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rights of property, and the greater the tendency towards harmony and peace, the more rapid must be the growth of the productive power, with correspondent increase in their own proportion of the lo quantity of commodities produced: FREEMEN, that true liberty is inconsistent with interferences J with the rights of others, and that in the most perfect subordination is to be found the road to harmony, peace, and freedom : FREE-TRADE Advocates, that the more varied the production of a community, the greater must be the commerce in the bosom of nations, and the greater their power to maintain commerce with the world : ADvoCATES OF woMEN's RIGHTs, that the road towards elevation of the sex, lies in the direction of that varied industry which makes demand for all the distinctive qualities of woman : ANTI-SLAVERY ADVOCATEs, that freedom comes with that diversification of pursuits which make demand for all the various human powers, and that slavery is the necessary consequence of a system which looks to an exclusive agriculture: DiscIPLEs of MR. MALTHUs, that the Creator had provided self-adjusting laws, regulating the movement of population; that the treasury of nature was unlimited in extent; that demand produced supply; and, that the power to make demand increased with | ho in the number of mankind : PHILosophers, that war, pestilence, and famine, were the result of man's errors, and not of errors of the Creator—the Great Being, to whom we are indebted for existence, having instituted no laws tending to thwart the objects of man's creation: REFoRMERs, that nature always works slowly and gently, when she desires that man shall profit by her action, and that man would do well to follow in the same ot. one of the greatest of all precepts being found in those two most simple words— l festina lente : *

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* “The path of mere power to its object,” says Schiller, “is that of the cannon-ball, direct and rapid, but destroying every thing in its course, and destructive even to the end it reaches. Not so the road of human usages, which is beaten by the old intercourse of life; that path winds this way and that, along the river or around the orchard, and securely, though slowly, arrives at last to its destined end. That,” says he, “is the road on which blessings travel.”

“The same general truth may be often seen exemplified in our republican legislation. There is a legislation, altering, reforming, innovating; but all upon deliberate investigation, slow and cautious inquiry, and consultation in every quarter where light and knowledge may be gained. There is also the legislation of mere theory—sometimes the theory of the mere closet speculative reasoner — much oftener that of another sort of theorist, who calls himself a practical man, because he infers his hasty, general rules from his own narrow, single experience, (narrow, because single,) as a judge, a lawyer, or a legislator. Such legislation, when it prescribes great and permanent rules of action, resembles the railroad of the half-learned engineer, who runs it straight to its ultimate end, over mountain and valley, through forest and morass. Disregarding alike the impediments of nature and the usages and wants of human dealings, he attains his end by the shortest way, but at immense expense, with an utter disregard of private right and public convenience. “A wiser and better way is that which, in adopting the improvements of modern science, applies them skilfully in the direction that experience has found to be the most easy, or which time, or custom, or even accident, has made familiar, and therefore convenient. That road winds round the mountain, and skirts the morass, turns off to the village or the landing-place, respects the homestead and the garden, and even the old, hereditary, trees of the neighborhood, and all the sacred rights of property. That is the road on which human life moves easily and happily—upon which “blessings come and go.” “Such may we make that road on which justice shall take its regular and beneficent circuit throughout our land—such is the character we may give to our jurisprudence, if we approach the hallowed task of legal reform in the right spirit—if we approach it not rashly, but reverently—without pride or prejudice—free alike from the prejudice that clings to every thing that is old, and turns away from all improvement; and from the pride of opinion that, wrapped in fancied wisdom, disdains to profit either by the experience of our own times, or the recorded knowledge of past generations.”—WERPLANck: Speech on Judicial Reform. * “Nothing is more adverse to the tranquillity of a statesman (says the author of an éloge on the administration of Colbert,) than a spirit of moderation; because it condemns him to perpetual observation, shows him every moment the insufficiency of his wisdom, and leaves him the melancholy sense of his own imperfection; while, under the shelter of a few general principles, a systematical politician enjoys a perpetual calm. By the help of one alone, that of a perfect liberty of trade, he would govern the world, and would leave human affairs to arrange themselves at pleasure, under the operation of the prejudices and the self-interests of individuals. If these run counter to each other, he gives himself no anxiety about the consequence; he insists that the result cannot be judged of till after a century or two shall have elapsed. If his contemporaries, in consequence of the disorder into which he has thrown public affairs, are scrupulous about submitting quietly to the experiment, he accuses them of impatience. They alone, and not he, are to blame for what they have suffered; and the principle continues to be inculcated with the same zeal and the same confidence as before.”—Quoted by WAKEFIELD : Preface to Wealth of Nations, Vol. I., p. xci.

STATESMEN, that power and responsibility went hand in hand together; that upon their action depended the decision of the great question, whether those whose destinies had been committed to their care, should go forward in the direction of the real MAN, master over nature and master of himself, or decline in that of the mere animal having the form of man, treated of in RicardoMalthusian books; and that failure to qualify themselves for the proper exercise of the powers confided to them, was a crime, for the effects of which they must answer to their fellow-men, and to Him from whom that power had been derived:*

CHRISTIANs, that the foundation of Christianity and of Social Science is found in the great precept—ALL THINGs whatsoevKR YE woulD THAT MEN SHOULD Do To You, Do YE EVEN So To THEM.

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Abandonment of the richer soils of India, i. 354. Absence of machinery in the British West Indies, i. 299, 302. of regular demand for labor, in purely agricultural countries, ii. 21, 156. In Ireland, iii. 30. In England, iii. 35. In Scotland, iii. 37. Absenteeism, of the British West Indies, i. 297. Of Ireland, i. 334. Grows with the growth of centralization, iii. 229. Of Great Britain and the United States, iii. 229. McCulloch on, iii. 231. and over-population grow together, i. 462. Acceleration of the societary motion, i. 383, ii. 269. Accumulation, of, iii. 48. How affected by increase or decrease in the rapidity of the circulation, i. 279, iii. 49. Action and reaction essential to the existence of harmony, i. 46, ii.268, iii.464. Acts of incorporation, effects of, iii. 415. Adaptability of the procreative tendency in man, to the circumstances under which he exists, iii. 271, 286. Adulteration of commodities, a consequence of the separation of consumers from producers, iii. 324. Ad valorem duties. How they affect morals, iii. 207. Advantages to the farmer, resulting from proximity of the market, i. 279, ii. 29. of commerce over trade, as exhibited by Adam Smith, ii. 108. of an honest international policy, iii. 454. of co-operation over antagonism, iii. 153. Advocates of woman's rights. How they might profit by the study of Social Science, iii. 470.

Afraia. A picture of Lapland life, ii. 457.

Africa. Course of settlement in, i. 133. Abandonment of the rieher soils of, i. 143. Large proportion borne by movable to fixed capital in, iii. 55. Fertility of soil, and scarcity of population in, iii. 357.

Agriculture. The great pursuit of man, i.221. Requires the largest knowledge, and therefore last in its development, i. 221. No words properly expressive of the great difference between that of the earlier and later periods of society, i. 229. Becomes developed as the market is brought nearer to the place of production, i. 272. The pursuit that is most exposed to danger from the events of war, ii. 26. Early development of, in Belgium, ii. 27. Absorbs a constantly-increasing proportion of the powers of an advancing society, ii. 27. Loses its gambling character, as employments become diversified, ii. 33. Declines as the market becomes more distant, ii. 35. Of Italy, ii. 35. Of France, i. 87, ii. 51, iii. 88. Of England, ii. 79, 93. Of Denmark, ii. 114. Of Spain, ii. 121. Of Russia, ii. 150. Of the United States, ii. 213. The last and highest of human pursuits, iii. 468.

and manufactures of England at the close of the 17th century, as exhibited by Andrew Yarranton, i. 399. Agricultural communities. Little commerce of, i. 367. Causes of the weakness of, ii. 40. How they are taxed by the British system, ii. 88. Waste of labor in, ii. 101, iii. 22. Grow from without, iii. 447. The more their growth, the greater their dependence, iii. 447. development and decline. How (473)

they affect the prices of rude products,
ii. 265,267. -
Agricultural risks diminish, as consumers
and producers approach each other, i.
Agriculturist becomes free, as employ-
ments become diversified, ii. 28. Last
to be emancipated, iii. 468.
, skilled, always making a ma-
chine, ii. 28.
Alabama. Effects of the cotton culture
in, ii. 88. Exhaustion of the soil of,
ii. 198,242.
Allen. His Philosophy of the Mechanics
of Nature, iii. 318.
Alliance, constant, of war and trade, i.
217. How it exhibits itself in France,
ii. 43; in Great Britain, i. 377, iii. 462;
in the United States, ii. 238.
All matter susceptible of being made use-
ful to man, i. 178.
All men seek commerce : some men desire
to perform acts of trade, i. 210.
America, the United States of. How the
feeling of responsibility exhibits itself
in, i. 59. Exhaustion of the soil of, i.
83, ii. 198, 212. Course of settlement
in, i. 107. Abandonment of the richer
soils of, i. 144. Conduct of, toward
their weaker neighbors, i. 372. Popu-
lation of, ii. 180. Extraordinary con-
trasts presented to view by, ii. 177.
Tendency to association in, ii. 178.
De Tocqueville on the liberty of, ii. 178.
Tendency to dispersion in, ii. 180.
Erroneous policy of, ii. 181. Early
tendencies of the government of, ii. 182.
How affected by the wars of the French
revolution, ii. 183. Variable policy of,
ii. 183. Navigation laws of, ii. 186.
Failure to protect the farmers of, ii. 188.
Decline in the prices of the rude pro-
ducts of the soil of, ii. 188, 197, 271.
Phenomena observed in, directly the
reverse of those of the advancing coun-
tries of Europe, ii. 190. Small export
of food from, ii. 193. Loss to the
farmers of, consequent upon the neces-
sity for exporting food, ii. 194. How
the laborers of, are affected by a rise
in the price of food, ii. 195. Exhaust-
ive effects of cotton cultivation in, ii.
198. Small productive power of the
slave States of, ii. 199, Causes of de-
cline in the prices of rude products of,
ii. 202. Evidences of growing civiliza-
tion not to be found in, ii. 204. Prices
of raw materials and finished products
become more widely separated in, ii.
205, 275. Tendency towards the ex-
tension of slavery in, ii. 206. Vast
amount of power placed by nature at
the command of the people of, ii. 208.
How combination increases individual

powers in, ii. 209. Dispersion of the
population of, ii. 209. Great waste of
powerin, ii. 210,278,281. Erroneously
held by modern economists to be

cially devoted to agriculture, ii. 211.
Waste of the constituents of food in, ii.
212. Lee, Dr., on the exhaustive effects
of the policy of, ii. 213. Likely to stand
with Greece and Rome among the ruins
of the past, ii. 214. Growing central-
ization of, ii. 215. Consolidation of
the land of, ii. 216. Stevenson on the
emigration of, ii. 217. Causes of the
growth of slavery in, ii. 218. Increase
in the proportion of laborer's products
absorbed by traders and transporters
in, ii. 218. Growing power of both
in, ii. 220. Revenue of, ii. 220. Effects
of protection and free trade in, ii. 225,
274. Instability and its effects in, ii.
227, 273. Sales of public lands in, ii,
231. How those sales affect the prices
of rude products in, ii. 232. Dimin-
ishing power of combination in, ii. 233.
Unsteadiness of the societary move-
ment in, ii. 234. Phenomena presented
by the industrial history of, ii. 235.
Great waste of capital in, ii. 235. High
rate of interest in, ii. 236. Policy of,
adverse to the creation of local centres,
ii. 236. Warlike tendencies of, ii. 238.
Diminution of rural population in the
older States of, ii. 240. Manufactures
almost stricken from the range of em-
ployments in, ii. 242. Consequent thirst
for public office in, ii. 243. Decline of
individuality in, ii. 245. Growing dis-
cord in, ii. 246. Increasing risk of loss
by fire in, ii. 247. Recklessness in, ii.
248. Speculative and gambling spirit
in, ii. 249. Growing demoralization
of, ii. 251. Pro-slavery tendencies of,
ii. 252. Mechanical ingenuity in, ii.254.
Frequency and rapidity of changes in,
ii. 257. Phenomena of the last ten
years of the history of, ii. 257. Growth
of pauperism in, ii. 264, 277. Declin-
ing power of, ii. 264. Policy of, ad-
verse to growth of civilization, ii. 271.
Consumption of iron at various periods,
in, ii. 276. Power of accumulation in,
ii. 279. Growing dependence on the
distant market, exhibited in, ii. 281.
Taxation for the use of roads in, ii. 282.
Consumption of cotton in, ii. 284. How
the planter is taxed by free trade in, ii.
284. How immigration affects the
farmers of, ii.286. Ultimate cause of the
phenomena exhibited in, ii. 287. How
slavery is affected by the dispersive
tendencies of the policy of, ii. 287.
Declining individuality in the people
and government of, ii. 289. Movement
of the precious metals in, ii. 316. How

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