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Samuel Guise Thomson, son of Alex. Thomson, late Earl of Sutherland, he had frequent occasion Esq. late Captain in the 46th and 100th regiments. to be in the moors with those noblemen and gen.
Oct. At Rangoon, of cholera, Thomas Mure, tlemen'who usually resorted to the north, to enEsq. of his Majesty's ship Boadicea.
joy the sporting seasons. With Baron Norton, 9. At Agra, John Burnett, Assistant-Surgeon, Sir John Gordon of Embo, and the late General second son of the late K. W. Burnett, Esq. of Wemyss, he was a particular favourite. Many of Monboddo.
his anecdotes and repartees on this and other oc 10. At Meerut, Captain James Innes Gordon, casions are still remembered to be laughed at 35th regiment Bengal native infantry, third son right heartily;
for, though he was a plain unasof the late James Gordon, Esq. of Rosieburn. suming sort of man, his mode of conversation
16. In the cantonment of his regiment, in the was tinctured with a venial kind of bluntness and island of Calabah, near Bombay, East Indies, sarcastic humour peculiar to himself, that renAlexander John Ralph, Esq. M.D., Assistant-Sur- dered the aptness of his remarks irresistible, and geon, 2d (Queen's Royal) regiment of foot, aged no person, how dignified soever in rank, was 28 years.
exempted from his satire. Sporting was his ru22. In Virginia, aged 114, Alexander Berkeley, ling passion, but it did not deprive him of the a native of Scotland. On the 9th January his enjoyment of fishing; he was a most expert ang. wife died, aged 111.
ler-a true sportsman in all respects; and like his Nov. On his voyage to China, George, second famous prototype, old Isaac Wallon of angling son of the late John Urquhart, Esq. of Craigston. memory, whom he very much resembled, it was
- While serving at Rangoon, Capt. Alexander, almost impossible to be long in his company with R. N. C.B.
out being smit with his love of the art. of 3. At the Preside: @y, Captain Gilbert Melville, hooks, rods, and flys, he would talk with enthuIst regiment Bombay light cavalry. This gentle- siasm; but of the more modern improvement of man had arrived only three weeks from his na- gut and seaweed casting lines, &c. he spoke with tive country, to return to that service in which contempt, as being the “ only resource to which he had passed sixteen years of his life, much to novices would resort in sustaining a strong pull his honour as a public servant, whilst his associ. with bad management." He would consider it ates looked to ä renewal of that friendship for a sort of insult to recommend these things to his which he was so much distinguished. By his notice. By the interest of Lord Ankerville, who brother officers he will be long
and most deser. always maintained a high regard for him, he was vedly regretted, as well as by all who knew him. appointed on or about the year 1780, Tidewaiter The high respect paid to his remains will be some of the Customs at Inverness, from whence he was consolation to his friends, if only as a proof with soon after transferred to the port of Brora, but what feelings all ranks regarded him.
wes supperannuated in 1812, with an allowance 1826. Jan. 13. On board the ship Pomona, while of £.23-a-year, which he enjoyed till his death. on a voyage to Jamaica, Lieutenant-Colonel Mark He was a man of very temporate habits-was Howard Drummond, of Kelty, late of the 72d or never known to have been, even once, intoxica. Albany Highlanders.
ted. He would most willingly take one glass of - At Concordia, in the island of Tobago, Dr spirits, but no persuasion would induce him to Andrew Kenney, formerly physician in Edinburgh.
beyond that, as he always considered one dram 13. At Jordanhill estate, island of Trinidad, ful. He never complained of ill health, till with. Francis Brown, Esq. aged 30.
in about the last twelve months of his life.--His 18. At Kingston, Jamaica, Mrs Waddell, relict dress was invar iably the same; full round-breastof the late James Waddell, Esq. of St. Andrew's, ed coat, a vest of old-fashioned cut, and a small in that island.
fat blue bonnet. A lady once made a present to Feb. At New Orleans, Mr Robert Bogle, mer. him of a fine hat, but
he considered it such an chant there, formerly of Glasgow.
invasion on the ancient rights of the bonnet, that 18. At Mamee Gally, Jamaica, Mrs Shand, wife it was laid aside and never used. He was inarof William Shand of Arnhall, Esq.
ried, and has left his widow, a very aged woman, March 1. At St. Thomas, Mr Archd. Galbraith. still living at Brora, in a house which they have
14. At Larkhill, Worcestershire, where he had long occupied, rent free, through the kindness of gone for the education of his family, after a few Lady Stafford; but the widow is otherwise undays illness, John Halliday Martin, Esq., Major of provided for, as the superannuation allowance has the Kirkcudbright Gentlemen and eomanry ceased at her husband's death. Cavalry, much and justly regretted by every 19. Mrs Guy, cldest daughter of the late Sir member of the corps.
Francis Elliott, of Stobbs, in the county of Rox15. At Belham, Mr Walter Oswald, late of Hall- burgh, Bart. hill, parish of Colessie, Fifeshire.
20. At Whitethorn, Milnathort, Mr James More 16. At Magnera, Mrs Ann Mulholland, at the rison. advanced age of 122 years.
21. At his house, St. Vincent-Street, Glasgow, - At Halle, Professor Vater, the celebrated James Murdoch, jun. Esq. merchant. Orientalist.
- At Aberdeen, in the 56th year of his age, 17. At Derby, Lieut. George Castle, R. N., only George Kerr, Esq. surgeon, after a protracted and surviving son of the late Samuel Castle, Esq. soli- severe illness, which he bore with his characteris. citor, Durham.
tic fortitude. Dr Kerr's abilities and attainments 18. At Haddington, Georgina, youngest daugh. were of a very high order. Without fortune or ter of Mr James Miller, printer.
patronage at the outset of his medical career, be - At Brora, in the 11ith year of his age, Alex- raised himself to a distinguished rank in his pro ander Urquhart, late tidesman of the customs. fession; he had an extensive acquaintance with This honest, but eccentric veteran, was born at general history, was skilled in most of the scienTain in the year 1715. Possessing the full use ces, and had a very correct taste for the fine arts. of his reasoning faculties, and his memory re. Early in life he attracted the notice of the late maining unimpaired to the last, he was a living Lord Monboddo, from whom he imbibed an er and faithful record of several interesting parti- thusiastic admiration of ancient literature, acomculars regarding the memorable rebellion in 1745, panied, no doubt, with some of his prejudices -many of the leading characters of which, par- against modern innovations. How deeply he was ticularly the celebrated Colonel John Roy Stuart, imbued with a taste for the abstract philosophy of he had frequently seen. Honest Sandy bore no antiquity, is sufficiently evinced by his commushare in the conflicting troubles of that eventful nications in the Classical Journal, under the title period; but he had his bloody fields notwithstand- of " Vindiciæ Antiquæ," and he has left behind ing-and his gun was seldom or never out of his him, we understand, some MSS. which contain hand. It was not, however, in the sanguinary the most unquestionable proofs of his acquaintwarfare where man is opposed to his fellow-man, ance with the works of the Stagirite and of his that Sandy wielded his arms; he never at any pe- Alexandrian commentators. To study their sy riod of his life was a soldier; but he was a sports- tem, and to recommend it to others, were the man, acknowledged by those who were qualified occupations in which he took the most delight; to judge, of the first rate abilities--as cool. deli- nor could any objections alter his decided opinion, berate, and deadly a shot as ever took the heather. that all our recent departures from the spirit of Employed in the capacity of gamekeeper to the this philosophy have been deviations into error.
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MR M'CULLOCH's ESSAY ON THE RATE OF WAGES, AND THE CONDITION
OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. Ix publishing this Essay at the pre- already; but the new lights which sent moment, Mr M‘Culloch ‘has have been thrown upon it by the inrendered a most essential service to vestigations of Mr Malthus and Mr the cause of humanity. At a period Ricardo, and more especially by the when want of employment has occa- copious evidence which has been laid sioned the most appalling distress on the table of the two Houses of among many thousands of the la- Parliament relative to the state of bouring classes in our country, and Ireland, have rendered our knowwhen the attention, not only of these ledge more precise, and enabled us classes themselves, but of the wealthy to lay down as demonstrated truths and influential inhabitants, is so in various doctrines, which had been tensely drawn to the investigation of but partially broached, and of the the causes and probable remedies of soundness of which their authors these wide-spread calamities, it is themselves entertained many doubts. doubly acceptable to receive, from When Science thus lays hold of facts, the pen of a writer of so much ac- which have been established by the knowledged talent, and whose at- best evidence, and produces from tention has been so exclusively de- them axioms for the guidance of voted for many years to inquiries of human conduct, we conceive that this nature, the results of his read- she is occupied in the most dignified ing, his experience, and observations manner; but when these axioms are on the state of the labouring classes. inculcated with the earnestness, the He has executed the task which he plainness, and convincing power has undertaken with his usual abili- which are displayed in this Tract, ty, and in a style, too, which ren- and withal put into the hands of alders the Essay level to the capacities most every man in the country, she of the persons for whom it appears is then occupied in the most useful chiefly to be intended. The main manner; and we cannot help envytruth, which he seems most anxious ing the feelings of the man who, to inculcate on the labouring classes, by the powers of an enlarged and is, that they are the framers of their penetrating intellect, can produce the own fortunes,--that it rests almost beneficial effects upon the minds of entirely with themselves, whether his countrymen, which we feel mothey shall be all their lives subject rally certain will be produced by to the extremes of penury, and con- the Essay before us. The princisequent degradation in the scale of ples of that benignant science, which human society, or shall raise them- is, unfortunately, but of very modern selves to comfort, and at least a mo- growth, which teaches us to discover derate degree of independence. The the primary causes of national gransubject has been often treated of deur and decay, are here unfolded in their bearings on the fortunes of fund or capital appropriated to the the lower orders of society in a payment of wages, compared with style to which these orders have she number of labourers.” What is scarcely ever been accustomed; and called the capital of a country conwe hold it to be the chief merit of sists of all that portion of the prothis little work, that it may be read duce of industry existing in it, which with equal pleasure and advantage, can be made directly available, either by him whose mind has received the to the support of human existence, last touches of a finished education, or to the facilitating of production. and by the man whose knowledge That portion of capital, however, to reaches little farther than to the which alone it becomes necessary to mere ability to read his school col. advert in the inquiries before us, lection. Such a work is calculated consists of the food, clothes, and to be equally beneficial to all,--to the other articles required for the use higher orders, who possess the greatest and consumption of labourers, as portion of the capital of the country, this portion constitutes the fund out in settling their notions as to the true of which their wages must be wholly relation in which they stand to the paid. If the amount of these artilower classes of society, and to these cles is increased without a correlower classes themselves, who sub- sponding increase taking place in sist chiefly on the wages derived the population, a larger share of from the capital in the possession of them will fall to each individual, or the higher orders, in exhibiting a the rate of wages will be increased ; faithfui display of those circumstan- and if, on the other hand, population ces on which their well-being main- increased faster than capital, a less ly rests.
sbare will be apportioned to each Mr M‘Culloch defines wages to individual, or, in other words, the ~ constitute the reward or compen- rate of wages will be reduced. sation paid to labourers in return for Mr M‘Culloch illustrates this their services by their employers." fundamental principle in a clear and The labour or service of man may, convincing manner. “Let us suplike every thing else which is bought pose," says he, “ that the capital of and sold, vary in its price. The la- a country, appropriated to the pay. bourer who at one time receives a ment of wages, would, if reduced to certain quantity, or the value of a the standard of wheat, form a mass certain quantity, of the necessaries of 10,000,000 of quarters. If the and conveniences of human life, in number of labourers in that counexchange for a certain quantity of try were two millions, it is evident his labour, may, at another time, that the wages of each, reducing receive a different quantity, or the them all to the same common stanvalue of a different quantity of these dard, would be five quarters; and it necessaries and conveniennes, in ex- is farther evident, that this rate of change for the same quantity of la. wages could not be increased otherbour. And as labourers always wise than by increasing the quantity form the great majority of the popu- of capital in a greater proportion lation of every civilized society, and than the number of labourers, or as their comfort and welfare must by diminishing the number of labe, in a great degree, dependent on bourers in a greater proportion than the rate of wages they receive, it is the quantity of capital. So long as obviously of the greatest importance, capital and population continue to in a national, as well as individual march abreast, or to increase or dipoint of view, to trace and exhibit minish in the same proportion, so the circumstances which determine long will the rate of wages, and the rate of wages, or the reward paid consequently the condition of the to the labourer for his services. labourers, continue unaffected'; and
In proceeding to investigate these it is only when the proportion of cacircumstances, Mr M'Culloch lays pital to population varies, —when it it down as a fundamental principle, is either increased or diminished, that “ the rate of wages in any given that the rate of wages sustains a corcountry, at any particular period, responding advance or diminution. depends on the magnitude of the 'The well-being and comfort of the