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Force. His daughter perceived him from the pri- cise, afford pleasure ; or the theatre would be at son, rushed out among pikes and swords, clasped once deserted. her father in her arms, clung to him with such te- The author of “A Year in Spain," has given an imnacity, besought his murderers with such a flood of pressive description of the difference between retears and in such piteous accents, that even their ality and fiction in his narrative of the Spanish fury was suspended. Then, as if to subject that bull-fights—an amusement similar in character to sensibility which overpowered them to a fresh trial, those of the ancient Roman amphitheatre : • Drink,' said they to this dutiful daughter, 'drink “ The bull-fight," he observes,“ is the great nathe blood of the aristocrats;' and they handed to tional amusement of Spain—an amusement which, her a pot full of blood. She drank—and her father though it may be stigmatized as cruel and brutalizwas saved! The daughter of Cazotte also in- ing, is nevertheless unequalled in deep and ansjous stinctively clasped her father in her arms. She interest

. As for the drama, it owes every thing to too implored for mercy, and proved as irresistible deception, and it is only when we are most ebeated as the generous Sombrevil; but more fortunate that we are most amused. I have seen Talma than the latter, she saved her father's life without stand alone upon the stage and describe the exechhaving any horrible condition imposed upon her tion of Mary Stewart, as it advances in the hall affection. Tears trickled from the eyes of the adjoining. He shows you each motion of the riemurderers—and yet, in a moment after, away they tim. She ascends the scaffold under the pious went in quest of fresh victims."(37)

reviling of the English dean; prepares her neck Notwithstanding tears trickled from the eyes of 10 meet the instrument of the executioner ; tales the murderers, there could have been no real sym- an affectionate leave of her followers. Presently pathy for the sufferers, or the horrible condition the hollow sounding stroke of the axe calls forth a would not have been imposed upon the daughter of piercing shriek and deprives him of sensibility; the Sombrevil, nor would the assassins have gone audience is convulsed with horror. I have seen immediately in quest of fresh victims.

the same wonderful man and Mademoiselle Mars, All the passions excite in a manner peculiar to in Kotzebue's drama of the Stranger. The hearithemselves. The representation of love between broken husband and the unhappy wife have come the sexes does not produce the impression that pa- together to take a last farewell; forgiveness has rental love does, nor heroism that of patriotism, been asked and granted, and the hard, the fatal word. nor the latter that of devoted fidelity to a friend, is already uttered. They turn to depart, and are nor any of them the effect that arises from the met by their children. They pause, embrace these sight of death, and its attendant emotions. Yet dear pledges of a still lingering love, turn again to they all strongly act on the human bosom. We look, then fall upon the necks of each other. I are affected by whatever presents to us a copy of saw this and wept until I was ashamed of myself

: the emotions implanted by nature in ourselves. but this dramatic interest, though more grateful to “If it is natural, they must feel it,”(38) said one who our best sensibilities, more worthy of a feeling was skilled in producing the manifestations of feel- heart, is far less powerful than that which is ering arising from the drama; and he expressed what cited by the real dangers of the arena."(39) experience taught him was true.

The same observations apply to the case of At the theatre we behold a deep tragedy repre- Mary Stewart and Kotzebue's drama, that arise sented. Othello, for instance. We mark the weav- from the consideration of Othello. The scenes are ing of the net of villainy prepared for the ruin of made deeply tragic, that they may produce feelings that gallant soldier. We see the fate of Desde- in the audience of an attractive character, however mona approaching. We sympathize too with Cas- mournful in appearance.

The audience neither sio, who “ hath a daily beauty in his life” that desires the execution of Mary Stewart to be stop makes lago ugly. But as the catastrophe advan-ped, or the heartbroken husband and wife to be ces, should a spectator leap upon the stage and restored to happiness: if they were to go off the put an end to the scene by knocking lago down, stage rejoicing, the performance would be ridieuwould the audience thank him? No certainly, for lous and disgusting. Why is this so ? Because we there is a secret consciousness throughout, that it feel the scene to be fictitious! If it were real, is a fiction, however well performed. The feeling another chord of the human heart would be touched

, of love which impels to relief, and could not bear and the aspect of things would be totally changed. it if it were real, is untouched. No uncorrupted But, in the absence of a conviction of reality

, the audience would allow such a tragedy in real life to deepest tragedies of the drama excite less than a pass before them. Iago would be destroyed. But contest between a bull and a worthless Picador

, in the drama, the delusion is just sufficient to excite inferior in dignity to the beast with which he fights the various emotions the scene calls forth, and no

Let us apply the principles we have endeavored And these emotions, in their various exer- to make apparent, to the tragedies of real life. (37) History of the French Revolution--vol 1,

Suppose the feeling of love towards human natare (38)Tyrone Power: Impressions of America-vol. 1, p. 48. (39) A Year in Spain-rol. 1, p 201 and 2.




greatly weakened or extinguished, acting no more | founded. When the upper classes are vicious, the than it does in the drama, then the most direful lower orders of large cities acquire not only their afflictions in real life would produce the same vices, but many in addition peculiar to themselves; kind of impressions that the fictions of the stage and which “knot and gender” in the lanes and do. They would afford pleasure ; and the more alleys and dark cellars of the haunts of vice. worthy the sufferer, the more the pleasure.


Paris has often been called modern Rome; and may then understand how the bystanders felt at to those who have examined the subject, even suthe trial of Madame Roland, when they exclaimed-perficially, the comparison must have appeared " What sense, what wit, what courage! What a striking. Both contained a great multitude occumagnificent spectacle it will be to behold such a pied in the pursuit of pleasure, or ministering to woman upon the scaffold !” Her brilliant qualities the wants of those who did, -with no more of only enhancing in their estimation the piquancy of commerce or any other useful industry than their the scene.

own immediate wants required. In both, bread and The devoted filial affections of the noble daugh- shows were the demand of the people; and, both, ters of Sombrevil and Cazotte, presented the mur- constituted the anxious care of the Government. derers at the prison with an example of the pa- Voltaire, in describing Paris, under the name of thetic, which agreeably diversified the scene, but no Babylon, says of a large class of the inhabitants, more. The two ruffians who escorted the released they were governed like children, who were prisoner home, wished to see his meeting with his loaded with playthings to prevent them from cryfamily for the same reason.

ing. The pleasures of society, gajety and frivolity, To this class of facts belong those related of were their important and only business.”(41) Robespierre, that “ he was fond of attracting the The sensual and selfish pleasures, as has been notice of the women, and had thein imprisoned for already remarked, in relation to Rome, present the sole pleasure of restoring them their liberty. themselves as the first objects of attraction to such He made them shed tears, in order to wipe them a people ; and the sanctity of married life is at from their cheeks.”(40)

once invaded. The looseness of that tie among A wretch who could thus torture for pleasure, the Parisians, is known to all persons having any was dead to compassion. And it is not surprising knowledge of France; and when the liberty of his career was most bloody.

divorce, in the progress of the revolution, became Fortunately for humanity, there are noble exam- unrestrained, the number of separations between ples of virtue everywhere,-even in sociсties the married persons in that manner, made the fragility most corrupt. Many such were exhibited in Paris of matrimonial love more manifest. “ The divorat this period. When the domiciliary visits were ces in Paris in the first three months of 1792, were in

progress for the arrest of the prisoners of Sep-562, while the marriages were only 1,785,--a protember, M. Peltier, in describing the scene, says : portion probably unexampled among mankind! The " Men tremble, but they do not shed tears; the consequence soon became apparent. Before the heart shivers, the eye is dull, and the breast con- era of the Consulate, one-half of the whole births tracted. Women on this occasion display prodi- in Paris were illegitimate."(42) Where the ties gies of tenderness and intrepidity. It was by them between the parents are so slight, the children are that most of the men were concealed.”

at once the victims. Nor was the male sex destitute of instances of This subject forcibly presented itself to the exalted merit-among whom Malesherbes, the in- mind of Dr. Franklin when in Paris, who, in a lettrepid defender of Louis XVI, will be entitled to ter to George Wheatley, dated Passy, May 23, the reverence of the latest posterity.

1785, observes: “I return your note of children Although in societies ordinarily virtuous, indi- received in the foundling hospital at Paris from ridual monsters may be found destitute of the 1741 to 1755 inclusive, and I have added the years common attributes of humanity, and in societies succeeding, down to 1770. Those since that peextremely corrupt, instances occur of great virtues: riod I have not been able to obtain. I have noted yet the general character of any class of persons in the margin the gradual increase, viz: from will be found to be materially influenced by the in- every tenth child so thrown upon the public, until stitutions under which they live, and the habits it comes to every third ! Fifteen years have that are prevalent around them. Amongst these, passed since the last account, and probably it may we regard those of the conjugal and parental rela- now amount to one-half. Is it right to encourage tions as infinitely the most important. The latter this monstrous deficiency of natural affection ? A of these depend on the first; and wherever they surgeon I met with here excused the women of cease to be respected, sensual and selfish vices of Paris, by saying seriously they could not give other kinds are also abundant; and they all con- suck—'Car,' said he, 'ils n'ont point des tetous.' spire to weaken that class of generous sentiments, He assured me it was à fact, and bade me look at on which self-denial and the love of mankind is

(41) Romans de Voltaire-vol. 2, p. 250. (40) Annual Register, 1794 : quoted by Editor of Thiers. (42) Editor of Thiers'--rol. 2,.p. 158.

Vol. VII-78


them and observe how flat they were on the breast; Paris has another striking disadvantage, in being

they have nothing more there,' said he, “than I the resort of all that is most eminently profligate have upon the back of my hand.' I have since among the inhabitants of the other parts of the thought there might be some truth in his observa- kingdom, and the hiding-place of many of the oui. tion, and that, possibly nature finding they made no casts of other nations, as the records of its police use of bubbies, has left off giving them any. Yet, will testify : Like Rome, which, in the language since Rousseau eaded with admirable oquence of Tacitus, was the common asylum which refor the rights of children to their mother's milk, ceived and protected “whatever was impure, whatthe mode has changed a little; and some ladies of ever was atrocious.” quality now suckle their infants, and find milk If republican government rests for its support on enough. May the mode descend to the lower virtue, or to speak more definitely, on mutual regard ranks, till it becomes no longer the custom to pack and mutual respect for right; if a man loves bis their infants away, as soon as born, to the enfans country and reveres its institutions, as I believe he trouvés, with the careless observation, that the does, because they are connected with the objects King is better able to maintain them. I am credi- of his domestic affections ; if he is willing to make bly informed that nine-tenths of them die there any sacrifice for them, because on their safety depretty soon, which is said to be a great relief to pends that of objects dearer to him than life; bethe institution, whose funds would not otherwise cause under his paternal roof or his own, sentibe sufficient to bring up the remainder.' He adds: ments have been matured which cling to the coun• If parents did not immediately send their infants try connected with them, and endure with his out of their sight, they would in a few days begin existence;—then indeed was the attempt to mainto love them, and thence be spurred to greater in- tain a government of equal rights in France, so dustry for their maintenance.?"

long as Paris was the controlling power, uiterly I have before me a table constituting part of a hopeless. It would have been as easy to build 3 Report of the Minister of the Home Department, palace on a fathomless quicksand. The inhabion the state of the City of Paris, published in the tants of the country, who were probably as simple Quarterly Review of September 1826, which pre- in their manners, and as affectionate in their chasents the following results, to use the language of racter as the people of other nations; with more the reviewer : “From the year 1815 to the year suavity of manner than belongs to any other peo1824—both inclusively, and deducting 1817—the ple, fought the battles, and bore the standards of number of children born in Paris was 225,259, of France victorious over almost all Europe. But whom 82,426 were illegitimate; that is to say, that their political hopes, as far as they rested on reduring the last ten years, thirty-six per cent., or publican liberty, were baseless from the first. A more than one-third of the new annual population people may fail in establishing or maintaining free of Paris was born out of wedlock. The returns government from the want of knowledge. They of the children deserted by their parents, dated must fail, where the social principle, the life's blood only from 1818, and include but seven years. of political society, is corrupted or destroyed. During that period 180,189 children were born, of Men must not only be readily excited by whatever whom 54,554 were illegitimate, and 49,503—an al- deeply interests their fellows, but they must have most equal number—were deserted by their pa- affection enough for them to aid in rendering asrents; that is to say, that during this period, 30 sistance, where that is necessary: otherwise, there hundredths of the new annual population born in is no agent but fear, by which they can be governed. Paris were illegitimate ; and 27 hundredths, or more The sword and the bayonet must come in to supthan one-fourth, were deserted by their parents. ply the defect arising from their disregard of

It will be quite evident from the foregoing state- each other, or society will prey upon its own vitals, ments, to which many others of similar character until it is destroyed. might be added if necessary, that conjugal and pa- The feelings that prompt to virtuous deeds, reternal love have a very feeble existence in the quire cultivation for healthy growth, like the escapital of France. And it will scarcely be doubted, culents important for human subsistence, which that the state of these all-important ties must have would otherwise be stifled by weeds; and the fostera very sensible effect on the character of its popu- ing hand of Religion is all-important to them. Bat lation.

they have the unspeakable advantage of generating * The authority is very high for the following facts rela sensibility by their exercise. They require no inted to the author by an eminent French gentleman now creased doses of exciting agents. A man who has dead. In the year 1805, there was a man resident in the saved an empire, can take pleasure in affording asFauxbourg St. Germain at Paris, who was rewarded by the sistance to the humblest child of humanity. The Government for his uncommon virtue. It was asked what passions which end in self, are differently constidoes that virtue consist of ? He has reared and educated eight of his own children at his own expense. And is that tuted. They grow like the spontaneous produet of so remarkable an act of virtue? Yes, was the reply, in so

a rank soil, without culture; and present a tempting corrupt a city as this!

aspect to the eye of inexperience. But they are subject to the law of exhaustion, and constantly exemplified in many cases at Paris during the redemand stronger doses to satisfy their cravings. volution-Madame Roland's is one of the most reAmbition, that has controlled the world, is misera- markable. The bystanders at her trial exclaimble, when consigned to a small territory—as Bona- ing—“What sense, what wit, what courage! What parte in Elba. Virtue is happier in private life, than a magnificent spectacle it will be to behold; such a at the head of a nation-as Washington on his farm. woman upon the scaffold!”

The thirst of knowledge and the love of virtue, 11. That man can become so depraved as to by being susceptible of continued exertions under commit murder with his own hands, and without the agency of diminishing excitements, by gene- the least provocation from the love of blood; the rating additional sensibility in every operation, September massacres are examples. show that the fountains of their nourishment are 12. A capacity of any people for self-governinexhaustible, although the stream orginally might ment, depends on the state of the social principle, have appeared feeble. They thus bear evidence combined with intelligence. that they belong to the immortal part of man, 13. The state of the social principle, may be whilst his exhaustible and earthly attributes are safely inferred from the condition of the affections perishable; and that they

of domestic life; the regards of husbands and When the trembling spirit wings ber flight,

wives to each other reciprocally; and the affections Pour round her path a stream of living light,

of parents and children. And gild those pure and perfect realms of rest Where virtue triumphs, and her sons are blest!

The inference from the foregoing is, that, if the

good men who were concerned in bringing about We have endeavored to show

the French Revolution, had understood the charac1. That there is a principle in man, which goadster of the people among whom they were acting, him constantly to the search of something to in- they would have most religiously abstained from terest him.

the attempt, and thereby probably saved France 2. That he is so constituted by nature, as to be and the world from sufferings, perhaps unparallelexcited by the appearance in other animals of any ed in history during even the most barbarous ages. emotions to which he is himself subject.

3. This excitement is of a pleasing nature, and invites to repetition.

4. That it is combined in undepraved natures with a feeling of sympathy for the object of it, if it

THOUGHTS ON MUSIC. stands toward us in any relation capable of gene- “Oh, Music! sphere-descended maid, rating kindness.

Friend of pleasure, wisdom's aid; 5. This sympathy founded on love, prompts us to

Why, Goddess, why to us denied, efforts for relief, most of the strong emotions pla

Lay'st thou thy ancient lyre aside! cing their subjects in a state of more or less distress. Arise, as in that elder time,

6. This combination of excited attention, with Warm, energetic, chaste, sublime !" sympathy or love, constitutes the social principle- Had our poet lived a hundred years later, he might not which is the cement of society. Without the first have felt so much the necessity of such an invocation. portion of it, we should pass the afflictions of Whether at his call or not, the maiden has not altogether others without observation. Without the second,

denied us her visits, nor laid her lyre aside. Her presence

has been hailed, and at the touchings of her quivering strings we should be only amused with the scene, and the daughters of earth” have struck the chord, responmake no efforts for relief. In such a state of sive to the “sphere-descended.” Music has confessedly things, man being dependent on his fellows, and made as much progress, within the last century, as any unable to live in an insulated state, would perish. other of the arts; and the increased attention which is now 7. That man towards animals of certain kinds, as dific manner, is a matter of sincere rejoicing to every one

so assiduously bestowed upon it, and that too, in a scienthose of the forest, actually feels no love, and pur- who is alive to the social and moral improvement of his sues them to destruction for his amusement.

race. Reflecting on the uses for which Music is designed, 8. If his feelings could be rendered as cold to- and on the power which it possesses to affect and move the wards his own species, he would take the same heart, has induced the writer to group together some of the pleasure in hunting them.

thonghts which have passed through his mind at distant and

scattered intervals. 9. In certain states of society where vicious habits have weakened or destroyed his love for his music in our country ; but still, we must confess that there

It is a matter of rejoicing that there is so much good species, its blood and slaughter have been made is much of what is called Music, which is but a desecrasubjects of public amusement,-as in the case of tion of the name; and for our own part, we would rather, gladiators among the Romans.

on many occasions, when we have been called to listen to 10. That the public execution of persons, or

such noises, be left to ourselves, to muse on some vision of a their death by violent means where they do not Mrs. Woods, and which leaves its echo in the heart long,

lovely sound," such as we have heard from a Russel or a resist, is an exciting spectacle, and a source of long after the singer has disappeared, than to be thus torpleasure to those destitute of sympathy, as was tured. But a truce to fault-finding. It was not for this

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we took up our quill-The art is but young with

From harmony, from Heavenly harmony, trust it will continue to improve, until, through our own This universal frame began. groves, and upon our own waves, shall float strains sweet When nature undereath a heap as those which charmed the shadowy retreats of Arcadia,

Of jarring atoms lay, or died away upon the slumbering waters of Ægea.

And could not heave her head! If it was all a fable that the Harp of Orpheus, by its The tuneful voice was heard from high, magic tones, stayed the rushing of the stream, bent the Arise! ye more than dead! mountain oak, or soothed into subdued softness the raging

Then hot and cold, and moist and dry, fierceness of the wildest beast of the forest; it is not a

In order to their stations leap, fable, that Music hath had power to stay the rushing tide of

And Music's power obey. human passion, bow the haughtiness of the most stubborn From harmony, from Heavenly harmony, heart, and lullinto gentleness and peace the warring tumults

This universal frame began; of the most infuriated bosom. If it be a fable, that the

From harmony, to harmony, walls of Thebes rose into beauty and strength, at the Through all the compass of the notes it ran, breathing notes of the Lyre of Amphion; it is not a fable, The diapason closing full in man. that society has, in all ages, had the strongest bulwarks of Music then, is as old as the universe: it is the gift of a its security and happiness erected by the spirit of song. beneficent Creator; it has been deep and unceasing as the It is indebted, largely indebted, to Music for the formation of everlasting murmuring of the mighty ocean; and it will cothat contented spirit, that strong cord of social sympathy, tinue to be unceasing, as long as the pure spirit of the and that ardent love of country, which ever prove a more perfect burns around the Throne of the Eternal; or a single potent safeguard to the liberty and perpetuity of nations, heart exists, to swell with holy adoration, in contemplating than gates of brass, than adamantine walls, or the serried the unfathomable love of his Co-Eternal Son; and the power ranks of merrenary troups. True, an external foe niay jeop- to make Music, and the power to apprehend it when made. ardize a nation's political existence; but the same spirit was bestowed upon man for purposes of the highest bapwhich acts as a preservative principle at home, lists up and piness and usefulness : and bowever prostituled it may nerves a thousand arms to repel foreign aggression. have been by an unboly alliance with profane and laci.

It has been a matter of inquiry-how, when, and where vious verse; however degraded from its pure intentioas, did Music derive its origin? When was the time, when it by a union with histrionic exhibitions of the basest rhia might be said that the “sweet harmony of sound” first cap-racter, its design is, 10 elevate, refine, and humanize the tivated the enwrapt and astonished listener? Classic le-heart; nay, more, to move it to piety, and thus lift it up to gends tell us, that a man once walking upon the sea-beach God. The fact that it has been used in all ages by the 13accidentally disturbed with his foot the shell of a dead taries of pleasure, and used witb such tremendous informe tortoise, and that the sound emitted by the vibrating ten- by unholy men for unholy purposes, is the strongest eri: dons, which had become dry, and thus strung like the strings dence, that it was designed as a powerful auxiliary in ele of a harp, gave bim the idea of Music. Others say, that vating and blessing the race. Who doubts, ibat the power the notion of Music was derived from the breathing of the of Eloquence was designed as a mighty engine to those wind among the rustling water-rushes of the Nile. Or men to proper action? And yet, Eloquence has stirred up again, that as “the groves were God's first temples," so the nations to civil tumult, and deluged whole countries 10 warbling of their seathered inhabitants, taught him to wor- fraternal blood. Who doubts, that the gifts of Poesy and ship his Creator in the language of praise. However these Fancy were designed for useful ends? And yet tbe poetry ideas may have satisfied a Grecian, an Egyptain, or a poet's of Byron, and the fatal fascination of Bulwer have cormind, we look to a higher origin, and ask not when it first rupied thousands, and doubtless will ruin thousands of it began. We regard it as heaven-born. Intuition makes us mortal spirits. Who doubts, that the power of the press was feel that it was the breath of inspiration, or the aspiration, designed as a lever to raise the world to a higber meral of the first created spirit; and from that moment Heaven has mosphere ? And yet the press, desecrated to wicked trds

, been full of song--From the very instant that our own world bas sent forth its torrents of libellous filth and falsekond; su was flung into being, when chaos first gave place to order, that in a land like ours, it makes the cheek of every Ameriat that very instant the morning stars sang together,--and can blush for the honor of his country. The fact is this all the sons—the angels of God, shouted for joy. Through the use of any particular instrumentality, powerfully e ke all time, nature has kept up the harmonious sound. Crea- live in proinoting immoral ends, instead of meeting with tion is full of Music-

instant reprobation from good men, should awaken the in“ There's Music in the sighing of a reed;

quiry, whether the same instrumentality might not be estThere's Music in the falling of a rill;

verted to the accomplishment of high moral purposes. There's Music in all things, if men had ears :

Music is adapted, and if adapted, is designed to promote The earth is but an echo of the spheres."

noble and salutary ends. This would seem to be event

from the fact, that the propensity to make and Yes, an echo of the spheres ! Byron was not the first to musical sounds is as deeply seated in the human cor:tiaallude to the Music of the Heavenly bodies. As early as tion, as any other. And why thus implanted, ut aut fer the time of Pythagoras, the doctrine was advanced to its benevolent purposes on the part of the Creator? " These most beautiful perfection. That man of giant mind, who is a power in sound, which, partly from nature, and pardi first conceived the present theory of the Heavens, was the from habit and association, makes such pathetic intes

: first, as far as we know, to start the sublime poeticism–sions on the fancy as to delight even the wild barter. 13. “Music of the spheres”—30 osten seized upon by the verse. It was a forcible remark of Blair's, that man by nature was makers of all after-times. He supposed that the myriauls a musician; and it is no onmeditated assertion to sav. Ibai of worlds that circle through the Heavens, by striking upon there never was an age when it did not receive the filed the elastic ether, produced sounds, and that these sounds tion of man. And it may moreover be a curious reflection.io varied with the size, velocity and relative position of the any, who may not before have noticed the fact ; that it was bodies themselves, and that as these motions were perfect, during the life-time of Adanı, the primogenitor of the the most perfect harmony—“ attuned to God's own ear"-race, -that Jubal, the father of all such as played on the was the result. Hence Dryden's beautiful allusion to the harp and the organ,"carried on his profession–the list Creation, when, as we said before, Music first began :

professor of music living in the society of our first pareid'


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