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gold and silver plate, and silken hangings were displayed from the windows and balconies, and a severe discipline restrained and silenced the tumult of the populace. The march was opened by the military officers at the head of their troops; they were followed in long order by the magistrates and ministers of the civil government: the person of the emperor was guarded by his eunuchs and domestics, and at the church door he was solemnly received by the patriarch and his clergy. The task of applause was not abandoned to the rude and spontaneous voices of the crowd. The most convenient stations were occupied by the bands of the blue and green factions of the circus ; 58 and their furious conflicts, which had shaken the capital, were insensibly sunk to an emulation of servitude. From either side they echoed in responsive melody the praises of the emperor ; their poets and musicians directed the choir, and long life 59 and victory were the burden of every song. The same acclamations were performed at the audience, the banquet, and the church; and, as an evidence of boundless sway, they were repeated in the Latin, 60 Gothic, Persian, French, and even English language, 81 by the mercenaries who sustained the real or fictitious character of those nations. By the pen of Constantine Porphyrogenitus this science of form and flattery has been reduced into a pompous and trifling volume,62 which the vanity of succeeding times might enrich with an ample supplement. Yet the calmer reflection of a prince would surely suggest that the same acclamations were applied to every character and every reign ; and, if


** [See above, vol. iv., Appendix 11, p. 567-8.]

* No Avypovićew is explained by eüdnuícerv (Codin. c. 7, Ducange, Gloss. Græc. som. i. p. 1199).

& Κωνσέρβετ Δέους ήμπέριουμ βέστρουμ-βίκτωρ σης σέμπερ-βήβητε Δόμηνι Hurepáropes fyw uobatos árvos (Ceremon. [i.] c. 75, p. 215). The want of the Latin Fobliged the Greeks to employ their B [it was not a shift; the pronunciation of Bas then, as it is now, the same as that of v] ; nor do they regard quantity. Till be recollected the true language, these strange sentences might puzzle a professor.

Βάραγγοι κατά την πατρίαν γλώσσαν και ούτοι, ήγουν Ιγκλινιστί πολυχρονίζουσι (Codin. p. 90 (p. 57, ed. Bonn]). I wish he had preserved the words, "however corrupt, of their English acclamation.

82 For all these ceremonies, see the professed work of Constantine Porphyrogeni. tuz, with the notes, or rather dissertations, of his German editors, Leich and Reiske. For the rank of the standing courtiers, p. 80 (c. 23 ad fin.), not. 23, 62, for the a loration, except on Sundays, p. 95, 240 [c. 39 ; c. 91 (p. 414, ed. Bonn)], not. 131, the processions, p. 2 (c. 1], &c., not. p. 3, &c., the acclamations, passim, not. 25, &c., the factions and Hippodrome, p. 177-214 [c. 68-c. 73), not. 9, 93, &c., the Gothic games, p. 221 (c. 83), not. 111, vintage, p. 217 [c. 78), not. 109. Much more information is scattered over the work,

the Cæsars with foreign nations

he had risen from a private rank, he might remember that his own voice had been the loudest and most eager in applause, at the very moment when he envied the fortune, or conspired

against the life, of his predecessor.63 Marriage of The princes of the North, of the nations, says Constantine,

without faith or fame, were ambitious of mingling their blood with the blood of the Cæsars, by their marriage with a royal virgin, or by the nuptials of their daughters with a Roman prince.64 The aged monarch, in his instructions to his son, reveals the secret maxims of policy and pride; and suggests the most decent reasons for refusing these insolent and unreasonable demands. Every animal, says the discreet emperor, is prompted by nature to seek a mate among the animals of his own species ; and the human species is divided into various tribes, by the distinction of language, religion, and manners. A just regard to the purity of descent preserves the harmony of public and private life; but the mixture of foreign blood is the fruitful source of disorder and discord. Such has ever been the opinion and practice of the sage Romans; their jurisprudence proscribed the marriage of a citizen and a stranger; in the days of freedom and virtue, a senator would have scorned to match his daughter with a king; the glory of Mark Anthony was sullied by an Egyptian wife ; 65 and the emperor Titus was compelled, by popular censure, to dismiss with reluctance the reluctant Bernice.66 This perpetual interdict was ratified by the fabulous sanction of the great Constantine. The ambassadors of the nations, more especially of the unbelieving nations, were solemnly admonished

that such strange alliances had been condemned by the founder Imaginary of the church and city. The irrevocable law was inscribed on

the altar of St. Sophia; and the impious prince who should stain the majesty of the purple was excluded from the civil and ec

law of Constantine

63 Et privato Othoni et nuper eadem dicenti nota adulatio (Tacit. Hist. i. 85).

6* The xiiith chapter, de Administratione Imperii, may be explained and rectified by the Familiæ Byzantine of Ducange.

65 Sequiterque nefas! Ægyptia conjunx (Virgil, Æneid. viii. 687 (løg. 686]). Yet this Egyptian wife was the daughter of a long line of kings. Quid te mutavit (says Antony in a private letter to Augustus)? an quod regimen ineo? Uxor mea est (Sueton. in August. c. 69). Yet I much question (for I cannot stay to inquire) whether the triumvir ever dared to celebrate his marriage either with Roman or Egyptian rites.

66 Berenicem invitus invitam dimisit (Suetonius in Tito, c. 7). Have I observed elsewhere that this Jewish beauty was at this time above fifty years of age? The judicious Racine has most discreetly suppressed both her age and her country.


clesiastical communion of the Romans. If the ambassadors were instructed by any false brethren in the Byzantine history, they might produce three memorable examples of the violation of this imaginary law: the marriage of Leo, or rather of his father, Constantine the Fourth, with the daughter of the king of the Chozars, the nuptials of the grand-daughter of Romanus with a Bulgarian prince, and the union of Bertha of France or Italy with young Romanus, the son of Constantine Porphyrogenitus himself. To these objections three answers were prepared, which solved the difficulty and established the law. I. The The first

exception. deed and the guilt of Constantine Copronymus were acknow- 2.D. 733 ledged. The Isaurian heretic, who sullied the baptismal font and declared war against the holy images, had indeed embraced a barbarian wife. By this impious alliance he accomplished the measure of his crimes, and was devoted to the just censure of the church and of posterity. II. Romanus could not be alleged The as a legitimate emperor; he was a plebeian usurper, ignorant of A.D. 941 the laws, and regardless of the honour, of the monarchy. His son Christopher, the father of the bride, was the third in rank in the college of princes, at once the subject and the accomplice of a rebellious parent. The Bulgarians were sincere and devout Christians; and the safety of the empire, with the redemption of many thousand captives, depended on this preposterous alliance.

Yet no consideration could dispense from the law of Constantine: the clergy, the senate, and the people disapproved the conduct of Romanus; and he was reproached, both in his life and death, as the author of the public disgrace. III. For the marriage of his own son with the daughter of the third. Hugo, king of Italy, a more honourable defence is contrived by A.D. 943 the wise Porphyrogenitus. Constantine, the great and holy, esteemed the fidelity and valour of the Franks ; 67 and his prophetic spirit beheld the vision of their future greatness. They alone were excepted from the general prohibition : Hugo king of France was the lineal descendant of Charlemagne ; 68 and his

67 Constantine was made to praise the eủyévera and repipávera of the Franks, sitb whom he claimed a private and public alliance. The French writers (Isaac Casaubon in Dedicat. Polybii) are highly delighted with these compliments. [A Monodia is extant which is composed by Imperial order for the young Romanus and dedicated by him to Bertha. It had been published by S. Lambros in the Bulletin de Correspondance hellénique, ii. 266 sqq. (1878).]

** Constantine Porphyrogenitus (de Admistrat. Imp. c. 26) exhibits a pedigree And life of the illustrious king Hugo (περιβλέπτου ρήγος Ούγωνος). A more correct

daughter Bertha inherited the prerogatives of her family and nation. The voice of truth and malice insensibly betrayed the fraud or error of the Imperial court. The patrimonial estate of Hugo was reduced from the monarchy of France to the simple county of Arles; though it was not denied that, in the confusion of the times, he had usurped the sovereignty of Provence and invaded the kingdom of Italy. His father was a private noble: and, if Bertha derived her female descent from the Carlovingian line, every step was polluted with illegitimacy or vice. The grandmother of Hugo was the famous Valdrada, the concubine, rather than the wife, of the second Lothair; whose adultery, divorce, and second nuptials had provoked against him the thunders of the Vatican. His mother, as she was styled, the great Bertha, was successively the wife of the count of Arles and the marquis of Tuscany: France and Italy were scandalized by her gallantries; and, till the age of threescore, her lovers, of every degree, were the zealous servants of her ambition. The example of maternal incontinence was copied by the king of Italy; and the three favourite concubines of Hugo were decorated with the classic names of Venus, Juno, and Semele.69 The daughter of Venus was granted to the solicitations of the Byzantine court; her name of Bertha was changed to that of Eudoxia; and she was wedded, or rather betrothed, to young Romanus, the future heir of the empire of the East. The consummation of this foreign alliance

was suspended by the tender age of the two parties; and, at [Death of the end of five years, the union was dissolved by the death of the virgin spouse.

The second wife of the emperor Romanus was a maiden of plebeian, but of Roman birth; and their two daughters, Theophano and Anne, were given in marriage to the princes of the earth. The eldest was bestowed, as the pledge of peace, on the eldest son of the great Otho, who had solicited this alliance with arms and embassies. It might legally be questioned how far a Saxon was entitled to the privilege of the French nation; but every scruple was silenced idea may be formed from the Criticism of Pagi, the Annals of Muratori, and the Abridgment of St. Maro, A.D. 925-946.

Bertha A.D. 949)

69 After the mention of the three Goddesses, Liutprand very naturally adds, et quoniam non rex solus iis abutebatur, earum nati ex incertis patribus originem ducunt (Hist. 1. iv. c. 6 [= c. 14]); for the marriage of the younger Bertha see Hist. 1. v. c. 5(= c. 14]; for the incontinence of the elder, dulois exercitio Hymenei, 1. ii. c. 15 [= c. 55]; for the virtues and vices of Hugo, 1. iii. c. 5{=0. 19]." Yet it must not be forgot that the bishop of Cremona was a lover of scandal.

Otho of
A.D. 972


by the fame and piety of a hero who had restored the empire of the West. After the death of her father-in-law and husband, Theophano governed Rome, Italy, and Germany during the minority of her son, the third Otho; and the Latins have praised the virtues of an empress, who sacrificed to a superior duty the remembrance of her country. In the nuptials of her sister Anne, every prejudice was lost, and every consideration of dignity was superseded, by the stronger argument of necessity and fear. A Pagan of the North, Wolodomir, great prince of Wolodomir

of Russia Russia, aspired to a daughter of the Roman purple; and his (Vladimir

of Kiev). claim was enforced by the threats of war, the promise of con- A.D. 988

(969) version, and the offer of a powerful succour against a domestic rebel. A victim of her religion and country, the Grecian princess was torn from the palace of her fathers, and condemned to a savage reign and an hopeless exile on the banks of the Borysthenes, or in the neighbourhood of the Polar circle. 71 Yet the marriage of Anne was fortunate and fruitful; the daughter of her grandson Jeroslaus was recommended by her Imperial de- (Yaroslav] scent; and the king of France, Henry I., sought a wife on the last borders of Europe and Christendom.72

In the Byzantine palace, the emperor was the first slave of Despotic the ceremonies which he imposed, of the rigid forms which regulated each word and gesture, besieged him in the palace, and violated the leisure of his rural solitude. But the lives and fortunes of millions hung on his arbitrary will; and the firmest minds, superior to the allurements of pomp and luxury, may be

70 Licet illa Imperatrix Græca sibi et aliis fuisset satis utilis, et optima, &o., is the presin ble of an inimical writer, apud Pagi, tom. iv. A.D. 989, No. 3. Her marriage and principal actions may be found in Muratori, Pagi, and St. Marc, under the proper years. (For the question as to the identity of Theophano, see above, vol. v. p. 225, note 49. For her remarkably ca pa ble regency (a striking coatrast to that of Agnes of Poictiers, mother of the Emperor Henry IV.) see Glesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, i. p. 611 sqq.]

** Cedrenus, tom. ii. p. 699 (ii. p. 444, ed. Bonn); Zonaras, tom. ii. p. 221 Ivii. 7); Elmacin, Hist. Saracenica, 1. iii. c. 6; Nestor apud Levesque, tom. ii. p. 112 Chron. Nestor, c. 42]; Pagi, Critica, A.D. 987, No. 6; a singular concourse ! Wolodomir and Anne are ranked among the saints of the Russian church. Yet we know his vices, and are ignorant of her virtues. (For the date of Vladimir’s marriage and conversion see below, chap. lv. p. 170, note 100.)

13 Henricus pri nus duxit uxorem Scythicam [et] Russam, filiam regis Jeroslai. An embassy of bishops was sent into Russia, and the father gratanter filiam cum multis donis misit. This event happened in the year 1051. See the passages of the ori soal chronicles in Bouquet's Historians of France (tom. xi. p. 29, 159, 161, 319, 334, 481). Voltaire might wonder at this alliance; but he should not have owned bis ignorance of the country, religion, &c., of Jeroslaus—A name so conspicuous in the Russian annals.


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