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judging intellect, and their servants, the limbs, are required for all that lies beyond the instinctive nurture of infancy—thus furnishing the suggestion, that infant societies may supply their animal wants, without the intervention of an executive intelligence in making the provision. In the more mature life of the community, however, as in the developed growth of the individual, a head, with its executive ministers, is not only essential, natural, and beneficial, but absolutely indispensable. The government—representing, as it does, the intelligence of the body, physical and social — has a duty and a use, and therefore, a right to a place in the natural order. While ministering to the well-being of the body, it may not, and, as we see, it does not, intervene in that sphere of life which is nearest its central movements. Laisser faire is there the law — ruling all that has already been appropriated. Elsewhere, we find regulative help in bringing the sustenance of the body within its reach, and guardianship in warding off all disturbing and injurious influences from without — giving liberty to the internal life, and protection to the z social life—that protection, too, embracing both assistance and defence. Further, the digestive and assimilative organs are numerous and variously related in their several offices — each individual having its own peculiar function, although intimately interlinked with its associates in the same general process. They are a lesser society—a corporation of converting laborers. The stomach, liver, pancreas, intestinal tube, and lacteal vessels, are principal members of the association— all, however, subjected to the incorporating influence of the great sympathetic nerve, which, while binding them into corporate unity, frees them also from the control of the governing brain, to such extent as is required for securing their due efficiency in their proper offices. Nevertheless, while supplied with nervous power by a special and separating set of nerves, each individual one has a branch of direct communication with the central nervous mass. In other words, their sympathy and interdependence among themselves, are closer and more complete than between any of them and the all-governing brain. They can even perform their functions so far as to sustain life, for a short time, and in an inferior degree, when the agency of the brain is entirely, withheld — doing this, however, much less
advantageously than when its influence is rayed out upon them, as it is in a state of perfect health. In reptiles, the digestive apparatus continues to act long after the head has been severed from the body. In the human foetus, the growth of the body seems to be quite perfect, even where the brain is wholly absent. In the case of the animal, the life of relation is a very feeble one, but in that of the child it is wholly absent—the intervention of the brain being, therefore, of slight importance to either. At birth, however, the acephalous foetus of the human race perishes, for want of the co-ordinating brain-power—the decollated tortoise doing the same, after a few hours of the like deprivation. The necessity for a co-ordinating power appears, therefore, to erist in the direct ratio of development. The analogy we have sought to trace, here affords the corre/spondence. In a state of absolute isolation, or that of feeble and imperfect social relation, man, denied, as he is, the protecting and assisting aid elsewhere resulting from combinations of men with their fellow-men, has but a low grade of individual existence. In the healthy maturity of society, as in that of the man, the independence of the individual, though embracing many of his most important interests, cannot be entire, either in extent, or in degree. The connection of the societary man with his fellows is a double one — its analogue being found in the vegetative organs. The sympathetic system of nerves receives branches directly from the brain and spinal marrow, throughout its entire course in the neck, thorax, and abdomen — the organs which it supplies, as the stomach, liver, and pancreas, having, besides, an immediate connection with the brain and spinal cord by means of nerves sent directly to them. The societary man has his independency rooted in his original relations with his fellow-men — threads of common life holding him in a general dependency upon every neighbor man—organized government, meanwhile, representing his fellows in their aggregate, and stretching its lines of support, protection, and harmonizing restraints, over all the points in which his life has v its relative issues. Moreover, physiologists tell us,” that in addition to the sensitive nerves which, receiving impressions from without, convey them to the sensorium, and the motor nerves which transmit the resulting impulses from the brain to the muscles, there are other nerves which, in like manner, receive impressions to be conveyed, not to the sensorium, but to local or ganglionic centres, quite distinct from the common sensorium — exciting in those centres, reflex motor impulses, which are carried by their associate efferent nerves, and inducing the answering muscular movements without any direct intervention of sensation or volition; that is, without involving that portion of the brain in which resides the governing power. The actions over which this set of nerves, connected with these local centres in the axis of the system, are held to preside, are such as the propulsion of food along the oesophagus, the motion of the chest in ordinary respirations, and like processes, all of which are well carried on in infancy, in reveries, in sleep, and in disease—generally without consciousness, and, of course, without volition, or impulse from the throne-room of the mind. Even the muscles of locomotion, although promptly responsive to the will, and under the guidance and direction of the perceiving and reflecting forces of the intellect, have yet the capability of performing their offices without, and independently of, such direction and government. They also belong, in one of their dependencies, to the simple excito-motory system of nerves which have their centre of origin and termination in their own ganglions, or local centres. Thus, even organs which are eminently under the rule of the sensorium, or principal and supreme portion of the cerebral mass, are also provided with a proper life which endows them with spontaneity; in other words, which takes them from under the sole and constant government of the mind—they being, nevertheless, held in its command for all other uses and purposes, remote from their individual and independent functions. In this brief and imperfect outline of the nervous functions, we have three grand classes of vital agencies: first, the regular and symmetrical nerves, called cerebro-spinal, centering in the sensorium, and ruling all the others for the general well being, as well as for performing their own special offices; second, the excitomotory set, serving in those offices of the body which are sometimes spontaneous, and, at others, in the exigencies of the individual life, taken under the control of the sensorial or voluntary system, to be employed in extraordinary, or, as we may call them, social uses; third, the great sympathetic or visceral nerves, wholly
* DUNglison : Human Physiology, vol. i., p. 99.
dedicated to the vegetative life, but rooted in the brain and spinal cord, and modified in their offices by branches from the same source, which meet them in their ultimate agency—there influencing them according to the exigencies of the body corporate. ... We have here a system of checks and balances—a harmony secured among severalties — a government maintained among spontaneities — a liberty and an order realized—a rule of law, and a dominion of intelligence — in the individual man, which presents the very type and model of that aggregate man designated as society. There are, here, neither compromises, expediencies, nor functional equalities. Competency and ability are enthroned —giving us subordination, without sacrifice — authority, without usurpation — intervention, without interference. Most important of all, government is not abdicated — service is not reserved, yet liberty remains uninvaded—the result being found in the securing
of the highest welfare of all the parts.
The theory of political government of these United States is in an obvious general harmony with the vital economy, as it has been here exhibited. The individual, having rights and interests with which no one ventures to interfere — the atom, in its proper isolation—scarcely feels the rein of a nerve of the ruling functionaries, though receiving the vital impulse, and the nourishing circulation, in equal partnership with masses of the highest organization. The family, held together by its proper sympathetic ties, is obedient to an almost unconscious influence on the part of the central life — meeting its restraints and directions only when its offices link it to its daily augmenting relations. The school district has powers which it exercises independently of that larger society from which it derives its powers, and to which it is responsible for the rightful exercise of its functions — the cerebro-spinal nerve touching it only for necessary government. The township enjoys a similar independence—feeling the corresponding control of the county. The county holds its franchises under similar conditions of freedom and limitation. The State is sovereign in all remoter and more general relations, consistent with the supremacy of the Union — that, again, being supreme only in what is essential to the harmony and well-being of the whole of the great confederacy.
§ 2. Social science here branches into political economy—the ` former treating of the laws which govern man in his effort to secure for himself the highest individuality and the greatest power of association with his fellow-men, and the latter of the measures required for so co-ordinating the movements of society, as to enable the laws to take effect. To Galileo, Newton, and others, we have been indebted for a knowledge of the laws of motion, but it is to another and widely-different class of philosophers—to men like Watt, Arkwright, and Fulton, we owe the power to profit of the laws discovered. Careful study of the law is indispensable to success in practice, it being, in the words of M. Comte, by means of a “knowledge of the laws of phenomena, of which the invariable result is foresight, and by that alone,” that we can so conduct ourselves in active life, as to be enabled to “modify the one by the other, to our advantage. In short, science whence foresight, foresight whence action — such,” he says, “being the simple formula which expresses the general relation of science and art.”
Men approach each other, prompted by a desire for association, and by a consciousness that their own strength and power will be increased by combination. Met together, thousands of cases occur, in which unenlightened selfishness is found opposing itself to measures looking to the promotion of the good of all— measures, in the benefits of which, those so acting would participate. Such being the case, it becomes soon obvious that some \ certain persons must act as umpires, empowered so to co-ordinate and determine the movement of the societary body, as to call into activity all the powers of its members, while requiring each and all to hold in due respect the rights of those around them—the object sought to be obtained being that of removing obstacles which stand in the way of association and combination. The duties to be performed by the persons so empowered, are thus precisely the same with those that, in the physical body, are assigned to the brain, and the health of the social body must as much depend upon their due performance as does that of the physical one upon the performance by the brain of the duties assigned to it—abdication, without injury, being no more possible in the one case than in the other. Order having been well defined, by M. Guizot, as being “only the free and certain exercise of