Зображення сторінки
PDF
ePub

giving the results obtained in several series of determinations, in order that the amount of experimental error may be estimated. Curves exhibiting the graduation of several strips are also given; and from these the author concludes that the determinations agree as well as can be expected from such photometric experiments, the mean error between the positions 40 and 80 min. on the strip in one series of graduations not exceeding 1 per cent, of the measured intensity. To each fixed strip a Table is attached, giving the intensity of the light which must act for 1 second upon the standard paper, in order to produce the tints at each millimetre of the length of the strip.

The methods of exposure and reading are next described. The exposure of the paper is effected very simply by pasting pieces of standard sensitive paper upon an insolation band, and inserting the band into a thin metal slide having a small opening at the top and furnished with a cover, which can be made instantly to open or close the hole under which the sensitive paper is placed. When one observation has thus been made, and the time and duration of the insolation noted, the remaining papers can be similarly exposed at any required time; and thus the determinations can be very easily carried on at short intervals throughout the day.

The reading-instrument consists of a small metallic drum, furnished with a millimetre scale, and upon which the graduated strip is fastened. The drum turns upon a horizontal axis, and the insolation band, with the exposed papers upon it, is held against the graduated strip, so that by moving the drum on its horizontal axis the various shades of the strip are made to pass and repass each of the papers on the insolation band, and the points of coincidence of tint on the strip and on each of the exposed papers can be easily ascertained by reading off with the monochromatic soda-flame.

In the next section of the paper the author investigates the accuracy and trustworthiness of the method. This is tested in the first place by making simultaneous measurements of the chemical action of daylight by the new method and by means of the pendulum photometer, according to the mode described in the last memoir, upon which the new method is founded. Duplicate determinations of the varying chemical intensity thus made every half-hour on four separate days give results which agree closely with each other, as is seen by reference to the Tables and figures showing the curves of daily chemical intensity which are given in the paper. Hence the author concludes that the unavoidable experimental errors arising from graduation, exposure, and reading are not of sufficient magnitude materially to affect the accuracy of the measurement. As a second test of the trustworthiness and availability of the method for actual measurement, the author gives results of determinations made with two instruments independently by two observers at the same time, and on the same spot. The tabulated^ results thus obtained serve as a fair sample of the accuracy with which the actual measurement can be carried out j and; the curves given represent graphically the results of these double observations. From the close agreement of these curves, it is seen that the method is available for practical measurement.

In order to show that the method can be applied to the purposes ot actual registration, the author gives the results of determinations of the varying intensity of the chemical action of total daylight at Manchester on more than forty days, made at the most widely differing seasons of the year. These measurements reveal some of the interesting results to which a wide series of such measurements must lead. They extend from August 1863 to September 1864; and Tables are given in which the details of observations are found, whilst the varying chemical intensity for each dayis expressed graphically by a curve.

As a rule, one observation was made every half-hour; frequently, however, when the object was either to control the accuracy of the measurement or to record the great changes which suddenly occur when the sun is obscured or appears from behind a cloud, the determinations were made at intervals of a few minutes or even seconds.

Consecutive observations were carried on for each day for nearly a mouth, from June 16th to July 9th, 1864; the labour of carrying out these was not found to be very great, and the results obtained arc of great interest. By reference to the Tables, it is seen that the amount of chemical action generally corresponds to the amount of cloud or sunshine as noted in the observation; sometimes, however, a considerable and sudden alteration in the chemical intensity occurred when no apparent change in the amount of light could be noticed by the eye. The remarkable absorptive action exerted upon the chemically active rays by small quantities of suspended particles of water in the shape of mist, or haze, is also clearly shown. For the purpose of expressing the relation of the sums of all the various hourly intensities, giving the daily mean chemical intensities of the place, a rough method of integration is resorted to: this consists in determining the weights of the areas of paper inscribed between the base-line and the curve of daily intensity, that chemical action being taken as 1000 which the unit of intensity would produce if acting continuously for twenty-four hours. The remarkable differences observed in the chemical intensity on two neighbouring days is noticed on the curves for the 20th and 22nd of June 1864: the integrals for these days are 50-9 and 119, or the chemical actions on these days are in the ratio of 1 to 2-34.

The chemical action of light at Manchester was determined at the winter and summer solstices, and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes: the results of these measurements are seen by reference to the accompanying curves. The integral for the winter solstice is 4-7, that of the vernal equinox 36-8; that of the summer solstice 119, and that of the autumnal equinox 29*1. Hence, if the chemical action on the shortest day be taken as the unit, that upon the equinox will be represented by 7, and that upon the longest day by 25.

[graphic]
[graphic]

The results of simultaneous measurements made at Heidelberg and \Ianchester, and Dingwall and Manchester, are next detailed.

From the integrals of daily intensity the mean monthly and nnnunl chemical intensity can be ascertained, and thus we may obtain a knowledge of the distribution of the chemically acting rays upon the earth's surface, such as we possess for the heating rays.

Figure showing curves of daily chemical inteusity at Manchester, in spring, summer, autumn, and winter.

[graphic]

INDEX To VOL. XIII.

A.BEL (F. A.) on some phenomena ex-
hibited by gun-cotton and gunpowder
under special conditions of exposure to
beat, 204.
Acid, liquid stannic and metastannic, on
the preparation of, 340.

— , liquid titanic, on the preparation of,

340.

■ . , liquid tungstio, dialysis of, 340.

', molybdic, decomposition of, 341.

—i—, on a colloid, a normal constituent of
human urine, 314.
-, silicic, and other analogous colloidal

substances, on the properties of, 335.
Acids derivable from the cyanides of the
oxy-radicals of tho di- and tri-atomic
alcohols, 44. of the lactio series, notes of re-
searches on, 140.
Admission of Fellows, 276, 278.
Aerial tides, 829.
Air-pump, description of a now mercurial,

321.
Airy (G. B.), first analysis of 177 mag-
netic Btorms, registered by the magnetic
instruments in the Royal Observatory,
Greenwich, from 1841 to 1857, 48.
Albumen, on organic substances artificially

formed from, 350.
Alcogel, 337.
Alcosol, 337.

Algebraic equations, on tho differential
equations which determine the form of
the roots of, 245.
Alizarine, 87, 150.

Alkaloids, researches on isomerio, 303.
Amyloid substance met with in tho animal
economy, further observations on, 317.
Anaesthetics, effect of, upon blood, 159.
Aniline-blue, on, 9.
Aniline-yellow, on, 6.
Anniversary Meeting, November 30,1863,
1 21; November 30, 1864, 494.
Annual Meeting for election of Fellows,

June 2, 1864, 276.
Arc of meridian, at Spitzbergen, on the

measurement of, 83. , preliminary survey for the measure-
ment of an, at Spitzbergon by tho Swe-
dish Government, 551.

Attraction, local, uncertainty occasioned
by, in the map of a country, 18, 253.

Auckland (Earl of), letter from, concern-
ing Sir J. South's experiments on the
vibrations occasioned by railway trains,
68.

Barometer, description of an improved

mercurial, 160.
Bayma (Rev. J.) on molecular mechanics,

126.
Beale (L. S.), new observations upon the

minute anatomy of the papilla) of the

frog's tongue, 884. , indications of the paths taken by

the nerve-currents as they traverse the

caudate nerve-cells of the spinal cord

and encephalon, 386.
Berkeley (Rev. M. J.), Royal Medal

awarded to, 35.
Bernard (C), elected foreign member, 277.
Biliverdin, on tho supposed identity ot,

with chlorophyll, 144.
Binocular vision, on the normal motions

of the human eye in relation to, 186.
Blood, on the influence of physical and

chemical agents on, 157. , on tho reduction and oxidation of

tho colouring-matter of the, 355.
Blood-vessels, on the distal communication

of the, with the lymphatics, 327.
Boole (Q-.) on the differential equations

which determine the form of the roots

of algebraic equations, 245.
Bruniqucl, description of the cavern of,

and its organic contents (Parti.), 277.

Calculus of symbols, on tho, (fourth me-
moir) 126, 4231 fifth memoir, 227,
432.

Candidates for election, list of, March 3,
1864, 153.

, list of selected, May 12, 1864, 228.

Capello (Senhor) and Stewart (B.), results
of a comparison of certain traces pro-
duced simultaneously by the self-record-
ing magnetographs at Kew and at Lis-
bon; especially of those which record
the magnetic disturbance of July 15,
1863, 111.

« НазадПродовжити »