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for the relief of Antwerp. From town of Mechlin fell into the enethis time the courage of the besieged my's hands, and with it vanished failed them, and the magistracy of their last hope of succour from Brathe town endeavoured in vain to bant. As there was no longer any raise the spirits of the populace, up- means of increasing the stock of proon whom the present necessity more visions, the only course left was to peculiarly pressed, by distant hopes. diminish the number of the consuUntil now, they had always obtained mers. All persons incapable of asbread, though at a dear rate ; but by sisting, all strangers, and even wodegrees the provisions drew towards a men and children, must have been elose, and famine visibly approached. banished from the town; but this They still had hopes of being able project was too revolting to humanito maintain the town long enough ty to be carried into effect. Another to allow them to reap the corn which plan, that of driving out the Cathogrew between the outer works and lic inhabitants, inflamed them so the town, and which was already in much, that it almost led to an open full ear; but ere that time ar. mutiny. And thus St. Aldegonde rived, the enemy were in possession saw himself compelled to yield to of alí the external defences of the the stormy impatience of the poputown, and had appropriated the lace; and on the 17th August, 1985, whole harvest to themselves. At
to make proposals to the Duke of last, the neighbouring confederate Parma for the surrender of the town.
SECOND LETTER FROM AN AMERICAN FARMER TO A FRIEND IN
near Philadelphia, My Dear Sir,
March 26, 1826. You are aware, I presume, of the publication, and will, if I mistake daily increasing importance of the not, clearly show that men with question concerning the Blacks in black and yellow skins can conduct this quarter of the world. It begins their own affairs quite as well as to be too evident, that this basely those with white ones. His work, calumniated race must, sooner or which will form a moderate octavo later, form a powerful nation in the volume, will speedily appear. West Indies. Our slave-owners are My brother has just sent me the beginning to express their fears and last Number of the Edinburgh Reweaknesses most indiscreetly, and so, view. The accounts of your MeI think, are yours: both will, most chanics' Institutions are delightful : probably, bring on the final catas- your Church and State must prepare trophe, by the very means they take for the effects of them. I thought to prevent it. This is nothing new of the same thing eighteen years ago, in the annals of tyranny and injus. when I knew nothing of Dr Birktice. A good deal of interest has beck’s proceedings ; but I went furbeen excited here lately, by the ther than he does, and proposed inemigration of some of the free Blacks troducing Lectures to the women to Hayti ; and, partly in consequence upon domestic economy, manageof this, Dr -, whose proper- ment of children, diseases, moral ty adjoins mine, a man of talent and duries, &c. &c., with a previous erudition, liberal in his views, and good elementary education. I menevery way calculated for such an un- tioned my plans to a few, and was dertaking, went to Hayti, at his own laughed at. I think the education expense, last winter, to visit the of women is of more consequence country, and to ascertain the state than that of men: the effects of the of the people. He travelled about want of it here are truly lamentable. 1000 miles over the French part of Mechanics’ Institutions are going on the island. He had letters to Boyer, among us, true, but there is too much Inginac, and others, and was highly aristocratic feeling in the country gratified with all he saw. His for them to increase very rapidly; manuscript is now nearly ready for and the people are too much engaged in all sorts of charities, at best of ginning to take the place of wood. very doubtful advantage. There is These mines are most extraordinary: now building in Philadelphia a Col- the coal is quarried out in large lege, with a marble front, for me- masses, in open day, like the stone chanics and labourers' sons.
of Craig-Leith and Salisbury Crags. I think your political economists The seams of coal are 100 feet deep are going mad, out-heroding Herod. and more, quite free from water. It seems that men in the possession Some of these coal-mines, 12 years of supreme wealth and power, ob- ago, sold for 62 cents per acre: tained by superior intellectual, sci- they are now selling for 400 dollars. entific, and mechanical improvement, Agriculture is increasing rapidly; can be as wild and heedless as those and, to bring all these resources into in the possession of supreme and un- action, the New York canal, 365 controllable political power: both miles in length, was begun in 1817, forget that they may be overturned. and is now finished. Below is When the Italians were living in another is to be begun forth with by palaces, the English lived in huts, that State, running from the Obie the huts have long since disappeare and Lake Erie to Philadelphia, which, ed, and the palaces are now falling for 300 miles, will pass through a into ruin. I really believe that you country full of coal, iron, copper, think the agricultural, manufactu- salt springs, timber, &c. A large ring, and naval resources of Eng- canal is now making, to unite the land, quite unassailable by any other Delaware and Chesapeake Bay; anocountry. Do not deceive yourselves. ther is to be made between the CheYou must stick fast to your prohibi- sapeake and Ohio, besides various tory system, or you are gone, and others, making and to be made, supinstantly * Even this will not serve plying many thousands with emyou. You forget that your present ployment. To detail all that is gowealth, superiority, and consequence, ing on would fill a volume. The are forced and artificial. The poli- progress of the State of Ohio, partitical and intellectual weaknesses of cularly, is very remarkable. Fifty other nations have made your years ago there was not a white man strength. This is neither a sound in it. It was thinly settled 30 years nor durable state of things. It is ago. The population is now near not at all warranted by the extent 1,000,000. It is full of handsome of your territory, natural resources, towns and villages, some of them of population, or climate, when these considerable size, and a few approachare considered in reference to other ing to superb. In this short period countries. Go on with your free. they had to clear the land of the trade system, and let other free Goheaviest timber, build all their counvernments get fairly under weigh, try houses and barns, their towns, (this country is now in part so,) and public buildings, churches, bridges, again I say you are gone. You must and steam-boats, make roads, &c. &c. be content to take your station in the Last year, for the first time, a nativeworld as Islanders above the 50th de- born Ohian came into their legislagree of northern latitude. I will give ture; this year three have been reyou some proofs of it: almost every turned. By the last census, in 1820, day is bringing to light additional the respective populations of Ohio evidence of the inexhaustible mi- and Massachusets were nearly the neral resources of this country, of the same, but there were upwards of first qualities, and fit for every pur- 60,000 more children under 10 years pose. These seem all to be upon the of age in the former than in the latsame vast scale with the land, rivers, ter. During their progress they bave and forests. Iron and salt-works are had several violent Auctuations and rapidly increasing, and coal is be- stagnations of trade, and in the prices
Every intelligent reader will see reasons for differing with this and several other opinions of our Trans-Atlantic friend. Our free-trade system, besides being the most advantageous that could be adopted in any circumstances, has been forced upon us by the altered circumstances of the ijmes. We could not avoid it, unless we chose to act the part of madmen, and put an end to commerce entirely.-ED.
of produce--serious evils and heavy reality, cheap, owing to the climate drawbacks in all countries. These and other circumstances. We do things were mainly caused by your not require so much as half the forced and overgrown monopoly, and labour the farmers do in England ; its consequences. Wheat has been and our men being better paid and sometimes as low as 25 cents. per fed, and more contented, do a great barrel, and Indian corn 125 cents. ; deal more work than the English. yet what is this State now doing? I am quite satisfied that I am cormaking canals to the extent of about rect in both these statements, as I 300 miles, upon which about 2500 speak of the general state of the case men are employed. Woollen and in both countries. There are idle, other manufactures are carried on worthless, and inefficient workmen here to a considerable extent. What everywhere. We do not incur the will be their condition fifty years same risk of storms in hay-time and hence at this rate? Your Edinburgh harvest as you do; if the drought Reviewer, speaking of the Corn injures us, which is but seldom, and Laws, makes two fatal mistakes; which may be greatly counteracted amongst others, he builds his theory by good farming, no additional exin part in favour of their abolition, pense occurs, but the contrary. I upon the prices of wheat and quan- purchased my farm four years ago : tities exportable in this country, down the first year I had 45 barrels of only to 1816 ; the prices and increase wheat, the land was miserably exof production since that time, and, hausted; last year I had 522, and above all, what this country is capas . every thing else in the same proporble of producing, he has wholly over- tion. The first year I had 30 acres looked. With the same system of of Indian corn ; last year 14 acres, farming (with modifications) as is and more grain than the first year. established in many parts of Eng. In four years more, I am confident land and Scotland, and there is I can make more than double this, nothing to prevent it, but, on the and others cun improve in the same contrary, it is going on,) the Ohian degree. farmer could afford to sell his wheat If your Government persist in their for 2s. 3d. to ls. 4d. per barrel. Those free-trade system, you may rely who are ignorant of this country, upon it, your farmers will soon be and of the inmense advantages and overwhelmed, your manufacturers superiority of that remarkable crop, and ship-owners will then follow. Indian corn, may doubt and deny Coarse cotton goods could even now the truth of this statement ; but one be sent to Manchester, if permitted. acre of this corn is worth two acres In the year 1840, the population of and more of turnips in England, the this country will be upwards of system of farming being the same. 25,000,000,-in 1860, upwards of Last year, hot and dry as it was, I 60,000,000 ; and long before this had 30 and 35 barrels of wheat per period, the grain, timber, iron, coal, acre on land which was far from copper, salt, &c. of the interior, will being restored to its original fertility. be brought to the coast at a trifling I am confident that land in England, expense. Your ships can then be in the same condition, would not driven froin the ocean without a shot have produced more than 20 or 21. being fired. Your economists should I manured the stubble immediately look to the future, and not build after harvest, and sowed Swedish their theory upon the present state turnips, and had as good a crop as I of things. Your writers, ministers, ever saw grow on similar ground in manufacturers, and merchants, may England. You could not stand distort and disguise this question as against this with your climate, weeds, they please, and hold up as many wet and cold summers, rents, tithes, lures as they think fit, to mislead taxes, game-laws, &c.; of course, I their own people and others, but you had Indian corn for my stock, beside cannot give up your present system, the turnips, after wheat. The chief You do not intend it, you dare not. and almost only expense here is la. There is more in the free-trade bus bour, which is any thing but an evil; siness than meets the eye, I suspect. shough nominally high, it is, in You have as yet only thrown out a few hints, apparently intended to in- Jonathan often paid, and still does duce other countries to continue to pay, for his blunders and delusion ; exchange their raw commodities for but his free government, enterprise, your manufactures, and to lead them and natural resources, will eventualaway, and prevent them from at- ly carry him triumphantly through, tempting to manufacture their cot- and enable him to beat down ali tons, and other raw produce, &c. unnatural competition, in spite of where it is fittest to be manufactu- his errors, and notwithstanding red-at home. As long as you can many impediments arising from your do this, you may still continue to superior skill and machinery, and keep the greatest part of the world the partly inefficient duties levied under contribution, without the aid on your manufactures here. With of an army to force it. Your manu. us, however, all kinds of manufacfacturers and others must be aware tures are increasing, and in many that they hold their present come things the market is closed to you manding station by a very precarious for ever, and it is yearly becoming tenure-their skill and machinery more contracted; but the subject is only, aided by restriction at home, endless, and I must here conclude. and ignorance and unskilfulness a- I suppose you heard of Birkbeck's broad. They will, of course, move fate: he was accidentally drowned heaven and earth in all sorts of ways sometime ago ; his settlement, I am to beat down manufactures abroad, told, is broken up. Owen has, 1 fear, and prevent them from taking root collected too many about him at once in foreign countries. All natural 10 begin well with, and many of advantages here, and artificial ones, them are sad trash.
These are two, in part, are fearfully against you; amongst others, of the rocks upon and you have many heavy political which poor Birkbeck split. burthens besides. You do not pro
I have no wish whatever to live in duce cotton, silk, dye-wood, wine, England, but a great anxiety to visit oil, sugar, rice, &c. &c.; this coun- it once more, which I hope to do in try can and does grow nearly all of a few years. Strange sensations will them. Your mines are expensive to sometimes come across the mind of work, and your timber is scarce and one who is exiled from his native dear. What you have to fear from country ; had tithes, and the gameFrance I do not know, but you laws, and some political disabilities, must look this way. So far, indeed, been removed, which ought to have you have contrived to bamboozle been the case long ago, I should Jonathan tolerably well, and led him in all probability never have abanto believe that it was the cheapest doned it. My education and feelings and most profitable system for him wholly unfitied me for their enduto carry his cotton, wool, and silk, rance. Whilst in England, I had a 3000 miles from home, and then great desire to carry a gun : since I fetch them again in a manufactured could do what I please, I have state. This is too absurd, not to drawn a trigger but once in eight mention your exports to this country years, and when I found the poor of iron, copper, salt, &c. which are
rabbit I killed had young ones, I was lying under our feet, and at our own sorry for what I had done. I am door: and all this when four-fifths now a fixture, under my own fig tree, of our people are scrambling away to with a good wife and a little fat, fair, the mountains, and up this river, and bony-faced, English-looking daughdown that, and God knows where, ter, and a stout young citizen about clearing forests, and civilizing sa- a month old, both named after those vages.
After all this, too, you shut I most valued, and those I was most your ports in our face, and send our
indebted to in England. I hope your poor fellows hawking our flour into health is long ere this quite restored, every nook and corner of the world, and, with my best wishes for its conand compel them to pitch it over- tinuance, believe me to be, board at last in the Pacific, or bring
My dear Sir, it back from Buenos Ayres, and sell Your most sincere and obliged it by auction at a ruinous loss in the
Friend, streets of Philadelphia. Dearly has
G. H. W.
MR JACOB'S REPORT ON THE CORN TRADE OF NORTHERN EUROPE. Whatever difference of opinion fied than ever, that, even with the may exist as to the policy of our utmost liberty of importation, it is Corn Laws, it was desirable by all impossible for this country to obtain parties to have a correct and authen- large and steady supplies of foreign tic statement of facts relative to the corn at a price much lower than condition of those countries from what we pay at this moment for corn which the chief supplies in ust come, of home-growth. To these concluon the supposition that our ports sions, it is apprehended, that every were wholly or partially opened to person must come who takes the the importation of foreign corn. trouble of perusing this invaluable With this view, Mr Jacob was sent Report. According to the scale of by Government, in the course of last ruinously-low prices of corn which year, to collect accurate informa- now prevail among the northern nation in Poland and Prussia, and in tions, there would, no doubt, be a the adjoining countries, for the pur- great hazard in admitting the quanpose of enabling Administration to tity there to be found without a duty judge of the condition of these coun- into our market; and it would be tries in reference to their supplies the height of injustice to those perof corn, and the effects likely to be sons who had invested large sums of produced in our own market, if our capital in agricultural operations, to Corn Laws were repealed or modi- destroy, by an immediate retrograde fied. The information which Mr system of legislation, the whole of Jacob has brought home is varied, that capital which had been laid out curious, and in a high degree valu- on inferior soils. We are satisfied, able. It will tend to dispel the cal- therefore, that Ministry have acted culations of ignorance and imperfect most fairly, under existing circuminforniation relative to these grana- stances, both to the land-owners in ries of Europe which he visited, and, this country, to the merchants who if we do not grievously mistake, it hold foreign corn, and the commuwill change the opinion of the majo- nity at large, when they have car. rity of that class in our country, who ried through a measure for the readhere, with such determined obsti- lease of bonded corn at a fixed duty nacy, as was evinced lately in Parlia of 12s. a quarter, and obtained the ment, to a system of Corn Laws leave of Parliament to permit, conwhich seem devised to enrich one ditionally, a considerable additional small portion of the country name- quantity of foreign corn to be imly, the land-owners, and to impover- ported into the country during the ish, to brutify, and to starve all the recess. This, we are satisfied, was a other classes in the community. It wise suspension of the present syswill be found, from this Report, that tem of Corn Laws,-a suspension the corn-growing terrorists in this called for, both by the unhappy country need be under no apprehen- state in which the manufactusion that they will be driven from ring part of the population are now the market, and reduced to ruin. It placed, and by the probability of will be clearly seen, that even with its being of great use to cornthe present deplorably low prices of growers in this country themselves, corn in Poland and Prussia, we by keeping the market at a steady could not obtain wheat from thence rate. Still, however, we cannot shut at a lower price than from 45 to 48 our eyes to the fact, which daily exshillings a quarter, and that, on the perience is making plainer, that, with supposition that a regular demand prices of corn so fluctuating and so existed for a considerable quantity high as they frequently are in this of grain for this country, prices would country, we shall, ere long, see our rise so high abroad, that little, if any, dealers in manufactured produce unadvantage would arise to our corn- dersold in the general markets of growers from an unrestricted impor- the world. What is the chief eletation. On the other hand, our ma- ment that forms our labourers? The nufacturers will now be more satis- answer undoubtedly must be-corn.