« НазадПродовжити »
admiral Sir Edward Vernon, who commanded the English fleet at the taking of Pondicherry, and died 1794 ; and of the famous historian Mrs. Macaulay Graham, who died here in 1791.
LAWRENCE WALTHAM, ten miles west of Windsor, appears, by the several Roman coins that have been dug up here, especially of the later emperors, and by the ruins of bricks, &c. to have been once a considerable Roman fort. It stood in a field now called Weycock Highrood, which contains one hundred and fifty acres, entirely open and free of trees, on the most elevated spot of which was the Roman fortress called Castle Acre, where also a variety of Roman antiquities have been ploughed up. The church is very antient; it contains several tombs of the Neville family, the first representative of which, by a female heir, is the right honourable Richard Aldworth Neville Griffin, lord Braybrooke, bigh steward of Wokingham, &c. whose seat is at Billingbear, in this neighbourhood.
In WHITE WALTHAM, the adjoining parish, were discovered many Roman bricks and tiles. THOMAS HEARNE, the architopographer of the university of Oxford, and a famous collector of antiquities, was born here in 1680, and died at Oxford in 1735.
The small parish of Shottesbroke, claims the honour of being the residence of the pious and learned HENRY DODWELL, Camden professor of History at Oxford, the friend and patron of Hearne; in the churchyard is the tomb of Francis Cherry, Esq. the friend of both those eminent men. The inscription on his monument is singular : “ Hic jacet Peccatorum marimus. Obiit anno dom. 1713, Sept. 13. Anno ætatis 48.”
On the banks of the Thames is seated BISHAM. The manor was given by William I. to Henry de Ferrars; whose grandson Robert, earl Ferrars, bestowed it, in the reign of king Stephen, to the Knights Templars, who are said to have had a preceptory in this place. Upon the suppression of that order Bisham passed to Thomas, duke of LanCaster, Hugh le Despencer, and Eubulo L'Estrange. Ed. 3 | 2
ward III. granted it to William de Montacute, earl of Salisbury, who erected a monastery for canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, which was surrendered to Henry VIII. Within the precincts of the monastery were interred several of the noble family of Montacute, earls of Salisbury, particularly Thomas, “the mirror of all martial men, who, in thirteen battles, overcame, and first trained Henry V. to the wars."* Yet this could not check the destruction of his tomb, nor those of his house, who had shone in the battle of Poitiers, and other great actions, for the service of their country! To shew the versatility of Henry's disposition, after the dissolution of this monastery as a minor religious house, the king restored it, increased its possessions, and changed its establishment to an abbacy; it soon, however, was finally dissolved, when its revenues were estimated at 6611. 145, 9d. The site was granted by Edward VI. to the Hoby family, the last of whom died in 1766. It was purchased by George Vansittart, Esq. one of the knights of the shire, of the widow of Sir John Hoby Mill, bart. who died in 1780, and is now his residence. The only remains of the abbey is the doorway to the house.
In a chapel of the parish church is a window richly or namented with the arms and quarterings of the Hoby family; the church contains many memorials to the same family.
STUBBINS, in the parish of Bisham, is the property and residence of the earl of Dorchester.
MAIDENHEAD is a corporation town, distant from London twenty-sis miles. It is said to have had its name from an head worshipped there before the Reformation, of one of the eleven thousand virgins, that, the legends tell us, were martyred with St. Ursula ; yet it was incorporated, in the twentysixth of Edward III. by the name of “The Fraternity or Guild of the Brothers and Sisters of Maiden Hithe;" the * Shakespeare.
more antient name was South Ealington. It lies in two parishes, Bray and Cookham. The chapel in th etcwn is a neat modern building, not subject to episcopal visitation, and the minister is appointed by the inhabitants.
The market is on Wednesday; it has also three fairs, on Whit Wednesday, Michaelmas Day, and St. Andrew's Day. The stone bridge over the river Thames, with thirteen arches, six brick and seven stone, was begun in 1772, and cost upwards of 20,0001.: the architect was Sir Robert Taylor; it was originally of timber. his town, now so considerable, did not begin to fourish, till, by the building of its bridge, travellers were brought this way, who before used a ferry at that time called Babham's End, two miles north of it. The barge pier bridge is maintained by the corporation, for which they are allowed the tolls both over and under it. The barge pier divides Berks from Bucks. There is a great trade here in malt, meal, and timber, which they carry in their barges to London.
As this is the great tho . roughfare from thence to Bath, Bristol, and other southwest parts of England, the, adjacent wood or thicket has been noted for many robberies.
James II. incorporated it by the name of Mayor and Aldermen, with liberty to chuse a high steward and a steward ; so that their present magistracy consists of a mayor, a high steward, a steward, and ten aldermen, out of which last two bridge masters are chosen every year; but they send no members to parliament. The mayor and his predecessors, and the stewards, are justices. The mayor is also clerk of the market, and coroner, and is judge of the court, which he must hold once in three weeks. He, likewise, holds two sessions in a year. Here is a gaol both for debtors and felons. Eight almshouses were erected in the town by James Smith, Esq. citizen of London, in the year 1659, for eight men and their wives, who are allowed four shillings a week, and one pound ten shillings a year for coals ; also a coat and gown once in two years. BRAY, a village on the Thames, between Maidenhead
and Windsor, is noted in a famous song, for its vicar, who, according to Fuller, changed his religion four times in the reigns of Henry VIII. and his three successors; keeping to one principle only, that of living and dying Vicar of Bray, The story is told with some variations, but the fact is not questioned.
Ockholt House, the antient seat of the family of Norreys, is still standing. In the hall is a large bay window full of coats of arms in stained glass, among which are those of the abbey of Abingdon, and of the Norrer's family, with the motto “ feythfully serve.”
At Bray is an hospital, founded in 1627, by William Goddard, Esq. for forty poor persons, who are each al. lowed a house, and eight shillings a month. At Braywick, are several seats of the gentry.
IT appears from various authorities that this county was antiently inhabited by the Cattieuchlani, and the Ancalites, at the Roman invasion; under their government it formed part of the division of Flavia Cesariensis ; after being the scene of much warfare between the Roman Britains and Saxons, it was included in the kingdom of Mercia. The origin of its naine is variously conjectured; Camden de, rives it from the Saxon word Bucken, the beech tree ; Spelman, Willis, &c. imagine the etymology to be traced to Bu in, bucks or deer, with which this vast tract of country antiently abounded,
It is bounded on the north by Northamptonshire; on the east by the counties of Bedford, Hertford, and Middlesex; on the south by Berkshire; and on the west by Oxfordshire. Buckinghamshire is about forty-five miles in length, eighteen in breadth, and one hundred and thirty-eight in circumference, containing five million eighteen thousayd four hundred acres, eight hundreds, sixteen market tow:s,
one hundred and eighty-five parishes, about twenty-one thousand houses, and one hundred and seven thousand four bundred and forty inhabitants.
The soil of this country is principally composed of rich loam, strong clay, chalk, &c. The principal rivers are the Ouse and the Thame. The interchange of traffic has been much facilitated by the Grand Junction Canal.
Buckinghamshire is mostly in the diocess of Lincoln; it sends fourteen members to parliament; pays twelve parts of the land tax; provides the militia with five hundred and sixty men; and is in the Norfolk circuit.
Our circuit of this county, within thirty miles of London, commences at DATCHET, a village on the Thames, between Eton and Staines. The wooden bridge here, built by queen Anne, fell down in 1795, and has not since been rebuilt. Below this bridge, the banks of the river are enriched with handsome villas, commanding a fine view of Windsor Castle, &c. Among these, Ditton Park, the seat of the earl of Beaulieu, is worthy of notice. It was built by Sir Ralph Winwood, secretary of state to James I. on the site of a mansion which had been occupied by cardinal Wolsey. It is surrounded by a moat. The apartments are spacious and finely painted ; and in the gallery there is good collection of pictures. The park is famed for its antient majestic oaks. The manor of Datchet, after several grants, belonged to Mr. and Mrs. Whitfield, in 1730; the late duke of Montague purchased it in 1742 of their representatives ; and it is at present the property of his daughter, the duchess of Buccleugh.
In the parish church are the monnments of lady Catharine Berkeley, and Christopher Barker, Esq. printer to queen Elizabeth.
DATCHET MEAD has been rendered famous by Shakespeare, for the pranks of the Merry Wives of Windsor, and the disasters of Sir John Falstaff.
ETON, a village on the Thames, is situated opposite Windsor, and famous for its royal college and school, founded by Henry VI, in 1440, for the support of a pro