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ceeded to consecrate them by a prayer, and the people strewing palms before it. commencing “I conjure thee, thou crea- Googe's Naogeorgus says :ture of flowers and branches, in the name of God the Father," &c. This was to
A woodden Asse they have, and displace the devil or his influences, if he
Image great that on him rides,
But underneath the Asse's feete or they lurked or were hidden in or about
a table broad there slides, creature of flowers and branches."
Being borne on wheeles, which ready drest, Then followed a prayer wherein he said,
and al things meete therfore, with crosses, “ We humbly beseech thee The Asse is brought abroad and set that thy truth may + sanctify this crea
before the churche's doore: ture of flowers and branches, and slips The people all do come, and bowes of palms or boughs of trees, which we offer,"
of trees and Palmes they bere, &c. Then the “creature of flowers and
Which things against the tempest great branches " was fumed with smoke of
the Parson conjures there, frankincense from the censers, and there
And straytwayes downe before the Asse, were other prayers with crossings, and
upon his face he lies,
Whome there an other Priest doth strike they were sprinkled with holy water with this supplication : “ Bless + and sanc
with rodde of largest sise :
He rising up, two lubbours great tify + these branches of palms, and other
upon their faces fall, trees and flowers,” &c. Then the sacrists
In strauuge attire, and lothsomely, distributed the palms to the abbots, priors,
with filthie tune, they ball : and nobler persons, and the flowers and Who, when againe they risen are, leaves to the others. When this was
with stretching out their handle, done the procession moved, and after- They poynt unto the wooden knight, wards made a stand while two priests
and, singing as they stande,
Declare that that is he that came brought a Pascal in which the crucifix
into the worlde to save, was laid; afterwards the banner and
And to redeeme such as in him cross-bearers filed off to the right and to
their hope assured have : the left, and the boys and monks of the
And even the same tha: long agone, convent arranged themselves, and, after
while in the streate he roade, a short service, the priests with the tomb, The people mette, and Olive-bowes headed by the banner and cross, passed
so thicke before bim stroade between the monks, who knelt as they This being soung, the people cast passed. When they came to the city
the braunches as they passe, gates they divided again on two sides, Some part upon the Image, and and the shrine being put on a table, was
some part upon the Asse : covered with cloth. Above the entrance
Before whose feete a wondrous heape
of bowes and braunches ly : of the gates, in a place handsomely pre
This done, into the Church he strayght pared with hangings, were boys with
is drawne full solemly : other singers whom the chanter had ap
The shaven Priestes before them marche, pointed, and these sang, “Gloria, Laus,"
the people follow fast, Glory, praise,” &c. After having made Still striving who shall gather first a procession through the city, they re
the bowes that downe are cast : turned to the convent-gate, where the For falsely they beieeve that these shrine was laid on the table and covered
have force and vertue greal, with cloth, and a religious service was Against the rage of winter stormes performed. The monks then returned to
and thunders flashing heate. the church, and stood before the crucifix In some place wealthie citizens,
and men of sober chere, uncovered, while mass was performed ;
For no small summe doe hire this Asse and after they had communicated, the
with them about to bere, deacon first and the rest afterwards, they
And manerly they use the same, offered their palms and flowers, at the
not suffering any by altar.*
To touch this Asse, nor to presume It was also an old Roman catholic cus
unto his presence ny: tom on Palm Sunday, to draw about the For they suppose that in this thing, town a wooden ass with a figure on it,
they Christ do lightly serve, representing Christ riding into Jerusalem,
And well of bim accepted are,
and great rewardes deserve. • Fosbroke's British Monach Brand's Pop. 'utiq. de.
When the wooden ass had performed
in the church procession, the boys hired man for playing the prophet on Palm hina:
Sunday. Though Roman catholic ceremoThe Sexten pleasde with price, and looking VIII., yet he declared that the bearing of
nies were generally disused under Henry well no harme be done : They take the Asse, and through the streets palms on Palm Sunday was to be conand crooked lanes they rone,
tinued and not cast away; and it appears, Whereas they common verses sing, that they were borne in England. until according to the guise,
the second year of Edward VI. In The people giving money, breade, “Stowe's Chronicle,” by Howes, the pracand egges of largest sise.
tice is said to have been discontinued in Of this their gaines they are compelde
1548.* the maister halfe to give,
It was likewise a Roman catholic cusLeast he alone without his portion
tom to resort to “ our lady of Nantsof the Asse should live.
well," at Little Conan, in Cornwall, with On the Romish processioning on Palm a cross of palm ; and the people, after Sunday, it is observed by an old writer making the priest a present, were allowed that, "Among x thousand, scarce one to throw the cross into the well; if it knew what this meant. They have their swam, the thrower was to outlive the laudable dumme ceremonies, with Lentin year ; if it sunk, he was not.f crosse and Uptide crosse, and these two
Recently, it is related, that on the Samust justle til lent break his necke. Then turday before Palm Sunday, the boys of cakes must be caste out of the steple, that the grammar-school at Lanark, according al the boyes in the parish must lie scam- to ancient usage, parade the streets with bling together by the eares, tyl al the
a palm, or, its substitute, a large tree of parish falleth a laughyng. But, lorde, the willow kind, salix cufrea, in blossom, what asses-play made they of it in great ornamented with daffodils, mezereon, and cathedral churches and abbies. One box-tree. This day there is called Palm comes forth in his albe and his long stole Saturday, and the custom is supposed to (for so they call their girde that they put be“ a popish relic of very ancient standabout theyr neckes,) thys must be leashe ing."I 'Mr. Douce, in a manuscript note, wise, as hunters weares their hornes.- cited by Mr. Ellis, says “ I have someThis solempne Syre played Christe's part, where met with a proverbial saying, that he a God's name. Then another companye that hath not a palm in his hand on Palm of singers, chyldren and al, song, in prick- Sunday, must have his hand cut off.” song, the Jewe's parl—and the Deacon
According to Stowe, in the week before read the middel text. The Prest at the Easter, there were great shows in London Alter al this while, because it was tediouse for going to the woods, and fetching into to be unoccupyed, made Crosses of Palme the king's house a twisted tree, or wiihe ; to set upon your doors, and to beare in and the like into the house of every man your purses, to chace away the Divel."*
of note or consequence. Dr. Fulke, opposing the Catholics, ob- Palm Sunday remains in the English serves on their carrying of the host on calendars. It is still customary with Palm Sunday,—“ It is pretty sport, that men and boys to go a palming in London you make the priests carry this idol to early on Palm Sunday morning; that supply the room of the ass on which Christ is, by gathering branches of the willow or did ride. Thus you turn the holy mys- sallow with their grey shining velvettery of Christ's riding to Jerusalem to a looking buds, from those trees in the viciMay-game and pagent-play.” In the nity of the metropolis : they come home accounts of St. Andrew Hubbard's pa- with slips in their hats, and sticking in the rish, there are Palm Sunday charges for the breast button holes of their coats, and a following items : In 1520, eightpence for sprig in the mouth, bearing the “palm" the hire of an angel. In 1535-7, an- branches in their hands.
This usage other eightpence for a priest and a child remains among the ignorant from poor that played as
messenger : in that year neighbourhoods, but there is still to be the angel was hired for fourpence. By found a basket woman or two at Coventthe churchwardens of St. Mary-at-hill, in garden, and in the chief markets with 1451, fourpence was paid to one Lore- this “palm," as they call it, on the Satur
+ From a
" Dialogue, concerning the chyefest ceremonyes by the Impes of Asli Chrisi. 1964." 12mo Onored by Brand
+ Carew + Sinclair'. Statist. Ace.
day before Palm Sunday, which they sell to those who are willing to buy; but the Lesser Leopardsbane. Doronicum Pla:demand of late years has been very little,
tagineum. and hence the quantity on sale is very
Dedicated to St. Priscus. swall. Nine out of ten among the purchasers buy it in imitation of others, they
March 29. care not why; and such purchasers, be- Sts. Jonas, Barachisius, &c. A. D. 327. ing Londoners, do not even know the
Sts. Armog astes, Archinimus, and Satree which produces it, but imagine it to
turus, A. D. 457. St. Eustasius, or be a "real" palm tree, and “wonder” they
Eustachius, Abbot, A. D. 625. St. never saw any “palm" trees, and where
Gundleus, a Welsh King, 5th Cent. they grow.
St. Mark, Bishop, 4th Cent.
brated chemist and alchymist of his time,
was stoned to death by the natives of March 28.
Mauritania, whither he had gone on a Priscus, Malchus, and Alexander, Mar- His attention was directed to chemistry
religious mission, at the age of eighty. tyrs, A.D. 260. St. Sixtus III. Pope, by the power of love. A lady, very A.D. 440. St. Gontran, King and Con- hardsome, with whom he was passionfessor, A.D. 593.
ately enamoured, refused to marry him. CHRONOLOGY.
One day, when he renewed his solicitaOn this day in 1380, gunpowder was
tion, she showed her bosom inflamed first used in Europe by the Venetians by a cancer. Young Lulle instantly took against the Genoese. Its power is said leave, with the resolution to cure, and if by the Germans to have been discovered possible, conquer the heart of his mistress. accidentally by Berthold Schwartz; but our
He searched with all the ardour, which Roger Bacon who died in 1278, certainly affection and compassion could inspire, was acquainted with it. Gunpowder was
into the secrets of medicine and chemistry, known in India very early, and from thence and had the good fortune to cure, and to the knowledge of it was obtained by the
After her death he attached Arabians, who employed it in a battle hitnself to the church. The inhabitants near Mecca so long ago as the year 690. of the island of Majorca, where he was
1677. Wenceslaus Hollar, the engraver, born, in 1236, revere him as a martyr. died at Westminster. His view of Lon
1461. The battle which decided the don in Howell's “ Londinopolis," and the claims of the houses of York and Lancasnumerous plates he executed for Dug; ter was fought between Towton and Saxdale's “ Monasticon,”.“ Warwickshire, ton, two villages near York. It com
St. Paul's," “ Origines Juridiciales," and other works have made him well menced in a snow storm at day break.
was contested with fearful obstinacy till known to the topographer and portrait three in the afternoon, and terminated in collector; but his “ muffs" and " insects"
a deluge of blood. Eight and thirty are particularly beautiful. His style almost thousand human beings were left dead peculiar to himself,is known at a glance by on the field; of whom the heralds apthe experienced eye; Gaywood, in por- pointed to number the slain, returned traits, and King, in views, were inferior that twenty-eight thousand were Lancasartists of the same school. Merian, in
trians. Edward, duke of York, who won some insects, rivals him formidably. Hol- the day, rode from the scene of carnage lar's labour was immense as may be seen
to York, where he ordered the death of from Vertue's catalogue of his prints; yet several prisoners; while Henry VI. of he often worked at fourpence an hour, and Lancaster, who lost the crown, escaped perished in poverty:
with great difficulty to the borders. 1801. Sir Ralph Abercrombie died in Egypt. He received his death-wound on the 21st., during his memorable victory over the French at Alexandria.
Oxelip. Primula elatior. 1802. Pallas, a new planet, was dis- Dedicated to St. Eustasius. covered by Dr. Olbers, of Bremen in l'umitory. Fumaria officinalis. Germany.
Dedicated to St. Jonas.
March 31. St. John Climacus. St. Zozimus, Bishop
St. Benjamin, Deacon, Martyr, A. D. 4 24. of Syracuse, A. D. 660. St. Regulus, St. Acacius, or Achates, Bishop of or Rieal, Bishop of Senlis.
Antioch, A. D. 250, or 251.
A. D. 1046.
CHRONOLOGY. near Mount Sinai, in Syria, and became at seventy-five, abbot and superior-general
1814. On this day the sovereigns who of all the monks and hermits of the
have since formed the holy alliance, encountry. He admired one of the princi
tered Paris at the head of the Russian pal citizens of Alexandria in Egypt, who,
troops. The capitulation of this capital petitioning to become a monk, was or
was succeeded by the return of the Bourdered to remain without the gate, and
bons to France. manifested his obedience by staying there for seven years, and begging prayers for his leprous soul of every passenger. St. Maundy Thursday, John also admired a monkish cook, because he generally cried while he cooked, and assigned as a reason, that “ the fire he always had before his eyes,
SHERE THURSDAY. reminded him of that fire which will burn souls for all eternity."
Maundy Thursday is always the It is related that
Thursday before Easter; its name has a woman who had committed so enormous
occasioned some trouble to antiquaries. a sin that she dare not confess it, came to
One writer conceives maundy to be corSt. John, who bade her write it, and seal it, and give it to him, and he would pray
rupted from the mandate of Christ to his for her; this she did, and shortly after
disciples to break bread in remembrance St. John died. The woman sorely afraid he had washed their feet, to love one
of him : or from his other mandate, after that her written secret would be read, another. With better reason it is conwept and prayed at St. John's tomb, and ceived to be derived from the Saxon word begged he would appear and tell her what he had done with the paper; on a
mand, which afterwards became maund, sudden, St. John came forth habited like a
a name for a basket, and subsequently for bishop, with a bishop on each side of
any gift or offering contained in the him, and he said to the woman, “Why sand favours from her maund she drew:"
basket. Thus Shakspeare says, “ a thoutroublest thou me so much, and these saints with me? thou sufferest us to have and Hall in his sa:ires, speaks of “a
maund charged with household merchanno rest : look here, our clothes are all
dize:” so also Drayton tells of “a little wet with thy tears." Then he delivered to
maund being made of osiers small;" and her the paper, sealed as she had given it
Herrick says, to him, and said, “ See here, look at the seal, open the writing, and read it.” So “ Behold, for us, the naked graces stay she did ; and she found all her sin “de- With maunds of roses, for to strew theway." faced clean out;" and instead thereof was written, “ All thy sins are forgiven, and The same poet speaks of maundie as
alms: put away by the prayer of St. John, my servant. Then she returned thanks, and “ All's gone, and death hath taken St. John and his two bishops returned to
Away from us their sepulcbres.
Our maundie, thus
The widdowes stand forsaken."
Thus then, “ Maundy Thursday, the day Rough Carameni. Cardemeni hirsuta. preceding Good Friday, on which the
Dedicated to St. John of Climacus. king distributes alms to a certain number Lesser Daffodil. Narcissus minor. of poor persons at Whitehall, is so named Dedicated to St. Zozimus.
from the mounds in which the gifts were contained.”+
# Butler's Saints,
• Dunton's British Apollo.
+ Archdeacon Nares' " Glossary," wherein the authorities briefly cited above are set forth at large.
According to annual custom, on Maun- among the poor. James II. is said to dy Thursday, 1814, the royal donations have been the last of our monarchs who were distributed at the Chapel Royal, performed this ceremony in person, It Whitehall. In the morning, Dr. Carey, was afterwards performed by the almoner. the sub-almoner, and Mr. Hanby, the On the 5th of April, 1731, it being secretary to the lord high almoner, Mr. Maundy Thursday, the king being then Nost, and others belonging to the lord in his forty-eighth year, there was districhamberlain's office, attended by a party buted at the Banquetting-house, Whiteof the yeomen of the guard, distributed hall, to forty-eight poor men and fortyto seventy-five poor women, and seventy- eight poor women, boiled beef and shoulfive poor men, being as many as the king ders of mutton, and small bowls of ale, was years old, a quantity of salt fish, con- which is called dinner; after that, large sisting of salmon, cod, and herrings, wooden platters of fish and loaves, viz. pieces of very fine beef, five loaves of undressed, one large old ling, and one bread, and some ale to drink the king's large dried cod; twelve red herrings, and health. Mr. Hanby gave notice that in twelve white herrings, and four half quarfuture their cases must be certified by the tern loaves. Each person had one platter minister of the parish, by order of the of this provision; after which was distrilord almoner. At three o'clock they buted to them shoes, stockings, linen and assembled again, the men on one side the woollen cloth, and leathern bags, with chapel, and the women on the other. A one-penny, two-penny, three-penny, and procession entered, of those engaged in four-penny pieces of silver, and shillings; the ceremony, consisting of a party of to each about four pounds in value. Šis yeoman of the guard, one of them car- grace, the lord archbishop of York, lord rying a large gold dish on his head, con- high almoner, performed the annual ceretaining 150 bags, with seventy-five silver mony of washing the feet of the poor in pennies in each, for the poor people, the Royal Chapel, Whitehall, as was forwhich was placed in the royal closet. merly done by the kings themselves.t They were followed by the sub-almoner in This day was also called Shere Thurshis robes, with a sash of fine linen over day, and by corruption Chare Thursday. his shoulder and crossing his waist. He Shere Thursday signified that it was the was followed by two boys, two girls, the day whereon the clergy were wont to secretary, and another gentleman, with shere or shear their heads, or get them similar sashes, &c. &c., all carrying large shorn or shaven, and to clip their beards nosegays. The church evening service against Easter-day.I. In the miraculous was then performed, at the conclusion of legend of St. Brandon it is related that which the silver pennies were distributed, he sailed with his monks to the island of and woollen cloth, linen, shoes and stock- sheep,“and on sherethursdaye,after souper, ings, to the men and women, and a cup he wesshe theyr feet and kyssed them of wine to drink the king's health. lyke as our lorde dyd to his dyscyples.">
Anciently, on Maundy Thursday, the Maundy Thursday is nowhere observed kings and queens of England washed and in London except, as before stated, at the kissed the feet of as many pror men and Chapel Royal. women as they were years old, besides bestowing their maundy on each. This was in imitation of Christ washing his disciples' feet. Queen Elizabeth performed
Good Friday. this at Greenwich, when she was thirty
A Holiday at all the Public Offices. nine years old, on which occasion the feet of the same number of poor persons were This and Christmas-day are the only two first washed by the yeomen of the laun- close holidays now observed throughout dry with warm water and sweet herbs, London, by the general shutting ap of afterwards by the sub-almoner, and lastly, shops, and the opening of all the churches. by the queen herself; the person who The dawn is awakened by a cry in the washed, making each time a cross on the streets of “Hot-cross-buns; one-a-penny pauper's foot above the toes, and kissing it. This ceremony was performed by the
+ Gentleman's Magazine. queen, kneeling, being attended by thirtynine ladies and gentlewomen. Clothes,
* Brand's Pop. Antiq. Nares's Glossary, Chore victuals, and money were then distributed | Golden Legend.