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h ch. iii. 5.
1 Cor. vi. 11.
i ch. xv. 3.
k chu vi. 4.
8, 10. Luke
viii. 6: xii.
11. m Luke xxii.
27. n Rom. xii. 10.
thou knowest not now, but thou shalt P know hereafter. 8 Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, h If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. 9 Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.
10 Jesus saith to him, He that I is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and 'ye are clean, "but not all. 11 For k he knew & who should betray him; t there
fore said he, Ye are not all clean. 12 So after he had 1 Matt. xxiii. washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was
1.Cor. set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have 1. Phil. ii. done to you? 13 1 Ye call me Master and Lord : and ye
say well; for so I am. 14 m If I then, your Lord and Coperty Master, have washed your feet; "ye also ought to wash P render, understand afterwards. q better, hath been bathed hath no need : see note. r render, yet.
or, him that was betraying. t better,
for this cause. vv.9, 10. (3) The great Act of Love, the Lord's words. The expression, if I wash laying aside My glory, and becoming in thee not, has awakened in him, as the the form of a servant, that the washing of Lord's presence did, Luke v. 8, a feeling the Holy Spirit may cleanse men. of his own want of cleansing, his entire afterwards) Taking up again the numbers pollution. 10.] Reference appears used in the last note, (1) was known very to be made to the fact that one who has soon, but (2) and (3) not till after the bathed, after he has reached his hoine, Spirit was given. 8.] The rash and needs not entire washing, but only to have self-opinionated Apostle opposes to our his feet washed from the dust of the way. Lord's afterwards his own never (literally, This bathing, the bath of the new birth, no, not for ever). In interpreting our but only yet in its foreshadowing, in the Lord's answer, we must remember, that purifying effect of faith working by love, He replies more to the spirit of Peter's the Apostles, with one exception, had; objection, than to his words. The same and this foot-washing represented to them, well-meaning but false humility would pre- besides its lesson of humility and brotherly vent him (and does prevent many) from love, their daily need of cleansing from stooping to receive at the hands of the daily pollution, even after spiritual reLord that spiritual washing which is ab- generation, at the hands of their divine solutely necessary in order to have any Master. See 2 Cor. vii. 1: James i. 21 : part in Him, Rom. viii. 9, “If I wash thee Acts xv. 8, 9: 2 Pet. ii. 22. not, thou hast no part with Me;' but the are clean, see note, ch. xv. 3. affirmative proposition, that those who are 12–20.] This act, a pattern of selfwashed, have a part in Jesus, is not equally denying love for His servants. true; witness the example of Judas, who 12. Know ye what I have done to was washed, but yet had no part with Jesus. you ?] These words are uttered, not so In the spiritual sense of washing, this is much in expectation of an answer, as to not so.
Whoever is washed by Jesus, has direct their attention to the following. part in Him. We are here in the realm
14.] The command here given must of another and deeper logic : the act being be understood in the full light of intellino longer syinbolic, but veritable. gent appreciation of the circumstances, 9.] The warm-hearted Peter, on learning and the meaning of the act. Bengel re. that exclusion would be the consequence marks, that one intent of our Lord's wash. of not being washed, can hardly have ing the feet of His disciples must neces. enough of a cleansing so precious. There sarily be absent from any such deed on our surely is implied in this answer an in- part: viz. its symbolic meaning, pressed cipient apprehension of the meaning of our by our Lord on St. Peter, “If I wash
1 Pet. ii. 21. 1 John ii. 6.
ch. xv. 20.
23. ver. 21.
t Matt. x. 40:
one another's feet. 15 For • I have given you an example, Matt. iki: 20. that
16 p Verily,
p verily, I
u The servant is not greater than Luke vi. 10. his lord : % neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him. 17 9 If ye know these things, 5 happy are ye if ye do q James i. 25. them. 18 I speak not of you all : I know whom I z have chosen : but that the scripture may be fulfilled, "He that bad liso: eateth bread with me [a hath] lifted up his heel against me. 19 sb Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is sch: siv. 20 :
20 t come to pass, ye may believe that I am he. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me : and he that receiveth me receiveth U render, There is no servant.
* render, nor apostle. y render, as usual, blessed.
2 render, chose. b render, From this time.
C render, as below, come to pass. thee not, thou hast no part with Me." but it is not so: I (for my part) know The command will rather find its fulfil. whom I have selected (viz. the whole ment in all kinds of mutual condescension twelve ; see ch. vi. 70, not only the true and help, than in any literal observance. ones, as in ch. xv. 16, said when Judas was “ In these times,” continues Bengel," pon- not present): but this has been done by titts and princes obey this injunction to the the determinate counsel and foreknowledge letter: but it would be a more wonderful of God, declared in the Scriptures.' thing to see a pontiff, for example, wash The words of the citation here are given the feet of one equal, than of twelve poor freely, the LXX having, “magnified the beggars.” The custom of literally and cere- lifting up of the heel against me.' monially washing the feet in obedience to This is another instance of the direct and this command, is not found before the unhesitating application of the words of fourth century. 15.] Notice that our the Psalms by our Lord to Himself. Lord commands us to do, not" that which I his heel] Bengel observes that this saying have done to you,” but “as, in like man- is pertinent to the washing of the feet, and ner as, I have done to you." Our Lord's also to the custom of reclining in eating action was symbolical, and is best imitated bread. See on ver. 23. 19.] . Now, in His followers by endeavouring, “if a man from this time, I announce it to you, that be overtaken in a fault, to restore such an when it shall have happened, you may beone in the spirit of meekness :" Gal. vi. 1. lieve that I am (the Christ).' See ch. xvi. 1, 16, 17.] The proverbial expression, and above on “ I know,” ver. 18.
20.] There is no servant greater than his lord, See Matt. x. 40. The connexion is very diffiis used here in a different sense from that cult, and variously set down. It has been which it has in ch. xv. 20. Here it is, “if the generally supposed that the words were to Master thus humbles Himself, much more comfort the Apostles for the disgrace of should His servants and messengers;" see their order by Judas, or in prospect of Matt. x. 24; Luke vi. 40; and on ver. 17, their future labours. But then would not Luke xii. 47, 48. The mere recognition of the words “whomsoever I send” have such a duty of humility, is a very much been expressed by “you ?” Another view more easy matter than the putting it in is to refer back to vv. 16, 17, and suppose practice. 18.] I say it not (viz. the the connexion to have been broken by the “if ye do them”) of you all: for there is allusion to Judas. But is this likely, in a one who can never be blessed. Our Lord discourse of our Lord ? I rather believe repeats His words, “but not all,” of ver. that the saying sets forth the dignity of 10, and the sad recollection leads to His that office from which Judas was about to trouble in spirit, ver. 21. I know] fall: q.d.‘not only was he in close interThe I is emphatic; and the reason of its course with Me (ver. 18), but invested emphasis is given in ver. 19. Con with an ambassadorship for Me, and in nexion : *It might be supposed that this Me, for the Father; and yet he will litt treachery has come upon Me unawares ; up his heel against Me. And the con
x ch. xii. 27. y Acts i, 17.
XX. 9: xxi. 7, 20, 24.
u Matt. xxvi. him that sent me. 21 u When Jesus had thus said, she xiv , 18. Luke was troubled in d spirit, and testified, and said, Verily,
verily, I say unto you, that Yone of you shall betray me.
22 Then the disciples looked one' on another, doubting z ch. xix. 267, of whom he spake. 23 Now ? there was e leaning on Jesus'
bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. 24 Simon Peter therefore f beckoned to him, 8 that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake. 25 He then h lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it? 26 Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give i a sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, [k the son] of Simon. 27 a And
I after the sop Satan entered into him. m Then said Jesus d render, his spirit.
e render, reclining at meat in. f render, maketh a sign.
8 The text is in confusion : some ancient authorities reading as abore, echile others have, and saith unto him, Say, who it is of whom he speaketh? render, leaning back.
i render, the. k not expressed in the original. 1 more strictly, after the
then Satan m render, Jesus therefore said,
a Luke xxii, S.
ch. vi. 70.
sideration of this dignity in all its privi. on divans or couches, each on his left side leges, as contrasted with the sad announce- with his face towards the table, bis left ment just to be made, leads on to the elbow resting on a pillow and supporting troubling of our Lord's spirit in the next his head. Thus the second guest to the right verse.
hand lay with his head near the breast 21–30.] Contrast of the manifestations of the first, and so on. whom Jesus of love and hate. See notes on Matt. xxvi. loved] The disciple meant is John himself, 21–25. Mark xiv. 18-21. Luke xxii. see ch. xxi. 20; also designated thus, ch. 21-23. 21.] See above. This was one of xix. 26; xxi. 7 (see Introduction to John, those mysterious troublings of spirit, which § i. 6). 24–26.] See note on Matt. ver. passed over our Lord,-ch. xi. 33 and xii. 27. 23. Peter characteristically imagines that
The word testified implies the delivery of John, as the beloved disciple, would know: some solemn and important announcement. but he, not knowing, asks of the Lord. This was the first time He had ever spoken 25. leaning back on Jesus' breast] I so plainly. All four Evangelists agree in understand it, that John, who was before the substance of the announcement. lying close to the bosom of Jesus, now 22.] In Matthew and Mark they express leaned his head absolutely upon His breast, their questioning in words. St. Luke's to ask the question. This escaped the beginning to enquire among themselves notice of the rest at the table :-see would appear to imply the same. Matt. as above. 26.] This represents seem called on here to decide a much-con- Matt. ver. 23, Mark ver. 20. troverted question,—where, in St. John's probably a piece of the unleavened bread, narrative, the institution of the Lord's dipped in the broth made of bitter herbs. Supper is to be inserted ? I believe certainly 27.] Bengel observes that it was before this announcement, as in Luke: after the sop, not with it, that Satan and if before it, perhaps before the washing entered into him. Observe the word sop, of the disciples' feet : for I see no break in this sentence, stands for the act in which would admit it between our ver. 1 which it played a principal part. This and ver. 21. 23.] Since the captivity, giving the sop was one of the closest testhe Jews lay at table in the Persian manner, timonies of friendly affection. The
unto him, " That thou doest, do quickly. 28 Now no man at the table knew for what intent he spake this unto him. 29 For some of them thought, because 6 Judas P had the b ch. xii. 6. bag, that Jesus [9 had] said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give something to the poor. 30 He then having received the sop went immediately out: and it was night.
31 Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Nowoch. xii. 23. is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him. a chemii.3 0i.e. What. P render, kept.
q omit. word then carries a graphic power and position, see ch. xii. 5. The gift to the pathos with it: at that moment.
poor might be, to help them to procure Satan entered into him] See ver. and their paschal lamb. 30.] The renote. Satan entered fully into him, took mark, and it was night, seems to be full possession of him,- - so that his will added to bring the whole narrative from was not only bent upon doing the deed of ch. xiii. 1 to ch. xviii. 3 into precision, as treachery, but fixed and determined to do happening on one and the same night. It it then and there. The words must be is perhaps fanciful to see, as many have understood literally, not as merely be- done, an allusion to the darkness in Judas's tokening the decision of his mind in the soul, or to the fact expressed in Luke xxii. direction of the devil's counsels.
53, “ this is your hour, and the power of What thou doest (art doing) . . .] These darkness ;" though doubtless there the words are not to be evaded, as being per. Lord alludes to its being also night : but missive or dismissive (this latter view is I quite feel, with Meyer, that there is taken by Chrysostom, who says, “The something awful in this termination-it words are not to be taken as commanding was night. or exhorting, but as reproaching, and inti- 31—XVI. 33.] HIS LOVE IN KEEPING mating that there was in him the wish to AND COMPLETING HIS OWN. And herein, act decidedly, but as he was undecided, 31-XIV. 31.] He comforts them with the the Lord permits him to depart and do assurance that He is going to the Father. it”). They are like the saying of God to 31—38.] Announcement of the factBalaam, Num. xxii. 20,-and of our Lord its effect on Peter. Here commences that to the Pharisees, Matt. xxiii. 32. The solemn and weighty portion of the Gospel course of sinful action is presupposed, and (ch. xii. 31–xvii. 26) which Olshausen the command to go on is but the echo of not without reason calls 'the most holy that mysterious appointment by which the place.'. He beautifully remarks, These sinner in the exercise of his own corrupted were the last moments which the Lord will becomes the instrument of the pur- spent in the midst of His own before His poses of God. Thus it is not “ What thou Passion, and words full of heavenly mean. art about to do," but—that which thou ing flowed during them from His holy art doing, hast just now fully determined lips :-all that His heart, glowing with to put in present action, do quickly love, had yet to say to His own, was comreproving his lingering, and his pretend. pressed into this short space of time. At ing (Matt. ver. 25) to share in the first the conversation with the disciples general doubt. 28.] Not even St. takes more the form of usual dialogue : John : who knew he was the traitor, but reclining at the table, they mournfully had no idea the deed was so soon to be reply to and question Him. But when done. Stier supposes St. John to exclude (ch. xiv. 31) they had risen from the suphimself in saying "no man at the table," per, the discourse of Christ took a higher and that he knew. 29.] The first form: surrounding their Master, the dissupposition agrees with ver. 1,-that it ciples listened to the Words of Life, and was “before the feast of the passover.” seldom spoke (only ch. xvi. 17, 29). Finally, Had it been the night of the passover, the in the sublime prayer of the great High next day being hallowed as a sabbath, Priest, the whole Soul of Christ flowed nothing could have been bought. On the forth in earnest intercession for His own whole question see notes on Matt. xxvi. to His Heavenly Father.' Olsh. ii. 329. 17, and ch, xviii. 28. On the second sup
31. Now is the son of man gloriVOL. I.
e ch. xvii. 1,
4, 5, 0. fch. xii. 23.
8 ch. vii.34;
ch. xv. 12,
32 [er If God be glorified in him,] God shall also glorify him in himself, and shall straightway glorify him. 33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: 8 and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you.
commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another ; 1.8.ampet. as I [t have] loved you, that ye also love one another.
35 i By this shall all men u know that ye are my disciples, John li. 5: if ye have love one to another. 36 Simon Peter 3 said
31 h A new
1. 22. 1 John
r omitted by many of the most ancient authorities : but probably by mistake in transcribing, from the two similar endings, in him ... in him. is.
omit. u better, perceive.
fied] It was not that the presence of Man hath done." 33. Little chil. Judas, as some have thought, hindered dren] This term,-here only used by the great consummation imported by this Christ, -affectingly expresses His not only glorification, but that the work on which brotherly, but fatherly love (Isa. ix. 6) for he was gone out, was the ACTUAL COM- His own, and at the same time their imMENCEMENT of that consummation. “Now mature and weak state, now about to be at length,” says Lampe, “as if an obstacle left without Him. as I said unto the were broken down, the rushing rivers of Jews] “He would not say this to his grace flow from the lips of Jesus.” It is disciples before, but to those who rejected true that Judas's presence hindered the ex- Him.” Bengel. But naturally the two pression of these gracious words.
The clauses, “Ye shall seek Me and not find glorification is spoken of by anticipation, Me, and shall die in your sins,' also spoken as if accomplished, because the deed was to the Jews (ch. vii. 33; viii. 21), are here actually in doing, which was to accom- omitted : and by this omission the conplish it. The glorifying spoken of here, and nexion with ver. 34 is supplied ;_Ye shall in ver. 32, is not the same. This is the be left here: but, unlike the Jews, ye shall glorifying of God by Christ on earth, in seek Me and shall find Me, and the way is His course of obedience as the Son of that of Love,-to Me, and to one another Man, which was completed by His death --forming (ver. 35) an united Body, the (" he became obedient even unto death,” Church, in which all shall recognize My Phil. ii. 8). And His death was the presence among you as My disciples.' transition-point between God being glori. 34.] The newness of this commandment fied in Him, and He being glorified in consists in its simplicity, and (so to speak) God-manifested to be the Son of God unicity. The same kind of love was prewith power by His resurrection, and re- scribed in the Old Test. (see Rom. xiii. 8): ceived up to the Father, to sit at the right _'as thyself' is the highest measure of hand of God. This latter (ver. 32) is love, and it is therefore not in degree that spoken of by Him here as future, but im- the new commandment differs from the mediate (straightway) on His death, and old, nor in extent, but in being the comleads on to the address in ver. 33. 32.] mandment of the new covenant, -the firstin himself is in God (the Father), not in fruit of the Spirit in the new dispensation Christ. The word himself reflects back on (Gal. v. 22); see 1 John ii. 7,8 (and note), the subject of the sentence : and in does where the word new is commented on by not mean by means of;' but keeps its the Apostle himself. 35.] all men,literal force;-by the resurrection of Him all the world, and the object is to be, not into that glory, which He had indeed mere vain praise or display before the before, but now has as the Son of Man, world, but that men may be attracted by with the risen Manhood; so “glorify thou the exhibition of the Spirit of Christ, and me with thyself," ch. xvii. 5. Grotius won over to Him. The world, notwithcompares 1 Sam. ii. 30, which stands in standing this proof of His presence among the LXX, “them that glorify me I will them, shall hate them : see 1 John i. glorify.” Origen remarks, “The Father 10–15. But among all men they themrecompenses to Him more than the Son of selves are also included – brotherly love is