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Fig. 259.-U. S. L. One Unit Starting System in Which Combination

Motor-Generator Replaces the Engine Flywheel.

means of universal fittings which attach across the front of the frame and are adjustable in every possible way so as to fit the car properly. With this arrangement no drilling or machine work is necessary. In connection with the new cranking motor there is also brought out a positive drive for the Kemco fan generator. This gives an improved two-unit starting and lighting system with which a car can be completely electrically equipped. The overall dimensions of the cranking motor are 9 by 7 inches. Its weight is approximately 3 pounds and since the weight of the generator is 11 pounds, the two principal units total less than 50 pounds.

A special two-unit electric starting and lighting system for Ford cars has also been brought out, operating on the same principle as the larger one but adapted especially for the Ford.

Hartford Starting System.—The wiring diagram at Fig. 258 shows clearly the method of connecting the various appliances forming part of the Hartford starting and lighting system. This is a 12 volt, two wire starting system, with a connection so the lamps receive their current from the battery on the three wire system. The two terminals of the generator are connected to the storage battery in the usual way, one directly to a terminal, the other through the automatic cutout. When the knife-switch is closed, the battery current flows through the motor windings and turns the engine crankshaft. The connections are so clearly shown that further description is unnecessary. The speed of the generator armature is governed by the centrifugal governor, which is designed to keep it at 1200 revolutions per minute. The lighting switch is of the selective barrel type, having three positions of the handle, one of which will give the head and rear lamps, the intermediate position lighting the side and rear, while the last position sends the current through all the lamps. This switch is not shown in the diagram.

U. S. L.-Jeffery System. The complete starting system shown at B, Fig. 259 used on 1913 and 1914 Jeffery cars, is one in which the motor-generator replaces the gasoline engine flywheel. This means that it is directly connected to the motor crankshaft and does not employ any reduction gearing of any form. The various members comprising the starting system are indicated in heavy

Regulator, automatically makes the rate of charging battery same at any engine speed

Motor Generator

Starting button; when pressed the electric motor

starts the gasolene engine

Conduit for wiring

Twenty-four volt

storage battery

Switch with the gasoline engine running, and the

starting button released, this switch automatic-
ally changes the electric motor into an electric
generator for charging the storage battery

Fig. 260.-View of Complete Automobile Chassis Showing the Application of U. S. L. One Unit Starting and

Lighting System, in which the Motor-Generator Forms Part of the Power Plant Flywheel.

black lines, while the rest of the chassis is shown in light black lines. The system is simple and easily understood. An automatic switch which changes the electric machine into a generator for charging the storage battery when the gasoline engine is running and the starting button is in its released position is one of the important parts. The regulator which makes the rate of charging the battery the same at all engine speeds is placed on the dash. The simple operation of depressing the starting button when the gasoline engine is not turning changes the flywheel generator into an electric motor that draws current from the twenty-four volt storage battery and which rotates the motor crankshaft. A Jeffery motor, with unit motor-generator replacing the flywheel, is shown at A, Fig. 259, while the complete system in its relation to the other parts of the motor car chassis are shown at Fig. 260.



Indications of Trouble in Gray & Davis Systems-Faults in Motors and

Generators—Commutator Faults--Fitting Brushes—Faults in WiringCare of Lamps and Storage Battery-Delco System Troubles—Testing for Defective Windings-Defects in Dyneto Systems—Troubles in BoschRushmore System-Remy System Faults.

This portion of the treatise is intended primarily for the mechanic who may be confronted with more or less complex problems in caring for and repairing the electrical system, though the instructions given are sufficiently complete and so simply expressed that the motorist can avail himself of them. The mechanic who has had experience on electrical apparatus has invented methods whereby he checks or tests various parts of the apparatus, but quite often these checks or tests are not infallible. It is the aim of this chapter to point out to the mechanic the most practical manner of making reliable tests. The importance of searching for trouble in a systematic manner cannot be too strongly emphasized. The expert always follows a definite course of procedure in locating derangements, the amateur works in a haphazard manner and seldom accomplishes anything. One finds trouble by a process of search and elimination, the other finds it by good fortune if the fates are kind.

Locating Troubles in Gray & Davis System.-In event of trouble with the Gray & Davis lighting system, the makers recommend a careful study of the symptoms, which will usually provide a guide to find the component at fault. The indicator on the dash shows positively any failure of the generator or any break in the wiring. If the indicator does not indicate "charge” when the engine is speeded up but shows “discharge” when lights are turned on and the engine at rest, the dynamo or current regulator is not


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