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piety of all lands, all times, and all suggests the image of Nebuchadfaiths be reduced to the dull uni. nezzar. This, as described in Daniel, formity of stupid homage to a sup- gives the exact relation of height posed ball of fire in the heavens, or and breadth marking all obelisks. mass of incandescent vapour.

"If Nebuchadnezzar's image were To say

the least of it, the upholders an obelisk, the reasonableness of of the theory are not to be praised the opposition made by Shadrach, for their exalted idea of human Meshach, and Abednego becomes intelligence, and are not to be the more apparent.

An obelisk envied for their coarse and repul- was not only representative of the sive realism, nor for the view they divinity of the sovereign himself, must, in consistency, maintain of but bore idolatrous emblems. To the spirituality of human affec- bow to it, was an acknowledgment tion.”

of the false gods, and a recognition As we have now got safe and of Nebuchadnezzar as a god. It was upright, in the midst of to sustain Babylonian idolatry, and mightiest city, the obelisk which Babylonian king-worship. Captain evidences alike the skill of the Selby found near Babylon, on the English engineer and the unknown Waste of Dura,' the remains of power of the Egyptian mechanicians a pyramidal column, which some -it will be interesting to quote Mr. identify with the image once covered Bonwick's gathered speculations with gold. As Mr. Bonomi points upon the origin and meaning of out, the proportions, sixty cubits the obelisk itself. The present long by six broad, are not those of a writer sees the taper stone every man; but they are those of an day from his windows, and a obelisk. fragment of its pink granite,chipped “ These several purposes were off when the base was squared, is served by obelisks in Egypt. They upon his table, but, nevertheless, were erected by kings. They are the symbol has not given up its placed before the temples they secret to him. Mr. Bonwick writes : erected, or honoured. They bore

“The story of Cleopatra's Needle the sculptured signs of idolatry. has popularized the obelisk. But They told of the kings' victories, some may wonder what it has to to rehearsed their divine qualities, with religion. The fact is, that and made monumental prayers to there is little that has not been these early deities. All who bowed pressed into the service of the gods to them supplicated the gods, and by the venerating Egyptians, those supplicated the king. The reader lovers of ritualism and symbolism. is referred to the chapter on King

“ The presence of the obelisk in worship for further explanation. pairs at the entrance of temples “ The obelisk, by having a paralmight mark the sacred character. lelogram base, and coming to a This is not confined to Egypt, since point, may seem to be related to the object is found in India, Assyria, the pyramid. Father Kircher, the and Persia, while one discovered at ingenious but mystical Jesuit, deXanthus has recently furnished a rived both from a common word, discourse to Dr. Birch. The Rev. meaning columns of fire. “It has A. H. Sayce speaks of one at been the custom,' says he, of Nimroud, of black basalt, erected nations to raise to their divinities to record the victories of Shal. altars of stone and marble. Such maneser; saying, "Cities to a were the altars of the Egyptians, countless number I captured.' As which we know under the name of the image set up by this king, it pyramids and obelisks, and which


were raised in honour of their obelisk,' observes he, ‘has been gods.' Abenesi, the Arab, centuries venerated

divine symbol. before had the same thoughts: ob- Thus, at Karnac, the foundations serving, The priests of Egypt were instituted in honour of four erected these elongated stones in obelisks, and they are offered bread, the form of needles, and of a libations, &c. Upon certain scarabei round figure; they engraved there one sees, in fact, the following in mysterious characters the secrets representation,-a man adoring an of their philosophy, and called them obelisk; that circumstance has not the altars of their gods.'

been sufficiently remarked. The “Their tapering form led some comparative study of these little to esteem the obelisk a symbol of monuments proves that the obelisk fire; and, therefore, a dedication to has been venerated because it was the sun. Jahn, the commentator, the symbol of Ammon generator. writes : We learn from 2 Chron. If one compares

the series of xxxiv. 4-7, that these obelisks were scarabei bearing this scene, and erected on the altars of Baal; they which have been with so much care were, of course, dedicated to the reunited in the glass case R, of sun.' The common references they the Salle des Dieux at the Museum have engraved upon them to Ra of the Louvre, one would see that and Toum, the sun gods, help to the obelisk passes insensibly from confirm the argument.

Pierret the ordinary forms to that of the says: The erection of obelisks phallus; it is then, truly as the was in relation to the worship symbol of the ithyphallic god that of the sun.' Rougé notes some the obelisk received homage.' pictured sacred monuments on an “Another notion was that the inscription of the fifth dynasty; obelisk, as the pyramid, symbolized

of which,' says he, the figure the law of gravitation. The author proves that the pyramid and the of the Solar System of the obelisk had primitively a relation Ancients Discovered,' is an advoto the worship of the sun.'

cate for this opinion; saying, “The “ Other writers held them to be Sabeans worshipped these symbols of phallic origin. An article in the of the laws of gravitation, which Builder of 1877 has this sentence: govern the glorious orb of day, • Many well-meaning and spotless the planetary and astral systems. ' people who will, probably, inquire Made of granite, they exhibited the of better informed friends about durability of those laws. the origin and early use of the “ Some of the Fathers, obelisk, will be sadly shocked when, Tertullian, charged the Egyptians from some outspoken reply, they with worshipping them as emblems learn the truth.' It was said that of the sun.

· As a sunbeam,' says the lingam was to the Hindoo, what Dr. Yates, 'was an emanation from the obelisk was to the Egyptian; that resplendent orb which was reit typified generative force. But, garded as the representative of the if so, indirectly, its very compli- deity, so a pointed obelisk would cated and geometrical figure for- allegorically denote such an emabids the supposition of a direct nation.' None being on the western meaning of that nature. There or pyramid side of the Nile, but are, at any rate, other interpreta- only on the sunrising side, would tions.

seem to aid the solar theory. The “Rougé, indicating the worship gilt top, spoken of as having once of the obelisk, connects the phallic been seen, would thus symbolize idea with that of Osiris. The the yellow ray. Obelisks are seen,

as once

like rays, placed round heads, to broad, was dedicated, says Glidexpress deification.

don, to the mother of the king, “Bonomi, who makes mention of * beloved, exalted to the upper forty-two obelisks, when describing regions of eternity.' Though now the pretty tekhen, mem, or obelisk inheriting the eternal region,' we of Amenoph III. of the eighteenth are told she was a chief bard of dynasty, now in Alnwick Castle, is the sun.' not ignorant of the astronomical Rosellini thus transcribes one learning it represented, and thus side of that at Heliopolis: The traces astronomy to its source: Horus (living of men) Pharaoh, · The instruction in that science sun offered to the world, Lord of which was given to Adam by the Upper and Lower Egypt, the living Creator Himself, and of which of men, Osirtasen, beloved of the these most ancient and inte- spirits in the region of Pone, ever resting monuments of human living, life of mankind, resplendent genius exhibit, perhaps, but a Horus, beneficent deity, sun offered feeble manifestation.' So the to the world. This is a singular Egyptians thought when they as- jumble of man exaltation and god cribed their knowledge of the stars honouring.

Osirtasen was to the god Thoth.

judged a contemporary of Joseph, “The religious teaching of the but is now recognised as above a obelisk about the gods of the land thousand years before. is given in the hieroglyphics. “ The Flaminian, at Rome, Citations, under the head of King further described in the author's Worship,' confirm one branch of Pyramid Facts and Fancies, idolatry. Thothmes III. erected represents the king kneeling to his obelisk to Ra and Toum, deities Toum, the setting sun, offering of the rising and setting sun. Dr.

pyramidal cakes.

He asks Give Erasmus Wilson, the patriotic and me a life strong and pure.' The generous remover of the English god replies, “We, Atom, Lord of obelisk, or Cleopatra's Needle, Heliopolis, the great god, give thee from Alexandria, has an account of the throne,' etc. the one central column bearing that As to the obelisk being a monarch's record. The engraved religious symbol, a good explanasquare,' he says,' on the pyramidion tion is given by Mr. Wilson in his represents the Pharoah, Thothmes *Solar System.' He accepts it as III., kneeling before the deity of the emblem of eternity. the sun, offering gifts, and suppli

perceives a number of cating the blessing of a strong and sacred objects, in Egypt and else

The hieroglyphics ex- where, having the figure of conic pressive of his prayer are displayed sections; especially, the parabola by the figures of the beseeching and hyperbola. There are eight potentate and the enthroned deity. gods seated on hyperbolic steps, On the top of the shaft is the hawk decreasing in the order of 1, 1, of Horus.

$, &c. Some Round Towers of “ The fine one at Paris was dedi. Ireland expand towards the base cated by Ramses II. to the god as section of a hyperbolic solid. Horus; calling him

him the sun Buddha, as he sits cross-legged, is Horus, with the strength of the a hyperbolic solid. The obelisk Bull.' This is an allusion to his presents the same curve, having creative, demiurgic powers.

the property of the sides ever “ The one still standing at Helio approaching the parallel. This polis, 60 feet high, and 6 feet ever marching to a non-realizing

" He

pure life.


end is a fitting emblem of Eternity. tends the firmament in the form of His explanation is as follows: the goddess Neith, and on either

“ • The opposite sides of the side of the mortal who is changing single obelisk (taking the ordinary his state, or shedding his earthly

as double) will continually skin, are the conventionalised repreapproach to parallelism, but which sentations of attendant deities. they will never attain; for how This drawing has already appeared great soever the sectional axes, or in Mr. Samuel Sharpe's "Egyptian the sum of two ordinates, may be, Mythology,” but there it was very still this difference will equal small, while in Mr. Bonwick's page unity; so the sides of the sectional it is not only of considerable size, obeliscal area can never become but coloured after the original. parallel to the axis.'

“But he sees the symbol in the Two Centuries of Bhattrihari. whip of Osiris; saying, The Translated into English verse by planets are urged onwards in their C. H. Tawney, M.A. Calcutta : orbits by laws indicated by the Thacker, Spink, and Co., Pubobelisk.' Again : When the axis lishers to the University. bisects the obeliscal area,

and The title of Professor Tawney's another straight line drawn from valuable little volume requires the apex represents the axis of the some explanation for the English pylonic area, we have what is com- reader who is not an Anglo-Indian. monly called the flail or whip of Bhartrihari is not a state of rule Osiris.' The cap of Osiris is the or governance, but a man, a king, hyperbolic and parabolic conoid, and a poet ; and 'two centuries' of representing eternity. He calls the him signifies two collections, of pschent of Osiris, 'the hyperbolic one hundred stanzas each, of his reciprocal curve. The beards of compositions. the Assyrian monuments, so evi- The legend of Bhartrihari is one dently conventional, are of the with which we are more or less obeliscal form, typifying the same

familiar under other names. He dogma. The wings of Mercury, discovers the faithlessness of his the

prongs of the trident, the wife, becomes disgusted with the shape of the serpent and crocodile, world, abdicates the throne, and and the horn of Isis tell them the retires to the forest. Respecting same tale.

The horn of Jupiter the stanzas which bear his name Ammon, giving the name to the there is the same question as conshell fish Ammonite, is nothing cerning the authorship of the but a spiral obelisk.'

Homeric poems, some considering • The obelisk, therefore, as the them a collection of current gnomic Finger of God,' points upwards verses, others the harmonious off. to heaven as the region of Infinity spring of a single mind, and that and Eternity."

of the self-exiled prince. The The frontispiece of Mr. Bun- date of the poems is placed within wick's volume deserves special a hundred

of the end of the attention. It is the representation, third century of our era. copied from a painting on a Professor Tawney gives us an mummy case, of the Egyptian idea interesting insight into the typical of the spiritual resurrection. We mode of native government in the see falling to the earth a red figure East, which might prove useful of a man, while the same man is to those who are puzzled by Turks, visible upstanding in the more baffled by Affghans, or studying etherial colour, blue. Above ex- Hindoos :


“ Though the word “Niti' is From the poor no gifts accepting, nor from usually translated policy, most of men of evil fame; the stanzas arranged under this

Lofty faith and proud submission--who

on Fortune's giddy ledge head are rather of an ethical and

Firm can tread this path of duty, narrow social character. They inculcate as the sabre's edge ? maxims of worldly prudence, and

With mind and senses unimpaired, seem designed to teach knowledge

In act and voice the same, of men as individuals, rather than He moves among us like a ghost, as members of political communi.

Wealth's warmth has left his frame. ties. The truth seems to me that,

The man of means is eloquent,

Brave, handsome, noble, wise ; under the personal governments All qualities with gold are sent, of the East, Achitophel and And vanish when it flies. Chânakya have always been the

The kindness of the bad at first types of a successful politician. Is great, and then doth wane; The art of the model Indian The good man's love, at th'outset small, statesman, if we may trust the Slowly doth bulk attain ; testimony of the Niti S'astras,

Such difference between these two consists in the power of managing

In nature doth abide,

As 'twixt the shadow of the morn the king's wives and astrologers,

And that of eventide. of conciliating the feudal chiefs,

A snake lay helpless in the box pining for and above all of humouring the

lack of meat, caprices of the sovereign himself, A rat by night gnaws through the side, and using them for the advantage and yields his foe a treat, of his subjects and the prosperity

With strength recruited then the snake by of his rule.”

that same hole escapes--

Behold how vain our efforts are ! Fate all The tone of Bhartrihari's

our fortune shapes. thought is referred to as being in

This earth is but a lump of clay girt with very close sympathy with the

a briny ditch, modern pessimism as manifested

Where hosts of squabbling kings contend, by Schopenhauer, and as not unlike all striving to be rich, the mental habit of Diogenes the One cannot blame these grovelling slaves cynic.

for clinging to their store,

But out on those who stoop to beg at any There are occasional parallelisms

royal door! to be found between these stanzas and Western thought, no doubt

We presume that Messrs. Trübevidencing the fact that even ner and Co. are the English agents before the days of steam and for this little volume, though it printing the thoughts of one man bears only the name of the Calcutta somehow managed to reach another. publisher. Professor Tawney's versions show ease and epigrammatic power; and General Sketch of the History of the stanzas themselves are worth Pantheism. In two volumes. Vol. translation. We quote a few I., from the earliest times to the specimens :

age of Spinoza. London: S. When but a little I had learned, in my

Deacon and Co. 1878. own partial eyes

The anonymous author of the I seemed a perfect Solon and immeasur. work before us very modestly says: ably wise ;

“ The following brief sketch does But when a little higher I had climbed in

not aspire to the dignity of a hiswisdom's school, The fever-fit was over and I knew myself

tory ; it is merely an outline or a fool.

epitome of a history. In its details Not to swerve from truth or mercy, not for

there is but little novelty, being life to stoop to shame ;

chiefly a compilation, taken more

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