Hersham, in Surrey, with many varieties, L. candidum, common where he staid till 1641 ; when, seeing a white lily, has a large bulb, from which pro. prospect of fishing in troubled waters, he ceed several succulent fibres; it has a stout, returned to London. Here, having purround, upright stem, usually three feet in chiased several curious books in this art, height; leaves long and numerous, smooth which were found ou pulling down the and sessile ; flowers white, terminating the house of another astrologer, he studied them stem in a cluster, on short peduncles; petals incessantly, finding out secrets contained within of a beautiful shining white, on the in them, which were written in an imperoutside ridged, and less luminous. Native fect Greek character, and, in 1644, he of the Levant.
published his “ Merlinus Anglicus," an alLILLY (William), in biography, a manack, which he continued annually till noted Englislı astrologer, born in Leices. his death, and several other astrological tershire in 1602. His father was not able works, devoting his pen, and other labours, to give him further education than common sometimes to King Charles's party, and reading and writing; but young Lilly being at others to that of the parliament, but of a forward temper, and endued with mostly to the latter, raising his fortune by shrewd wit, he resolved to push his fortune favourable predictions to both parties, at one in London, where he arrived in 1620, and, time by presents, and at others by penfor a present support, articled himself as a sions. Thus, in 1648, the council of state servant to a mantila-maker in St. Clement gave him in money tifty pounds, and a pen. Danes. But in 1624 le ed a step sio of one hundred pounds per annum, higher, by entering into the service of Mr. which he received for two years, and then Wright, in the Strand, master of the Salters' resigned it on some disgust. Company, who not being able to write, By his advice and contrivance, the King Lilly, among other offices, kept his books. attempted several times to make his escape On the death of his master, in 1627, Lilly from confinement; le procured and sent paid his addresses to the widow, whom he the aqua fortis, and files to cut the iron bars
of his prison windows at Carisbrook Castle; of his death. In October, 1666, he was but still advising and writing for the other examined before a committee of the House party at the same time. Meanwhile he read
of Commons, concerning the fire of Lonpublic lectures on astrology in 1648 and don, which happened in September that 1649, for the improvement of young stu- year. A little before his death be adopted dents in that art; and, in short, plied his for his son, by the name of Merlin Junior, business so well, that, in 1651 and 1652, lie one Henry Coley, a tailor by trade; and at laid out two thonsand pounds for lands and the same time gave him the impression of a house at Hersham.
liis almanack, which had been printed for During the siege of Colchester, he and thirty-six years successively. Tiis Coley Booker were sent for thither to encourage became afterwards a celebrated astrologer, the soldiers; which they did by assuring publishing in his own name almanacks and them that the town would soon be taken; books of astrology, particularly one entiwhich proved true in the event.
lled " A Key to Astrology.” Having, in 1650, written publicly that Lilly died of the palsy in 1681, at seventythe parliament should not continne, but a nine years of age; and his friend Mr. Ashnew government arise; agreeably to wliich, mole placed a monument over his grave in in his almanack for 1653, he asserted that the church of Walton upon Thames. the parliament stood upon a ticklish founda- Lilly was the author of many works. His tion, and that the commonalty and sol. “ Observations on the Life and Death of diery would join together against them. Charles, late King of England,” if we overUpon which he was summoned before the look the astrological nonsense, may be read committee of plundered ministers; but re- with as much satisfaction as more celeceiving notice of it before the arrival of the brated histories, Lilly being not only very messenger, he applied to his friend Lenthal, well informed, but strictly impartial. This the Speaker, who pointed out the offensive work, with the lives of Lilly and Ashmole, passages. He immediately altered them, written by themselves, were published in attended the committee next morning, with one volume 8vo. in 1774, by Mr. Bursix copies printed, which six alone he ac- His other works were principally as knowledged to be his, and by that means follow. came off with only thirteen days custody 1. Merlinus Anglicus, junior. 2. Superby the serjeant at arms. This year he was natural Sight. 3. The White King's Proengaged in a dispute with Mr. Thomas phecy. 4. England's prophetical Merlin : Gataker.
all printed in 1644. 5. The starry Diessen. In 1665, he was indicted at Hicks's Hall ger, 1645. 6. Collection of Prophecies, for giving judgment upon stolen goods, but 1646. 7. A Comment on the White King's was acquitted. In 1659, he received from Prophecy, 1646. 8. The Nativities of Arch. the King of Sweden a present of a gold bishop Land and Thomas Earl of Strafford, chain and medal, worth about fifty pounds, 1646. 9. Christian Astrology, 1647: upon on account of his having mentioned that this piece he read his lectures in 1648, menmonarch with great respect in his alma. tioned above. 10. The third Book of Nanacks of 1657 and 1658.
tivities, 1647. 11. The World's Catastrophe, After the Restoration in 1660, being 1647. 12. The Prophecies of Ambrose taken into custody, and examined by a com- Merlin, with a Key, 1647. 13, Trithemins, mittee of the Honse of Commons, touching or the Government of the World by presidthe execution of Charles I., he declared ing Angels, 1647. 14. A Treatise of the tbat Robert Spavin, then secretary to Three Suns seen in the Winter of 1647, Cromwell, dining with him soon after the printed in 1648. 15. Monarchy or no Mofact, assured him, it was done by Cornet narchy, 1651, 16. Observations on the Life Joyce. The same year he sued out liis pare and Death of Charles, late King of Engdon, under the broad seal of England, and land, 1651 ; and again in 1657, with the afterwards continued in London till 1665, title of Mr. Williain Lilly's true History of "when, upon the raging of the plagne there, King James and King Charles I., &c. 17. he retired to his estate at Hersham. Here Annus Tenebrosus, or the Black Year. be applied himself to the study of physic, This drew him into the dispute with Gata. having, by means of his friend Elias Ash ker, which Lilly carried on in his Almamole, procured from Archbishop Sheldon nack in 1654. a licence to practise it, which he did, as LIMAX, in natural history, the slug. well as astrology, from thence till the time Body oblong, creeping, with a fleshy kind