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ate admiration of Hogarth to have there been, Mr Lamb would neither not only exaggerated some of his have past it over in silence, nor would merits, but to have made the critic have sneered at the “ grinning deunconsciously unjust to the genius of spair of the dying Ugolino"! Reynolds. He speaks of the staring We must also dissent from Mr and grinning despair which Reynolds Lamb when he speaks so rapturously has given us for the faces of Ugolino of Hogarth's sense of beauty. That and dying Beaufort,” and asks if in admiration, he informs us, was given them there be any thing

to him by Mr Coleridge, a man whose “ Comparable to the expression of the opinions always bear the stamp of broken-hearted rake, in the last plate but genius, but are, not seldom, fantastic one of the • Rake's Progress, where a let- and sophistical exaggerations. ter from the manager is brought to him to garth had but one idea of the lovelisay that his play will not do ?"

ness of a female face. That one idea Yes; there is in those direful coun- is far from being very beautiful. The tenances something far beyond that beauty may indeed be considered as to which Mr Lamb considers them perfect in its kind,--that is, so far as so much inferior.

Ugolino, in that it goes. It is the beauty of well-formhungry cell, is past the yearning ed features, clear skin, sparkling eyes, tenderness of paternal love-past sore healthy complexion : it is the beauty row for the dying or dead corpses at of fine temper, youthful spirits, and his feet-past the steady conscious- health, which last is of itself, beauty ness of his own horrible doom-it in one sense of the word.

But there may be said, past despair. He is a is not in any female of Hogarth a skeleton in which there is yet a heart, single trait of expression undefineable, but through which no blood seems to a single look which we cannot analyze flow. In that face, there is no fluctu- to its elements, a single breathing of ation-no shadow of change, --only a that inspiration, whose workings are fixed stare that betokens a wild dream felt, not criticised: Look, for instance, of horror preying on an unstruggling at his Sigismunda. Here is passion, victim. In that figure, the idea of strong passion, but it is polluted with life is lost in that of misery. The the intermixture of essential vulgarity. madness of lean famine has overcome Or look at his Garrick in Richard. and killed all the passions. He is a We are not old enough to have seen father, for these are his children. But Garrick, but surely he never so dehunger and thirst have disinherited based Shakspeare's idea of a royal vilthem in Ugolino's heart; it is child- lain,-or, if he did, it is the privilege less, and, first hardened into stone, of art to adorn, and Hogarth has either it seems next to be mouldering into not known, or despised the finest part clay, dust, and ashes.

of his birthright. The truth is, he Nor is the countenance of the dy- had not the divine spark, the slow the ing Cardinal much less terrible. True, within him. When we turn from that it is, as Mr Lamb says, a grin- such beauty as he could create to that ning countenance. It indeed grins imagined-loved-worshipped, by Rahorribly, a ghastly smile. Sin is phael, we feel how much was wanting there, more convulsive than pain, in Hogarth's soul, of the divine and more ghastly than death. It would angelical nature of man,--that there is almost seem the face of one beyond a sphere of thought and feeling which redemption. It is the face of one he never dreamt of; and that, with all possessed, bought, tormented, by an his power, and all his passion, it is, evil spirit. And there is the evil notwithstanding Mr Lamb's strenuous spirit. That fiend is privileged to efforts to prove the contrary, true that stand visibly before us. It is such a his works do not belong to the very fiend as our soul might, in its fit of highest provinces of the art. fear, conjure up beside the death-bed

We must now reluctantly take leave of such a sinner. Nature, in such a of Mr Lamb and his many speculamood prone to superstition, saw the 'tions, with gratitude for the pleasure grisly phantom; and genius gave it he has afforded us, and not without that mean, hideous, cruel, devilish hope that, ere long, that pleasure may “ leer of hell.” There is nothing in be renewed. all Hogarth so terrible as this. Had

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Echinite in Obsidian.-Dr Mitchell of ly known. It was communicated by M. New York, in the American edition of Pro- Arfwedson. Liberate hydrogen in contact fessor Jameson's Illustrations of the Theory with chloride of silver, as by mixing the of the Earth of Cuvier, announces that he chloride, zinc, sulphuric acid, and water has seen a specimen of obsidian containing together, and the silver will be reduced to an echinite, a fact which militates against the metallic state ; the zinc is easily disthe volcanic origin of that substance. solved out by excess of acid, and the metal

Professor Jameson's System of Minerals obtained by filtration or decantation. ogy has been translated into the Italian. Boiling point of Fluids.-M. Gay Lussac

Dr Murrays's System of Chemistry has has, in a late Number of the Annales de been translated into the German.

Chimie, shewn that the boiling point of The third edition of Professor Jameson's water and other liquids varies independently Translations and Illustrations of Cuvier's of atmospheric pressure. The circumstances Theory of the Earth, has been reprinted in which influence it appearing to be the naAmerica. To the American impression, ture of the body which is in contact with the Honourable Dr Mitchell has added, the boiling fluid, the cohesion of the fluid, “ Observations on the Geology of North and the resistance which is opposed to a America.”

change of state, as in the cases of every Sugar of the Beet-root. The endeavours other equilibrium of forces. that were made in France, during the war, Water boiled in a glass vessel rises to a to produce sugar from the beet-root in suf- temperature of more than one degree of the ficient quantity to satisfy the demands of centegrade thermometer higher than when the population, were very successful, and it boiled in a metallic vessel ; and the effect was procured of excellent quality. The appears to be due to the nature of the sur. peace, however, by re-opening the ports, face in contact with the fluid ; this is renand allowing the introduction of the cane dered evident by placing a metallic surface sugar, tended to paralyze that branch of in contact with water boiled in a glass vesagricultural industry, for which, however, sel. If a flask of water be placed over a some strong exertions have since been made lamp until its temperature be raised to the by the philosophers of France.

point of ebullition, and it be noticed, and The following is given as the statement then a portion of iron filings thrown in, the of the expense and returns of the manufac- temperature will fall

, and the boiling will tory of M. Chaptal, and if there are no un go on, as in a metallic vessel. stated objections to its introduction, it is It is to be observed that this effect of difdifficult to account for the preference given ference of temperature appears to be not so cane-sugar.

much a constant and specific effect as the Forty-five French acres were sown with apparent result of other circumstances. beet-root; the produce equalled 700,000 lbs. Water boiled in a glass vessel and open to Charges.

francs. the air, is continually changing its temperaSowing, pulling, carriage, and ex ture, sometimes rising and sometimes falla

penses of the manufactory for ing within a certain minute range, and these seventy-nine days of actual work 7000 changes accord with the evolution of vapour Workmen

2075 from the fluid. Either water or alcohol, Fuel

4500 when boiled in glass vessels, do not generAnimal Charcoal

1100 ally give off vapour in a regular uniform Repairs, interest of capital, &c. 4000 .way, but whole torrents rise at once from

the under surface with great force, producfrancs 18,675 ing a kind of explosion ; the fluid is then Produce.

lbs. quiet for a moment, and then another gust Rough sugar of the first crystalliza of vapour rises up. Now, during the time tion

29,132 the vapour rises the temperature falls, and Sugar obtained by further processes whilst the fluid is quiet the heat rises, so from the molasses

10,960 that it is continually changing ; and as the

lowest point is the true boiling point, it is Total of rough sugar 40,092 evident that the mean temperature of water Besides which, there were 158,000 lbs. of boiled in a glass vessel must be above that refuse, which was excellent food for cattle, point. In a metallic vessel, on the conand a large quantity of exhausted molasses, trary, as soon as the water or fluid has atwhich might be converted into spirit. tained the boiling point, the conversion into

Reduction of Chloride of Silver by Hy vapour commences, and if the heat is condrogen.-The following method of reducing tinued, the steam is constantly and regu. chloride of silver, is perhaps not sufficient. karly generated and given off.

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M. Gay Lussac seems inclined to account one side, each with very thick paper ; they for the effect in glass vessels by the cohesion are then placed horizonally with the paper of the fluid to the surface of the vessel. It surfaces together. The workman lifting up is evident that when vapour is formed in the one angle of the uppermost plane, introinterior of a liquid body, one force to be duces a sufficient quantity of melted lead to overcome is the cohesion of the particles of make a sheet, and immediately lowering the the liquid ; this force will of course be con tile, jumps upon it, and presses it strongly stant for the same liquid in vessels of every with his feet; the metal is thus extended material. An analogous force is that exert. into an irregular sheet. ed between the liquid and the substance of To prevent the oxydation of the lead, they the vessel, and this will vary with the sub- employ a kind of resin called dummer. stance ; and as the vapour is generated at Meteoric Iron.—There is a character first the point of contact between the fluid and pointed out in Germany, belonging to methe vessel, the variation of this force will teoric iron, which is, perhaps, not very genvary the temperature at which vapour will erally known. It consists in the production be formed.

of regular figures and crystalline facets on M. Gay Lussac also gives, as another the polished surface of the iron, when moist. power which has influence in these pheno ened with nitric acid, analagous to those mena, the resistance to a change of state'; produced in the moiré metallique This but observes, that it is difficult to analyze character has been found to belong to all and describe; and he concludes in this part, the well-known specimens of meteoric iron that the conducting power for heat, and the that have been tried, and as distinctly in nature of the surface, appear to exert an in the grains found in meteoric stones, as in fluence on the boiling point of water; and larger masses of the metal; but it has been that every thing else being equal, water looked for in vain in the native iron of boils more readily on a metallic surface than Charlesdorf, of Veiben, of the hill of Bion a glass surface, and more readily in a randi (de Chladni) of Peru, and in the glass vessel containing glass in powder, than mass at the Cape, first made known by in a glass' vessel containing nothing but the Barrow and Dankelmann. fuid.

Pompeia, Hercrilaneum, fc. The idea The application which M. Gay Lussac that Pompeia and Herculaneum were desproposes to make of the property which troyed by an eruption of Vesuvius in the metals have of inducing ebullition before year 79, has been very generally received. glass or earthen ware vessels, is to prevent A new opinion however has been advanced those sort of explosions which take place in respecting the destruction of these two cities, distillations. If into a retort, or flask, con which attributes it to a rising of the waters of taining alcohol, water, or particularly sul- the sea, and a deposition of finely divided phuric acid, some little pieces of platinuin matter from them. It is asserted, that a wire be put, the concussions, which are so formation similar to that which covers Pomviolent as sometimes to break the vessels, peia is daily forming on the shores at Nawill be prevented, and the vapour formed ples, and that Herculaneum is covered by a and liberated in a regular manner. This

mass of tufa, and not by lava. There is mode has been adopted for some years in little doubt but that Herculaneum has been this country by the makers of vitriol, where buried in conséquence of the action of waglass vessels are used to distil in. Where ter, but whether by a wave of the sea, or by the retort is made of platinum, it is obvi torrents thrown out from the volcano, is unously unnecessary.

certain. "Pompeia has probably been coverM. Gay Lussac observes, that an import- ed by a gradual fall of ashes. ant consideration in the graduation of ther Method of making Salt in the Great Loomometers arises from the above facts, and choo Island.* _Near the sea, large level fields that the variation pointed out ought to be are rolled or beat so as to have a hard surguarded against, as a source of error. face. Over this is strewn a sort of sandy

Crystallized Iodine. Some curious obser- black earth, forming a coat about a quarter vations on the forms of crystallized iodine of an inch thick. Řakes and other implehave been published in the Bibliothèque ments are used to make it of a uniform Universelle." Crystals had formed on the thickness, but it is not pressed down. Dur. surface and at the bottom of a solution of ing the heat of the day, men are employed iodine, by slow evaporation, and were all of to bring water in tubs from the sea, which them cubes. In another solution they had is sprinkled over these fields by means of a formed in great abundance on the surface, short scoop. The heat of the sun in a short and in the upper part of the bottles; and

time evaporates the water, and the salt is with the exception of a single crystal, which left in the sand, which is scraped up and was rhomboidal, were perfect cubes ; some put into raised reservoirs of masonry about of them were as much as half a line in the six feet by four, and five deep. When the side. The crystals increased rapidly in size, although the temperature of the place was never above 45°,5 of Fahrenheit, and was * Extracted from Captain Hall's “ ACfrequently at the freezing point of water. count of a Voyage of Discovery to the West

Chinese mode of making Sheet Lead. Coast-of Corea, and the Great Loo-choo Two large tiles perfectly flat, are covered on Işland.

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receiver is full of the sand, sea water is triangle, and the excess of the hypothenuse poured on the top; and this, in its way above the other leg, to construct the triangle. down, carries with it the salt left by the He answered two or three problems relating evaporation. When it runs out below at a to the maxima of numbers and of geomesmall hole, it is a very strong brine ; this is trical magnitudes with ease, and took the reduced to salt by being boiled in vessels Auxions, which were not difficult, correctly. about three feet wide and one deep. The When the age of this child is compared cakes resulting from this operation are an with his scientific attainments, we can look inch and a half in thickness.

on him in no other light than as a literary Mr Gough has favoured the public with phenomenon, who promises to become an the following account of a child nine years ornament to one of the British universities, old, at present residing in Kendal. Thomas unless his progress should unfortunately bé Gasking is the son of an industrious and checked by indigence, or the vigour of his ingenious journeyman shoemaker, of Pen. mind should be enfeebled by some sinister rith; and I now proceed to notice his lite accident. rary attainments, which he has acquired in New South Wales.--A discovery has been the course of two years. He has learned to made in New South Wales, which must read correctly and gracefully; he writes a materially affect the future advancement of good hand with surprising expedition ; and that colony. " A river of the first magnihe has made some progress in the English tude" has been found in the interior, rungrammar. The boy went through this part ning through a most beautiful country, rich of his education in a day-school at Penrith; in soil, limestone, slate, and good timber. but he is indebted for his mathematical A means of communication like this has knowledge to the tuition of his father, who, long been anxiously searched for without though in low circumstances, has laudably success, and many began to entertain an dedicated his hours of leisure to scientific apprehension that the progress of colonizapursuits, as I am informed. Little Gasking tion in New Holland would be confined to seems well acquainted with the leading pro- its coasts. positions in Euclid ; he reads and works Mr Oxley, the surveyor-general, was sent algebra with the greatest facility, and has out with a party in an expedition to the entered upon the study of fluxions. I am westward of the Blue Mountains, to trace aware that this report will appear incredible the course of the lately discovered river to those who are acquainted with the differ- Lachlan, and to ascertain the soil, capabilient subjects which have been enumerated ; ties, and productions, of the country through but the following instance of his wonderful which it was expected to pass in its course proficiency will, in all probability, remove to the sea. Mr-Oxley left Bathurst on the any doubts that competent judges may en 30th April 1817. He proceeded down the tertain.

A stranger gentleman, who was Lachlan until the 12th May, the country invited, with myself, to examine the boy, rapidly descending until the waters of the requested him to deinonstrate the thirteenth river rose to a level with it, and, divided proposition of the first book of Euclid ; into numerous branches, lost itself among which he did immediately. The demon- the marshes. Mr Oxley quitted the river stration of the twentieth proposition of the on the 17th May, taking a S.W. course tosame book was next proposed : he drew out wards Cape Northumberland. He contithe figure; and though he failed in his first nued this course until the 9th June, when attempt, he soon recovered the train of rea. he was induced to change his course to soning, and went through the demonstration north On this course he continued till the correctly. Being asked, if he had two sides 23d June, when he again fell in with a of a triangle and the angle included given, stream, which he could with difficulty rehow he would proceed to find the third cognise as the Lachlan, it being little larger side ? the process appeared quite familiar to than one of the branches of it where it was him, and we found, upon inquiry, he was quitted on the 17th May. He kept along acquainted with logarithms, and was able to the banks of this stream till the 8th July, use them. In spherical trigonometry, he when the whole country became a marsh solved two cases of right-angled triangles hy altogether uninhabitable. This unlooked Lord Napier's rules. His skill, and the for and truly singular termination of a river rapidity of his operations, in algebra, created filled the party with the most painful sensamore surprise than his knowledge of geo tions. They were full 500 miles west of metry ;—he solved a number of quadratic Sydney, and nearly in its latitude ; and it equations with the greatest ease, and ex

had taken them ten weeks of unremitted tracted the square roots of the numbers which exertion to proceed so far. Returning down resulted from his operations. Several ques- the Lachlan, he recommenced the survey of tions were put to him which contained two it from the point on which it was made the unknown quantities; these he also answered 23 June. The connexion, with all the without difficulty. Being asked if he had points of the survey previously ascertained, been taught the application of algebra to was completed between the 19th July and geometry, he answered in the affirmative, the 3d August. It was estimated that the and immediately solved the following pro- river, from the place where first made by blem :-- Given one leg of a right-angled Mr Evans, had run a course, taking all its

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windings, of upwards of 1200 miles, a June, a water-spout of immense diameter length of course altogether unprecedented, inundated great part of the arrondissement considering that the original is its only sup- of Auxerre. The rain, accompanied by ply of water during that distance.

large hailstones, fell in torrents for thirty “ Crossing at this point,” says Mr Oxley minutes. The whole harvest in nineteen in his Report, “ it was my intention to take communes is destroyed. In some quarters a N.E. course to intersect the country, and the water was six feet deep; at Fontenai a if possible to ascertain what had become of house was thrown down, and four children the Macquarrie River, which it was clear killed, and several other edifices were much had never joined the Lachlan. This course damaged. led us through a country to the full as bad New Discovery in Optics.-A very inas any we had yet seen, and equally devoid teresting and important discovery is said to of water, the want of which again much have been made on the increase and prodistressed us. On the 7th August the scene jection of light, by Mr Lester, engineer -began to change, and the country to assume Mr Lester being engaged at the West India a very different aspect. We passed to the Docks for the purpose of applying his new N.E. of the high range of hills which on mechanical power, The Convertor, to cranes, this parallel bounds the low country to the by which the labour of wenches is performnorth of that river. To the N.W. and N. ed by rowing, &c.; on taking a view of the the country was high and open, with good immense spirit vaults, he was forcibly struck forest land ; and on the 10th we had the by the inefficient mode adopted to light satisfaction to fall in with the first stream those very extensive and wonderful depôts," running northerly. This renewed our hopes which is by a cast-iron cylinder of about of soon falling in with the Macquarrie, and two feet in diameter, and two feet deep, we continued upon the same course, occa- placed in lieu of a key-stone in the centre sionally inclining to the eastward, until the of each arch ;—these cylinders are closed at 19th, passing through a fine luxuriant coun: their tops, and each furnished with five platry well watered, crossing in that space of no-convex lenses (bull's eyes) of Messrs Pel. time nine streams, having a northerly course latt and Green's patent, which are admirthrough rich valleys, the country in every ably adapted to the conveying of light in direction being moderately high and open, all situations, except down a deep tube or and generally as fine as can be imagined. cylinder, where the refraction they produce

“ No doubt remained upon our minds (in consequence of their convex form) bethat those streams fell into the Macquarrie, twixt the angles of incidence and reflection, and to view it before it received such an ac. prevents the rays from being projected into cession was our first wish. On the 19th, the place intended to be lighted. This rewe were gratified by falling in with a river fraction throws the light upon the concave running through a most beautiful country, sides of the cylinder, where it is principally and which I should have been well content. absorbed, instead of keeping the angles of ed to have believed the river we were in incidence and reflection equal. search of. Accident led us down this stream From these observations Mr Lester conabout a mile, when we were surprised by its cluded, that a lens might be so constructed junction with a river coming from the south, as to prevent this refraction, and commenced of such width and magnitude as to dispel a course of experiments for that purpose. all doubts as to this last being the river we

He succeeded by obtaining the proper angle had so long anxiously looked for. Short as of the incidental rays with a mirror, and our resources were, we could not resist the finding the scope of the cylinder sufficiently temptation this beautiful country offered copious to admit the reflected rays into the us, to remain two days on the junction of vault, provided the refraction of the lens did the rivers, for the purpose of examining the

not intervene. The same angle produced vicinity to as great an extent as possible.

by the mirror he endeavoured to retain upon “ Our examination increased the satis- the sides of the lens, by giving it a differfaction we had previously felt. As far as ent form, a peculiar part of which he intendthe eye could reach in every direction, a ed to foliate. But having met with insurrich and picturesque country extended, a

mountable difficulties in this process, he conbounding in limestone, slate, good timber, cluded, from the striking appearance of sil. and every other requisite that could render very light upon the interior surface of that an uncultivated country desirable. The soil part he intended to silver, that metal would cannot be excelled; whilst a noble river of represent the light by retaining that form, the first mignitude afforded the means of and, brought down below the edges of the conveying its productions from one part to lens, might produce the desired effect. In his the other. Where I quitted it, its course attempt to accomplish this purpose, by holdwas northerly, and we were then north of ing the body in a vertical position between the parallel of Port Stephens, being in lati. tude 32° 45' S. and 148° 58' E. longitude.

The course and direction of this river is One of which is nearly an acre and an to be the object of an early expedition. half in area, and it is supported by 207 groia

Destructive IVater-Spout. On the 18th ed arches and 207 stone pillars.

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