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Q'urters. whole mass of consumers, now so Brought over, 608,503 anxiously wish. If a brisker trade In ports in the North Sea,
in foreign corn were to increase the as ascertained :
quantities produced abroad, there Hamburgh,
seems the strongest reason, from Mr Bremen,
Jacob's statements, to conclude, that
the prices abroad would rise so high, Total, 741,473 from increased freights and tolls on
the rivers, and other sums charged Mr Jacob was assured, that of the higher in proportion to the larger wheat thus accumulated in these demand for corn, that there would different ports, nearly one-fourth be no danger of a competition matewas of so bad a quality as to find no rially to injure land-owners at home. market in this country, except in With a very low duty on the foseasons of uncommon dearth. * If, reign importations, no danger would then,” he adds, “ 556,330 quarters, arise to our too sensitive landlords, or three-fourths of the whole corn even in years of the greatest plenty in the storehouses, were brought to abroad. England, it would not be more than ten days consumption." How utter- The Prussian provinces, which ly absurd, therefore, are the terrors have access to the Baltic Sea, com of our agriculturists, that the prices prehend East Prussia, West Prussia; of grain would become ruinously and Pomerania. From official doculow, even by the opening of the ports ments obtained by Mr Jacob, these to the freest admission of foreign provinces appear to have exported corn! The whole quantity of wheat 447,000 quarters of wheat, and consumed in this country in a year 1,218,916 quarters of rye, barley, and has been estimated, and, we believe, oats, beyond their own growth, in with tolerable accuracy, at fourteen eight years previous to 1824. millions of quarters. Would the ad- Villenage existed in these Prusmission of a thirtieth part of this sian provinces till 1807, but has now grain from abroad overturn the been abolished, and the right of posa whole of our agricultural prosperity? sessing land, which belonged excluWould it throw out of cultivation a sively to the nobility, has been exsingle acre of land, which any man tended to all classes. The land is of ordinary prudence had thought fit either held in very large estates by to bring into cultivation? It is true, great proprietors, or in very small that some very inferior land would portions, sufficient for half the susbe necessarily abandoned by the tenance of a peasant's family. With plough; but are imprudence and very trifling exceptions, each landfolly, when manifested in the culti- lord farms his own ground, and there vation of land, alone to be protected are no tenants, in our sense of the from the natural consequences of term, except on the domains of the their own proceedings ? The heavy Crown; and in these the farıners, for charges for warehousing, freight, in- some years, have merely paid taxes, surance, commission, &c., which the low prices having rendered them must always attach to foreign corn, unable to pay rent. These domains ought to be the only protection; and are let at from 6d. to 3$. 8d. an acre, we conceive they would, in the na- and may average about 1s. 3d. Land tural state of the great corn market capable of cultivation sells only at of the world, be an adequate protec- from 15s. to 40s. English money per tion to our corn-growers; and thus, as soon as we revert to the sound These three provinces contain aprinciples of free intercourse, not one bout 25,000,000 of acres (two-thirds acre will ever be thrown out of cul. the extent of England); the soil tivation in this country which ever generally level and sandy; and upon deserved to be cultivated. Besides these there were, in 1819, 557,000 all this, the great object would be horses, 1,171,000 cows, oxen, &c. attained of steadiness in the supply 2,050,000 sheep, and 617,000 swine. and price of corn,-an object for In England, the proportion of which landlords and tenants, and the horses, cows, and sheep, to the same
surface, is from three to four times Of a list of 262 estates in West Prusas great. Hence, there is little sia shown to Mr Jacob by an official inanure to keep up the fertility of person, 195 were encumbered with the soil; and the most intelligent mortgages, and of these 71 were unagriculturists do not estimate the der sequestration. produce of wheat, rye, barley, and The abolition of feudal tenures oats, at more than four times the has raised the bondsmen to the rank seed. Mr Jacob thinks it does not of small proprietors. They generally exceed three times. The farmers raise on their patches of land potafallow every third year, by plough- toes and bread-corn for themselves, ing three times when rye is to be with provision for two oxen, and sown, or five times for wheat, and sometimes for five or six sheep, whose allowing the land to rest without any wool, with a little flax, spun by crop the whole year. Very little of themselves, supply them with clothes. the land is fit for raising wheat. They consume nearly all their proRye is the grain universally con, duce themselves. Labourers receive sumed by the working classes, and about 5d. per day. There are small is even generally preferred to wheat local assessments for the support of by the wealthy. Hence, if there be the poor. no foreign demand for wheat, only a The value of live stock is low, very little of it can be sold for pastry, The best Merino sheep sell at 6s. or &c. A crop of barley or oats fol- 6s. 8d ; cows from 30s. to 65s. The lows wheat or rye, and thus the land land tax is 25 per cent. on the rent, bears corn only two years out of the land being valued and divided three; and the second crop does not into six classes, whose estimated yield more than three times the seed rents rise from 7d. to 4s. per acre. From a table given in the Appendix, The tax does not come to 3d. per acre it appears that in 1824, which was on an average in the three maritime considered a good year, 4864 culti, provinces, and yet it is found to be vated acres yielded only 10,000 quare very oppressive. There are no tithes, ters. Since the English market was the clergy receiving a fixed quantity closed against foreign corn, very lit- of corn from the proprietors, in purtle wheat is raised, and the proprie, suance of an ancient arrangement. tors are now devoting their attention The military service is felt to be a to Merino sheep. Potatoes are cul- grievous burden. Every young man tivated, but, what appears strange, serves three years in the army, from chiefly for distillation. Every wellthe age of twenty-one to twentymanaged farm has a distillery annex. four. ed to it, and the calculation is, that The Provincial States in their last two bushels of potatoes yield as much Session presented an address to the ardent spirit as one of barley, and King, complaining heavily of the dethe residuum, with which draft bul. pressed state of agriculture," and locks are fed, still retains two-thirds urging the King to take some meaof the alimentary power originally sures of a decided nature respecting in the potatoes.
Generally nine the introduction of British goods, in bushels of potatoes are mixed with order to induce our Government to one of malt. The spirit, which is wake some alteration in the Corn of our proof strength (50 per cent. Laws. The reply of the King, which alcohol), pays 6d. per gallon duty, has been published, gives an air of and is sold to retailers at 1s. 2d. per probability to the rumours, that it gallon. Sometimes the potatoes are had an object in some degree of this converted into treacle, and this is kind." With regard to the prayer said to pay, though the manufacture for an intercession with the English of sugar from them did not. (The Government to repeal the Corn Bill, measures and the money referred to his Majesty expressed a hope, that, by Mr Jacob, conformably to his in- to improve the intercourse between structions, are always those of Eng- the two nations, a change will take land.)
place in the English Corn Laws. The free produce of the land is Berlin, 26th November 1825, from extremely small, and hence nearly the Hamburgh paper The Corresponall the estates are under mortgage. dent.
From documents put into his the rains of autuman, and the melting of hands by a man high in office, Mr the snow on the Carpathian mountains Jacob estimates the cost of produ- in the spring, they form large chatinels, cing wheat on average soils at 28s. 9d. extending on both sides to a great dis. per quarter ; and from a very detailed tance; and their deposit, in many parts, table in the Appendix, it appears that enriches the land, and it presents, in the the average price of wheat sold at summer, the aspect of verdant and lux. Dantzic and Elbing for exportation
uriant meadows. In other parts the perifrom 1791 to 1825, was 455. 11d. odical swellings of the streams have form.
ed morasses, which, in their present state, per quarter.
are not applicable to any agricultural Although, since the return of peace, no alleviation of the public the border of one river to another, are
purposes. The plains which extend from contributions has been applied, and open fields, with scarcely any perceptible no diminution of the other subjects division of the land, and shewing scarcely of expenditure, which compose the any trees even around the villages. The cost of growing corn, has been expe- portion of woodland on these plains is rienced, yet the contrast between the very extensive ; but they are in large first and last five years since that masses, with great intervals of arable event took place, in the prices of corn, land between them. is so striking, that it deserves to be The soil is mostly sandy, with occa. noticed. In Dantzic the average of sional mixture of a sandy loam ; it is very the five years, from 1816 to 1820 in- thin, resting chiefly on a bed of granite, clusive, gives for wheat 54s. 5d. per through which the heavy rains gradually quarter, and that for the years 1821 percolate. Such a soil is easly ploughed; to 1825 inclusive, 26s. 2d. In Ber. sometimes two horses or two oxen, and lin, the average for the first five years and the other operations of husbandry.
not unfrequently two cows, perform this is 46s 4d. and
for the second 26s. 7d.” With these details, we must
close Poland is strictly applicable to six of the
This representation of the kingdom of our notice of the state of the Prus- eight waiwodeships or provinces into sian provinces which have access to which it is now divided.
Let us now advert to Mr To the south of the river Pilica, (200 Jacob's statements, in reference to miles from the sea) which comprehends Poland. His details of the state of the two provinces of Sandomir and Craagriculture in this country are even cow, the appearance of the land and the more novel and interesting than those face of the country improve; and in prowhich relate to Prussia.
ceeding south to the banks of the Vistula, We shall lay before our readers, there is to be seen a more undulating in the words of Mr Jacob himself, district, and a more tenacious and fruitful as much of his Report as we find soil
. Much of the land is a clayey loam, that our limits
for the present month requiring three or four horses to plough will admit. The net produce of the it, yielding, when tolerably managed, soil in Poland above the gross pro- where the husbandry is so good as to have
crops of excellent wheat and oats; and duce is surprisingly, small, and may adopted the practice of sowing clover be partly accounted for by the exa
between the two corn crops, the produce haustion which the soil is undergo- is very abundant. The southern point of ing by overcropping, and the want of this district, forming now an independ manure to renew its fertility, -by the ent Republic, called, from the name of unskilful and comparatively very ex- its capital, Cracow, is very fertile. It pensive manner in which the opera- extends along the Vistula about 20 miles, tions of agriculture are carried on- and contains in 500 square miles, or and chiefly by the want of easily-ac- 320,000 acres, about 100,000 inhabicessible markets for the sale of produce.
Some of the estates in Poland, belong
ing to the nobility of the highest rank, The far greater part of that division of are of enormous extent; but owing to the ancient Poland which is now compre system of dividing the land among all hended in the viceregal kingdom of that the children, unless a special entail sename, is a level country, with scarcely cures a majorat to the eldest son, which an ascent or descent, except where the is in some few instances the case, much courses of the rivers have formed chan- of it is possessed in allotments which we nels below the general level of the coun- should deem large, but which, on actry. As these rivers, though in summer count of their low value, and when comthey appear small streams are swollen by pared with those of a few others, are not
so. Of these secondary classes of estates, who traffics in foreign loans and foreign 5,000 or 6,000 acres would be deemned exchanges, down to the lender of small small, and 30,000 or 40,000 acres large. sums, which the poor can obtain by
There are, besides these, numerous pledging their miserable furniture or im. small properties, some of a few acres, plements. which, by frequent subdivisions, have de- An estimate was made by a person scended to younger branches of noble eminently skilled in the value of land, families. The present owners are com. who formed it upon actual sales made in monly poor, but too proud to follow any the last four years. He divided it into profession but that of a soldier, and pre- three classes, according to their fertility. fer to labour in the fields with their own The lowest land in a state of cultivation, hands rather than to engage in trade of with good building and a competent any kind. As titles descend to every son, number of peasants, he stated to be worth and are continued through all the succes- one thousand forins the huff. Valuing sors, the nobility have naturally become the florins at sixpence, though worth a very numerous ; but since the Emperor fraction less, and taking the huff of thirty of Russia has gained the dominion over Magdeburg morgens as equal to twentyPoland, the use of titles has been re. two English acres, the estimate would be stricted. No one can assume that of a fraction less than twenty-two shillings Baron, unless his clear income from his sterling the English acre. The other estates exceed 1,000 gulden, or £.25; kinds of arable.land of superior qualities none that of Count, whose rents are less vary. The great mass is of the second 3,000 gulden, or £.75; and none that class, or worth about thirty shillings; of Prince, who has less than 5,000 gul. but some is estimated at five thousand den, or £.125.
florins the huff, or five pounds ten shil. Various important details on the lings; but little, however, is in this state of Polish society and agricul- class, and that little is in the vicinity of ture follow, which we regret we
the cities, on the banks of the great ri. have not room to insert. We must
vers, or in some favoured spots in the close with the following quotation :
southern provinces. This estimate was
rather founded on the state of affairs Among the real Poles, there is no re- three or four years ago, than in their gular gradation of ranks between the present condition; for I was told that noble proprietor and the wretched pea. such a number of estates had lately been santry. The polish gentry are too proud offered for sale, that no price could be to follow any course but the military obtained for the greater part. career ; and the Government, by its large The Jews are almost exclusively the standing army, encourages the feeling, dealers in money. They are precluded though the pay is scarcely sufficient to from becoming landed proprietors, and supply the officers with their expensive their exclusion from the market tends to uniforms. The church has too few pri. depress the prices in a very great degree. zes, among many thousand blanks, to Though some of the richer individuals of induce any but the lower classes to enter that people pass through the ceremony of on that profession. The offices of Go. baptism, especially when they have mort. vernment can employ but few, and those gages on large estates, and mean to foreare ill paid, and said to depend on small close ; the whole number of those who peculations, rather than on their salaries. thus become qualified to purchase, bears Whatever difficulties may present them. but a small proportion to that of the selves to the placing out young men of properties that are offered for sale. I good family, none have had recourse to was assured from so many, and such vacommerce ; and if they had, such would rious quarters, that I have no reason to be treated by others as having lost their doubt the report, that almost every estate caste, and descended to a lower rank of is deeply involved in debt. The bankers society. The manufacturers and the of Warsaw discount each other's drafts at artizans in Poland are almost all of the per cent. per month, but 10 per cent. German nation. If a joiner, painter, may in general be easily obtained for mason, tailor, shoemaker, or a person of money. other similar occupations, including, too, Cows are of various races, and, I think, the medical profession, is wanted, he differ more in their value than in any will commonly be found only among country I ever visited. The common the Germans. The merchants, bankers, breed of the country are worth about and traders, are nearly as exclusively of 27s. or 28s. per head. The Ukraine, or the Jewish race, and that, too, of all the best, from Podolia, are estimated classes, from the importer of wines and much higher, averaging £.3; and some, colonial produce to the dealer in rags few, very good, are worth £. 4. 108. and old clothes,- from the monied man Flocks of sheep vary too, but not so
much as cows ; the lowest of the native whole population of the present kingdom breed are worth per head 3s. and the is between 3,800,000 and 4,000,000 best about 5s. 60. or 6s. Merinos are having increased since its estabalishment very rare at present, and worth from 8s. 250,000. to 9s, per head.
The revenues do not pay the expenses The corn spirit, or whisky, is sold in of the Government, but the deficiency is the country at 10d. per gallon; but pay, made up by remittances from Peterse ing a high duty, or being a subject of burgh, which usually amount to 4,000,000 monopoly, farmed by the Government to silver roubles, or nearly £.500,000 sterdistillers on the entrance of the cities and ling. The forced military service, and towns, is retailed in them from 3s. to
quartering of troops, are burdens on 3s. 6d. per gallon, Horses, except those the land, which are difficult to reduce to of foreign races, are as low in proportion any money estimation. The young men as cows and sheep. The price of mea. of good families are expected to become dow hay in the capital was from 14s. to cadets in a service whose pay will scarcely 15s. per ton; so little is sold in the coun. clothe them; and the strongest of the try, that it would have been difficult to labourers are selected as privates, without state what is the value before the expense the formality of asking their consent, or of conveyance is paid.
drawing lots. When in quarters, the There are few burdens laid exclusively officers occupy the best apartments in the on the land, except the tenth Groschen houses of the proprietors, whilst the pris tax. That was originally a war-tax, and vates are lodged in the peasants' cottages, is so still denominated, though continued At present, the military are under good after ten years of a peace, and there exists discipline; but still they have means of no present probability of its being speedily extorting, from those on whom they are withdrawn. A small sum is levied in quartered, something beyond the use of each district for the repairs of roads, bare walls. bridges, and other local purposes ; but I did not hear of any other goods than that and the land tax scarcely exceeds 25 woollen cloths made for distant markets; per cent. on the presumed annual value but of late establishments, have been of the land.
formed for making linens, cottons, iron The tithes are very moderate, and wares, and paper, solely for domestic chiefly compounded for at fixed rates, consumption, and chiefly by the aid of which can never be altered, without the capitals to which the Government has consent of the owner. The secular paro contributed. chial clergy are commonly men of slight At Warsaw, for a period of twentyeducation, usually the sons of peasants, four years, from June 1796, to June to whom the somewhat elevated character 1820, the average price of wheat was of priest, with its small emoluments, and 33s. per quarter, and in the ten years from freedom from hard labour, forms a suff. 1815 to 1824, it was 31s. The price, at cient inducement to enter on the eccle. the time of my visit, was 14s. 9d., which, siastical profession.
in the opinion of Count Mostoski, was The whole revenue, according to the only about half its cost to the grower. statements of official men, does not ex- I should suppose the cost of wheat in ceed £.2,000,000 sterling. As one-fourth the province of Massovia to have been of the population, the tenants and pea- nearly between 27s. and 29s. the quarter, sants of the Crown, are exempted from for the last thirty years. Assuming that paying the tenth Groschen tax, the the cost price of wheat was at the mea heaviest of all the imposts, the sum ex• dium between the points to which in its tracted from the rest of the subjects fluctuation it had approached, we may amounts to 16s. per head annually. The calculate the cost in England thus:-;
d. Cost of the quarter of wheat at Warsaw
28 0 Conveyance to the boats, and charges for loading and stowing, and se. curing it by mats
0 6 Freight to Dantzic
5 Loss on the passage, by pilfering, and by the rain causing it to grow
3 Expences at Dantzic, in turning, drying, screening, and warehousing, and loss of measure
2 0 Profit or commission, as the case may be, to the merchant at Dantzic
1 Freight, primage, insurance, and shipping charges, at Dantzic and in London