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TOPOGRAPHY

OF

L 0 N D 0 N.

HITHERTO,

ITHERTO, we trust, we have given a satisfactory ac.

count of the history and government of London. Its immunities have been ascertained, and other particulars necessary to illustrate the subject have been deduced, with as little prolixity as possible. We now attempt the description of the various parts of this extensive metropolis, in a manner which we hope will meet approbation. It is not intended to abide by hear-say information ; actual inspection alone shall satisfy our inquiry; and to do this in the most eligible manner, we shall divide our perambulation into various routs, commencing at some principal point of direction, so as to give information without fatigue.

As, therefore, this precludes the formality of describing the several parishes and buildings in their appropriate wards, we propose a summary account of those twenty-five divisions of the city with their boundaries..

PORTSOKEN WARD. The origin of this ward has been already described in the early part of this History *. It is situated entirely without Aldgate, and contains all Whitechapel to the Bars, Pettycoat Lane, Houndsditch, and the Minories ; being bounded on the east by the parishes of Spital Fields, and Whitechapel; on the south by Tower Hill; on the west by Aldgate along the antient city wall, and on the north by Bishopsgate ward. The ward is divided into the five following precincts: Houndsditch, High Street, the Bars, Tower Hill, and Convent Garden, within the parishes of St. Botolph, and Trinity Minories. The government is

* Vol. I. p. 61. This word Portsoken, implics “ a franchise at the

gar,"

M 2

vested

vested in an alderman, five common council men *, five cone stables, nineteen inquestmen, and a ward beadle. Among those gentlemen who have borne the office of aldermen, were the following eminent characters, Sir John Cass, Humphrey Parsons, esquire, Sir William Calvert, and the right honourable Thomas Harley. The present alderman is James Shaw, esquire.

TOWER STREET WARD, the first ward on the south-east part of the city, extends from the Tower to the middle of the way between Great Dice Key and Smart's Key, and from the west corner of Tower Dock, to within seventy-feet of the north end of Rood Lane, and is divided into the fol. lowing twelve precincts; Dolphin, Minchin Lane, Salutation, Rood, Dice Key, Ralph's Key, Bear Key, Petty Wales, Rose, Seething Lane, Mark Lane, and Angel, mostly in the parishes of Alhallows Barking, St. Olave, Hart Street, and St. Dunstan in the East. Its government is by an alderman, twelve common council men, twelve constables, thirteen inquestmen, and a ward beadle. Among its eminent men have been Sir Thomas Chitty, Samuel Turner, esquire, and Hugh Smith, esquire, M. D.-Sir William Curtis, bart. one of the representatives for the city in parliament, is the present alderman.

ALDGATE WARD, takes its name from the antient eastern gate of the city. This ward extends from Aldgate to Lime Street, in Leadenhall Street, comprizing all the space of ground from Bevis Marks and Shoemaker Row to Tower Hill, and including Poor Jewry Lane, Crutched Friars, London Street, Woodroffe Lane, &c. to Ironmonger's Hall, Fenchurch Street. It contains seven precincts, mostly in the parishes of St. James, Duke's Place, St. Catherine Cree Church, St. Andrew Undershaft, St. Catharine, Coleman. The government consists of an alderman, six common council men, six constables, twenty inquest men, beside the officers belonging to St. James, Duke's Place, and a ward beadle. It is a curious circumstance, that this ward has af

* From among these the aldermen select their deputies.

forded

forded only four lord mayors within the last century. Harvey Christian Combe, esquire, member of parliament for the city, is the present alderman.

LIME STREET WARD. Stow says, that the street takes its name from making or selling of Lime there; this may be probable, but if we take the Saxon Lim, dirty, the latter explanation is more than probable; there being no brook or water carriage for lime from this place to the Thames, except Langbourne, which continued a muddy course to Lombard Street, Sherebourne &c. This ward contans four precincts; and it is observable, that it has no church or complete street, though it runs through several parishes. It is governed by an alderman, four common council men, four constables, two scavengers, thirteen inquest men, and a ward beadle. During the last century, Lime Street ward gave to the city four lord mayors. The present alderman is John Prinsep, esquire, M. P.

BISHOPSGATE WARD. The first gate which stood here, and whence the ward derives its name, was supposed to have been first either constructed by bishop Erkenwald, or more probably by bishop William, the Norman, who was in other respects a great benefactor to the city. This ward is bounded on the south by Langbourn ward; on the west by that of Broad Street; ou the east by Aldgate, Portsoken, and the Tower liberty; and on the north by Shoreditch; extending from Spital Square, to the pump at the corner of Threadneedle Street, and winding by the west corner of Leadenhall, down Gracechurch Street, to the south-west corner of Fenchurch Street. The ward is divided into two parts: Bishopsgate Within comprizes the five precincts of Allhallows, St. Peter, St. Martin Outwich, St. Helen, and St. Ethelburga : Bishopsgate Without is divided into four precincts. The government is by an alderman, fourteen common council men, two of whom arc alderman's deputies, seven constables, thirteen inquest men, and two ward beadles. Every alderman, except two, has been lord mayor, during the last century. The present alderman is Sir Richard Carr Glyn, bart.

BROAD

BROAD STREET WARD, is divided into ten precincts, St. Mildred and Woolchurch, St. Christopher, St. Bartholomew Upper, St. Bartholomew Lower, St. Margaret, Lothbury, St. Bennet Fink, St. Martin Outwich, St. Peter-le-Poor, and Alhallows, London Wall, taking in great part of those several parishes. It is governed by an alderman, ten common council . men, ten constables, thirteen inquest men, and a ward beadle. Among the eminent persons who have borne the office of aldermen during the last century, were Sir Gerard Conyers, Sir Thomas Rawlinson, Benjamin Hopkins, esquire, and Richard Clark, esquire; the latter gentlemen both chamberlains of the city. The present alderman is John Perring, esquire.

CORNHILL WARD, in four precincts, is governed by an alderman, six common council men, four constables, sixteen inquest men, and a ward beadle. Among the most eminent characters who have held the office of aldermen, are Sir John Houblon, and William Pickett, esquire. The present alderman is Charles Flower, esquire.

LANGBOURN WARD, so called, from a brook which antiently ran through Fenchurch Street, is divided into twelve precincts, St. Mary Woolnoth North, St. Mary Woolnoth South, Nicholas Lane, Birchin Lane, Lombard Street, Clement's Lane, Allhallows, Lombard Street, St. Bennet, Gracechurch Street, St. Dionis Backchurch, St. Gabriel, and Allhallows Staining. It is governed by an alderman, ten common council men, twelve constables, sixteen inquest men, and a ward beadle. The following eminent characters have been aldermen, Sir John Fleet, Sir Peter Delmé, Sir Henry Hankey, Sir Joseph Hankey, and John Sawbridge, esquire. The present alderman is Sir John Eamer, knt.

BILLINGSGATE WARD. The gate whence this ward takes its name, is supposed by fabulists to have received its denomination from a suppositious king named Belin. We do not take upon us to be deeply versed in etymology ; but upon looking into Junius's Etymologicum Anglicanum, under the word Bele, he tells us, Scotis est signum igre datum è nave pretoria, among the Scots, the Bele is a 3

signal

signal by fire given from the ship's cabin.May we not, therefore, risk an opinion, that The Beling Gate, was that where ships on their arrival, or during their stay, in the night, exhibited the signal by fire?

This ward contains part of Thames Street, and Little East. cheap, which lie in the same direction, besides the intervening streets; a considerable part of Rood Lane, and Philpot Lane. It is divided into the twelve precincts of St. Mary at Hill, Smart's Key, Billingsgate, Love Lane, the three precincts of St. Botolph, Billingsgate, the two precincts of St. Andrew Hubbard, the precinct of St. George, Botolph Lane, Pudding Lane, and Rood Lane. The government consists of an alderman, ten common council men, eleven constables, fourteen inquest men, and a ward beadle. The eminent characters who have been aldermen, were Sir William Ashhurst, William Beckford, esquire, and Richard Oliver, esquire. The present alderman is Sir William Leighton, knt.

Bridge Ward Within. This ward commences at the end of London Bridge, whence it extends northward, up Gracechurch Street, along Thames Street, to New Key, taking in part of Martin's Lane, St. Michael's or Miles's Lane, and Crooked Lane, with all the streets and alleys within that circuit. It is divided into the fourteen following precincts, the three of London Bridge, three in Thames Street, three in New Fish Street, the Upper and Lower precincts of St. Leonard Eastcheap, the upper precincts of St. Bennet, Gracechurch, and Allhallows, Lombard Street. It is governed by an alderman, fifteen common council men, fourteen constables, fifteen inquest men, and a ward beadle, The late Sir James Sanderson, was the only magistrate of eminence, that presided over this ward. The present alderman is Sir Matthew Bloxam, knt. M. P.

CANDLEWICK STREET WARD took its name from a street called Candle-Wick, inhabited by candlewrights in wax and tallow, which, during the time of Popish superstition, was a very thriving occupation. The principal streets are Eastcheap, part of Canon Street, and part of Martin's Lane.

The

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