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in preventing the acquirement of just denote a steady and progressive adsentiments, but in giving positive en-vance. . Against the existence of such a 'couragement to falsehood, is incal- progression, all history testifies, Where 'culable. It were to be wished, that the now are the illustrious empires of anleaders, or those who profess to be the tiquity! Where the glorious republics leaders, of opinion in the religious of Greece, glorious at once in arts and world, would condescend to affix a more in arms? Where the proud city, whose definite meaning to their words, or, at dominion extended to the ends of the least, employ words less liable to mis earth? Where even the followers of construction.

those primitive churches which were at • To check the growth of error of once most pure and most numerous in every kind, political or religious, many the apostolic age? Are we not compersons affect to rely solely on what pelled to say with echo, “where are they term the “narch of the public | they ?" The art of printing will, doubt, mind.” This phrase, which at best is less, be alleged as a ground for inof dubious meaning, is rendered totally dulging more favourable anticipations ludicrous by the unsparing use made of of the future condition of man; and, it by shallow declaimers, who wish to we are disposed to give all due weight pass for philosophers. Is there af to this argument. It must yet be grievance unredressed at home, or an | borne in mind, that this art, though it aggression of power abroad-is a papal may give permanence to truth, cannot, bull fulminated against the Bible, or unaided, infuse just sentiments into the emancipation refused to Papists : minds of the people, To do this, two The march of public opinion is the ex- other requisites must be found -a gepected flood that must sweep before it neral extension of education, enabling every evil incident to humanity. Pro- even the poorest classes to avail thembably, the visionaries, who have con-selves of its benefits; and, what is of stantly in their mouths this summary most importance, though least conof their political knowledge, would be sidered, a general taste for reading. somewhat disconcerted, were we to To inspire this, will be found exceeddemand from them a definition of their ingly difficult; since most men, even terms, or a reason for believing either of the educated classes, are unwilling in the unity, or the irresistible force of|to incur the labour of abstract thought, public opinion. Does the experience of There is (as we have shown) eveu ? past ages warrant us to expect a uni. danger arising from the partial cultiversal agreement of mankind in truth? | vation of mind-a danger of which Does it not rather give us reason to the Jesuits know how to avail themfear, that error may prove predomi- selves. It is their practice, in edupant? “Public opinion" must mean cating the youth of their community, the opinion of a great majority; that to occupy the imagination almost solely. majority consists of individual men, With this view, the young scholar is and these individuals form their opi-made perfectly conversant with the pions as much from views of interest, Latin poets, and is encouraged to praca as from a love of truth, naked and un tise the art himself, while he is directed adorned. In politics, this is every day totally to neglect the historians, the exemplified ; even the doctrines of uni- philosophers, and moralists of antiversal equality, have obtained the as. quity. "The Greek language, too, from sent of a niajority. Let us allow, that the study of which may be acquired. men may have a general agreement in greater vigour of thought, justness of just sentiments; we cannot thence con- sentiment, and clearness of conception, clude that they will act energetically than from almost any other, is thrown according to their convictions, or that entirely into the back ground, if not their acts will be successful. The sys-wholly prohibited. The object of these tematic union of a few has, in all ages, precautions is evident. It is to preven been found more than a counterpoise enquiry, to introduce an effeminacy of for the desultory and divided efforts of soul that shall disqualify their students the many. It must ever be so; and, for the investigation of truth, or for therefore, we are disposed to lay very | conducting a continued train of reason little stress on the march of public ing. Their art is successful; by this opinion. What, indeed, is this march? | diabolical mutilation of the mind, mor If of any signification at all, it must hurtful far than any injury done to

body, they render their youth frivolous | nority of King James VI., it was in danger in their taste, vaccillating in their pur- of being overthrown by the artifice of the suits, and subject entirely to the con- Duke of Lennox, a Papist, and a creature troul of feeling. How ill qualified per- of the French court, who had acquired sons possessed of such dispositions are

ondue ascendency over the young king.

| Through his influence, matters were be. for shaking off their yoke, every one at

ginning to assume a new appearance; and, all acquainted with man is able to both the national liberties, and the Protesjudge. The success of the Jesuits tant religion, were in the utmost peril." ought to suggest to those who desire to “ This change on the court could not fail to oppose their aims, many useful hints in alarm the ministers of the church, who had conducting their schemes of general received satisfactory io formation of the proeducation. Let these plans be, as much ject that was on foot. Their apprehensions as possible, adapted to call forth the were confirmed by the arrival of several reasoning powers; let them check any

Jesuits and seminary priests from abroad, undue excitement of feeling or ima

and by the open revolt of some who had

hitherto professed the Protestant faith. gination; let them effect, what Pro

They accordingly warned their hearers of fessor Stewart entitles, the highest the danger they apprehended, and pointed excellence of a philosophical education, at the favourite as an emissary of the house a complete development of all the of Guise and of Rome. Lennox, after faculties in that relative degree of force, holding a conference with some of the miwhich gives to their combination its ut nisters, declared himself a convert to the most efficiency.

Protestant doctrine, and publicly renounced It is to the extension of such a mode

the Popish religion. The jealousy of the of education, rather than to the ope

nation was revived and intiamed by the in

terception of letters from Rome, granting a ration of any system of coercion, that

dispensation to the Roman Catholics to prowe look for security from future en- fess the Protestant tenets for a time, provided croachments of papal intolerance. On

they preserved an inward attachment to the this point we differ from our author. ancient faith, and embraced every opportunity Convinced, though we be, of the in- of advancing it in secret. This discovery sidious pretences and treacherous pro was the iminediate occasion of that.mefessions of modern popery, of its entire morable transaction, the swearing of the identity of character with the ancient national covenant." M-Crie's Life of Melchurch of the dark ages, we yet cannot

ville, vol. i. p. 262. . perceive the policy of coercive laws. How, in fact, do these laws operate to

For further illustrations of the same prevent danger? Is it not by excluding / subject, we may refer our readers to those persons alone who have the page 287. From these facts, we think honesty to make an open profession

it sufficiently evident, that penal laws of their attachment to Rome? But, if have no other effect against this body, the representations usually given of the

usually given of the than to induce them to do that secretly, bad faith of Romanists, and of their which they would otherwise have done pious frauds, be founded on truth, (as

in public. An open enemy is, how. we believe them to be) we are at a loss

ever, more easily and safely combated, to understand by what enactments a

than a concealed one; and, therefore, Jesuit can be prevented from in

with the full conviction that Papists sinuating himself into the highest are enemies, we would decline attemp. offices. That such have been the arts

ting to restrict them, by sọ feeble and of the Popish adherents, the Protestant inefficacious a barrier. Were Dissenbimself testifies, by narrating the fact, ters generally admitted to a full particithat certain seminary priests went só pation of privileges, they would form far in the reign of Elizabeth, as to

| by their numbers, and especially by assume the character of Protestant their zeal, a sufficient counterpoise to divines, that they might have it in the power of the Papists. Unless this their power to instil their sentiments general admissibility of all sects could into the minds of the unsuspecting |

be obtained, we should most heartily populace.

join Mr. Mc Gavin in opposing “ Catho

lic Emancipation," as a partial, unjust, “ The following," (he tells us) “is a

and highly formidable measure; unjust, short specimen of their intrigues in our own not because it would admit Catholics, but country. After the Reformation had been because it would exclude Protestants. carried a considerable length in the mi The principal subjects discussed in

VOL. VIll.

the volume before us, are, the infallibil- / much, he is in danger of losing what ity of the Pope-clerical celibacy-the he had; since by discovering his weakInquisition--extreme unction, and Je- ness in one point, he runs the risk of suitism. One general remark suggests being suspected in many. itself on reading these discussions; it! To what, after all, does the concesis, that there is no doctrine so absurd, sion amount: The phrase is obviously só utterly untenable, as not to com- metaphorical, and the only rational inmand the assent of those who are interpretation must be, that the Christian terested in propagating, or even in be- church should owe its origin, in part at lieving it. Papal infallibility is one of least, to the exertions of Peter. When these absurdities; yet something like from this, Papists conclude, that he argument has been attempted in favour was the supreme apostle, and that his of it. The supremacy of Peter among the successors (if he has any) inherit his apostles, is the first link of the chain, powers, they evidently assume what is and it is deduced from Matthew xvi. 18. not to be found in their premises: their “ Thou art Peter, and upon this rock argument is baseless. The reasoning I will build my church.” It is acknow- consists of three propositions, every ledged on all hands, that this transla- | one of which is false. 1st. That Peter tion does not give the sense of the was the head of the church. 2nd, That original; we therefore subjoin Dr. the Romish Popes are his regular sucCampbell's version. "Thou art named cessors. 3rd, That being successors, “rock-and on this rock I will build they inherit his authority and infalli“ my church, over which the gates of bility. The proof of the first position “hades shall not prevail." In the note must dépend entirely on Scripture, traconnected with this verse, the transla- dition being of no avail, unless in the tor justly observes, that in the Eng-absence of this authoritative guide. It lish translation, the allusion to the is unnecessary to add, that, tried by name, though specially intended by our such a standard, the assertion is not Lord, is totally lost. The question only groundless, but false. Were it here is, to what preceding word or even true, we may safely defy the clause do these Tautn tn Terpa refer? Church of Rome to produce “ a particle Is it to the immediately preceding, “ of evidence that Peter transmitted hetpos or to the remotely preceding de-“his power and authority to any man claration of Peter, “Thou art the " whatever." The early churches were Messiah” &c. By the common rules as different from modern Popery, in of grammatical construction, the near their constitution, their officers, and est antecedent should be preferred, un- discipline, as day from night. They less some palpable reason be produced acknowledged no submission to the for passing it over. We have heard Bishop of Rome, until he became armthe difference of gender assigned as a ed with civil power to compel their sufficient reason; but this is rendered obedience. Of the accuracy of this null by the fact that fet på and morpos are assertion, we subjoin the following convertible terms." Mr. Mc Gavin is proofs. “In the time of Pius IX, correct in stating their primary signifi- | Bishop of Rome, A. D. 142. Marcion cation to be a moveable stone; but cer- having been excommunicated for de tainly mistaken in attributing to either bauching a virgin, fled from his native of them that meaning in the present city, Sinope, to Rome.” He there apinstance," Let the mere English scho-plied to the elders of that church, enlar substitute this translation in the treating them to admit him to their common version, and he will at once communion. “We cannot" (said they) perceive its futility. For further infor- "as we are all united in the same faith mation, however, we refer to Schleus. and the same sentiments, undo what ner's Lexicon of the New Testament, our holy colleague, your father, has a work of uncommon merit; which, done." What then becomes of Rome's upon this subject, confirms the render-boasted supremacy? “Victor, whose ing of the Romish church.

| government of the Romish Church, In surrendering this contested point, | began A. D. 192. attempted to imposé we are convinced the “ Protestant” | upon all the churches, the Roman cuswould have shown more wisdom thantom of observing Easter: he even in the efforts he makes to sustain his threatened to cut off from his comown assertion. By grasping at too munion, Polycrates, one of the most eminent men in the church, unless he very pithily sums up the argument complied with the practice." Upon against Papal infallibility, in these receiving a refusal, Victor proceeded to words, “Who can believe in the Pope's execute his threat, and sent informa | infallibility, when he reads of a Libetion to the other Bishops, of what he rius admitting and signing the Arian bad done. What was then their con- crecd, declared heretical by all his sucduct? They all joined, says Eusebius, cessors ; of an Honorius condemned by in sharply censuring and rebuking him the fathers of the sixth æcumenical as a disturber of the peace of the council, as an organ of the devil, for church." In reward for this attempt holding the heresy of the Monothelites; to extend her authority, the Church of of John XXII. propagating both by his Rome has placed Victor among her missionaries and legales a lutere, a docsaints. We have room for only one trine which he himself retracted on erample more of the total independence his death-bed; of seven Popes cursing of churches in the early ages. A. D. all who denied that the Franciscan 253, a dispute aruse on the question, Friars had no property, and another whether baptism, administered by here- Pope as heartily cursing all who maintics, was valid ? Stephen, then Bishoptained this tenet; and even recurring to of Rome, affirmed that it was not, and the ultima ratio of the later Popes, the wrote to the Bishops of Africa, a letter | faggot, in order to root out of the church remarkable for pride and arrogance. (these are his very words) so pestilenHe begins with the dignity of his See, | tial, erroneous, heretical, and blaspheand his pretended succession to St.mous a doctrine !" Peter: he attempts to confute the Of the Inquisition, so much has been arguments of his opponent; he then written, that we think it unnecessary to proceeds to commands and menaces, dwell upon its history. The mere rethreatening to cut off from the com-cital of its horrid deeds, must be suffi. munion of the church, all who should cient to produce in every unprejudiced re-baptize heretics, and concludes with mind, unmixed horror and detestation. a bitter invective against Cyprian. The Our author seems to be of the same latter, in reply, charges Stephen with opinion, as he confines himself to a pride and impertinence, with self con- detail of atrocities. Of these, if there tradiction and ignorance, with indiscre- be any more dreadful than the rest, tion, obstinacy, and childishness. A they are those practised upon the Wal council was summoned to decide the denses, about the end of the twelfth controversy, consisting of 85 Bishops, century. “We are informed by Lima great number of Presbyters, and borch, &c. page .158, “ all who are acDeacons, and a considerable part of cused, and put to this trial, a few exthe people. Cyprian, in his opening cepted, were condemned to the flames," discourse, uses these words, “Let none page 159. By continued extracts from of us set up for the Bishop of Bishop's; Jones's History of the Waldenses, the let none of us presume to reduce our“ Protestant” prolongs his tale of sorcolleagues by a tyrannical fear, to the row, and, at length leaves the subject, necessity of obeying.” The discourse not from want of authentic materials, being finished, each Bishop delivered but from very disgust and weariness.. his opinion, all approving the baptising Had we not already over-stepped our of heretics. As might be expected limits, we might here, from very strong from his zeal for spiritual dominion, ground, impugn the absurd doctrine of Stephen is a saint of the Romish calen- passive obedience. If that doctrine be dar: his body was buried A. D. 257. in irue, the Waldenses had no right of the cemetery of Callistus, whence it resistance; they sinned against him was translated about the year 762, by who made them, in opposing those that Paul I. to a monastery of Greek Monks, I would destroy them. They raised their which that Pope had built at Rome. arms in rebellion against heaven, in: How it got from thence to Teiani, in using them to prevent the merciless Apulia, nobody knows, but from that slaughter of their wives and little ones.' city it was conveyed, with great pomp, Can there be a greater absurdity than in 1682, to Pisa, in Tuscany, where it such an accusation-an assertion so is still worshipped in a church bearing fraught with the direst consequences the pretended saint's name." Bower's to humanity? Lives of the Popes. The same author,. We will carry the argument a step

farther. Is there any man so totally I possession of them. Liberty to wora bereft of feeling, so dead to every en-ship his Maker, according to his own nobling principle, as not to indulge his conscience, is every man's indubitable indignation during the mere narration right. To refuse it him is oppression : of these enormities? If there be so and if he is forbidden to stretch forth callous a wretch, we may surely ex- his own hand in his own defence, the clude him from any connection with prohibition nullifies his right. To that religion, whose essence is kindness plead for liberty of conscience along and compassion. Every Christian, we with passive obedience, is to be guilty are bold to say, will think it no wise of self-contradiction. Yet the asserters unbecoming his profession, to indulge, of these heterogeneous sentiments, proand to declare openly, his abhorrence fess to venerate the memory of the and indignation. In so doing, he is, as reformers. Why do they so, since we think, acting justly; but he is at those reformers must have transgresthe same time in principle, though not sed a divine command ? It is (add in act, a man-slayer. The passion of these disputants,) not on account of anger is implanted in our nature for their having done wrong, but on acwise purposes-when justly excited, it count of the blessings which their do. is innocent, and may be even laudable; ing wrong has conferred on us; that is, but,' (we repeat) it is the principle of to use the words of an eloquent writer, manslaughter; and if there be crim-“ They are willing to sit under the inality, it must reside, not in the act, shade of that tree of liberty, which but in the principle. If, therefore, was watered by the blood and tears of anger be not on all occasions sinful, their forefathers,” while they denounce neither is the destruction of a fellow them as criminals, for having planted creature on all occasions sinful. The it. What generosity of sentiment! asserter of passive obedience, in order What nobleness of feeling! What to preserve his consistency, ought to consistency of reasoning! read of the horrid acts of the Inqui. Omitting the discussion respecting sition without emotion; no curdling of extreme unction, we come next to Je. the blood, no clenching of the hands, suitism. The author shews, by exno start of horror. Can he do so? He tracts from the Sesreta Monita of this may then congratulate himself on his order, their knavery and ambition. Christian submission: we envy him not Papists, we know, deny the authentihis attainments.

city of this code; but this denial forms Even the most ignorant must know only a part of their regular system of that our deliverance from the tyranny tactics. They deny, likewise, the acof the Romish priesthood, was owing curacy of Bower's Lives of the Popes, to the resistance of our brave ancestors, from which we have quoted; although, to the “powers that were." Yet their if that writer had intended a fraud, it names are had in veneration, and that cannot be supposed that he would have too, for the very deeds, which, if un- done what he has, viz. given his ausuccessful, would have branded them thorities for almost every assertion. a's traitors. Can success then justify | They deny, too, the gunpowder plot ; an action, which the want of success at least, they deny that it originated would have rendered criininal? Im- with them. What historical fact, in possible. The rules of morality are short, do they not deny, if it bear at not so fluctuating. The action must all against the interests of their church? be in itself right, or we could not con. This part of their practice is worthy scientiously give our approval. We do of their whole system of fraud and not forget, however, that there are imposture.. some persons who applaud the event, The machinations of the Jesuits while they condemn the means, and have not ceased the trick now is, to yet, most inconsistently, acknowledge assume every appearance of liberalitythat without these means, the event Their object is to lull suspicion, and could not have been accomplished. they are not unsuccessful. Surely this is the drivelling of super-! The following will show the counte. stition. Man can have no rights with- l nance which they receive from Protestants out the power of maintaining them. in Manchester, in the same county:-" On To deny him the right of maintaining the 27th of September last, a magnificent his sights is, in fact, to deny him the chapel, dedicated to St. Augustin, was con

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