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“ To maintain and keep in repair certain public stairs.

“ To grant licences to erect wharfs, stairs, causeways, and other innocent projections.

“ To take up and lay down mooring-chains for the conveniency of shipping:

To appoint a water-bailiff to superintend the fisheries, and to prevent encroachments, obstructions, and other nuisances in the river.

“ To make bye-laws for the regulation and proper birthing of ships, vessels, and craft in the river Thames, and also, rules for harbour-masters. To manage

and direct all matters relative to the canal across the Isle of Dogs, and to collect the rates thereon.

" To appoint one or more harbour-masters to attend to the birthing of ships, and to the well-ordering of the port.

" To hold courts of conservacy, for the punishment of offences.

“ To regulate and control lightermen and watermen in the river, amounting to from six to eight thousand usually employed.

“ To regulate and control tackle-house porters, twentytwo in number.

" To appoint, regulate, and control ticket porters, for the landing and discharging of goods, about one thousand five hundred in all.

6. To appoint in conjunction with the governors of Christ's Hospital, and to regulate and control carroons or privileged carts, four hundred and twenty in number, to convey merchandize to and from the landing places, to the repositories of the merchants; about six hundred in all, including servants.

To appoint sworn meters, for measuring coals in the port of London, and to control and regulate, in a certain degree, this important branch of trade.

To appoint corn meters, and to regulate and control the importation of this important necessary of life.

“ To appoint measurers for salt, and also fruit and vege. tables, water-borne on the Thames.

“ An old law of James I., for the well-garbling of spices in London, (stat, 1. Jac. I. cap. 19.) being by length of time found useless, if not prejudicial, was repealed, by stat. 6 Ann. c. 16. and an equivalent was given to the city of London, for the profits formerly made of the garbler's office, by laying a tax of forty shillings yearly, to be paid to the chamberlain of London by all brokers ; nevertheless, the lord mayor, aldermen, and common council, may still, if they think fitting, appoint a garbler who, at the request of the owner of any species of drugs garbleable, and not otherwise, shall garble the same, at such fees, &c. as the lord mayor, &c. may appoint.

“ The privileges of the package of cloths and certain other outward-bound goods of foreign merchants, denizens or aliens ; of scavage (i, e. shewage or surveying) of certain goods imported by foreign merchants; of baillage, or delivery of goods of such merchants to be exported upon and through the river Thames, and upon any wharf or shore thereof; and also the portage of wool, tin, and other articles, (imported or exported by such merchants,) to and from the Thames, and to and from the warehouses of such merchants : all these are confirmed to the city by charter, of the 15th of September, 16 Charles II. ; and certain rates and duties are appointed by a schedule to the charter, to be paid accordingly.

“ These functions are of great moment, and from their accurate and proper execution, advantages of a very ex: tensive nature are to be derived by the community ; while in the present state of society, and from the magnitude of the commercial interests of the port, infinite mischief and inconvenience must result from a relaxed or inattentive execution of the important duties which the city of London has imposed upon itself.

is To the individuals who compose the respectable body of the corporation of London, the utmost confidence is due, both on account of their integrity and talents; but in their private capacity no responsibility attaches, while in their corporate situation, the obligation to perform a duty is con

sidered

sidered to extend no futher than to make an order, that it shall be carried into effect." Whether therefore, in the execution there is merit or demerit, is not an object of inquiry or cognizance, unless some gross misconduct urges a complaint or accusation. An individual follows up his direetions, and sees that they are carried pointedly into execution. Where an unus or responsibility rests there is security: where it does not, in spite of the best guards that can be devised, and even the best and most patrio tic intentions on the part of many of the individuals, who compose great public bodies, relaxation will be manifest, and inconveniences will consequently be felt by the public.

“ A hope however may be indulged, that from the collected view in which these important functions have been placed, and from the great consequence of an uninterrupted conscientious execution, many worthy members of society, who now are or hereafter may become members of the corporation of London, will feel impresssd with the weight of the trust committed to their charge; and by a zealous and patriotic regard to the public good, counteract those inconveniences and obstructions which this species of superintendance generates in this and every other country, where commerce is concerned *."

New River. Though the water of the Thames is for many purposes highly beneficial to London, its purity is liable to many alterations, a copious supply of unpolluted element is therefore an extremely desirous addition. The Thames water must be forced to ascend by machines, before it can be distributed even to the lower parts of the town, whereas a stream from the country to the northern side of London, may by its own gravity, be made to flow in a natural descent to any quar. ter of the widely extended metropolis; from these conside rations, a spirited individual, in the reign of James I. Sir Hugh Middleton, citizen and goldsmith, a native of Den

* Colquhoun's Treatise on the River Police. VOL. H. No. 30,

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bighshire,

bighshire, proposed the scheme of bringing a source of water out of Hertfordshire, in an artificial cbannel to London. In the year 1608, he commenced the undertaking at his own expence; and after exhausting all his resources, and being refused aid from the corporation, was enabled, by the assistance of king James I. to bring it to completion. On September 29, 1613, the water was let into the New River Head at Islington; but the projector was ruined by his success, and it was long before the scheme could be rendered useful to the public, and beneficial to the proprietors.

The source of the New River is between Ware and Hertford, about twenty-one miles from London : a collection of many springs form a large open bason of considerable depth, with the following inscription : on the north side, “ OPENED IN 1608 ;” on the south, “ CONVEYED 40 MILES;" on the east, CHADWELL SPRING;" on the west, REPAIRED 1728."

To preserve a level, the New River takes a winding course ; it is parallel to the Lea, for a considerable length, at the distance of a mile or two, on higher ground, from which river a very great augmentation of water has been obtained. Having passed Ware, Amwell, Hoddesdon, Broxbourn, and Cheshunt, it enters Middlesex, near Waltham Cross; and in a circuitous stream towards Enfield Chase, returns to Enfield *,

The river then passes by two devious bends in the neighbourhood of Edmonton, and proceeds to Hornsey; still winding among the gentle elevations of this pleasant tract, it embellishes the landscape at Stoke Newington, and thence onward beneath Highbury, to the east side of Islington, where it dips under the road, in a subterraneous channel of two hundred yards. Near this place is a brick building, whence

* At Bush Hill, south of Enfield, the river was formerly carried across a valley in an open woody trough, six hundred and sixty seet in length, supported by arches; but the modern improvement in canal making, has suggested a better mode of effecting the same purpose by means of a raised mound of earth, over which the river passes in a new channel, that was completed in the year 1785. This was the case also between Hornsey and Highbury, in another wooden aqueduct of one hundred and seventy-eight yards;, which has since been changed for a raised bank of clay.

several

several mains issue for the supply of the eastern side of London. A little above this tunnel, a very antient spring, eight feet in depth, and arched over, flows into the river. The New River rises again in Colebrook Row, after having passed the road, and coasts the southern side of Islington, till its termination at the New River Head, Sadler's Wells.

Canal Navigation. London being the focal point of emanation for operations of magnitude in the whole world of improvement, commerce, and finance, it should be the ambition of Great Britain, to secure all the profits arising from such sources to the mer. chants and bankers of that capital.

The reason for this preference is plain; England excels in arts and manufactures, which have been making, and con. tinue to make rapid progress towards perfection : nature also, hath given her many local advantages, so as to render her competent to the distribution of her commodities, and to the completion of the most comprehensive designs.

Among these designs is to be ranked the useful project of inland navigation; and though its progress does not appear to have arrived at an investigation of its relative connection with the infant science of finance; much has been effected since its birth in England, and a comparative view of its fu. ture prospects must afford the most pleasing sensations.

It appears that few objects of internal policy have so much called forth the powers and resources of a country as Canals; and, on account of the cheapness of conveyance, and the advantages attendant on an easy and secure com munication of the different parts of a country with another, they are allowed to be, the greatest of all improvements.

This being premised, we proceed to state how far the merchants of the city of London have been induced to adopt improvements so beneficial to themselves and to the country.

Had the plan of Sir Christopher Wren, been properly at, tended to, and a grand wharf formed along the city shore from London Bridge to the Temple, no other improvement

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