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Ballads. By the Lady Middle- Allah-Akbar : an Arab Legend ton. London: C. Kegan Paul and of the Siege and Conquest of Co. 1878.

Granada. From the Spanish. By Our first observation of this little Mariana Monteiro. London: R. work is the daintiness of its appear. Washbourne. 1878. ance. Even a book of poetry, that This is a story of the semimodern drug, is not unwelcome oriental kind, and not without the when it comes in artistic guise. Moorish glow and colour. We do

To the poems themselves a little not, however, find it as interesting more attention to form would have as the shorter stories contained in availed much. The strength of Miss Monteiro's recently published will that characterises some of “Gathered Gems from Spanish them might lead to good work Authors;" and it would be well, under proper training. It is not when she brings out a translation, given to everyone to write as if she would at least cite the names Browning, and live. We take it of the original authors. that the tendency of the author is There are some quaint engraved rather intellectual and practical headpieces in this little volume, than strictly poetic.

many of them reproductions of The volume is dedicated to the Arab design. They are from the clan chieftain Lochiel, and a large pencil of Miss Henriqueta Mon. proportion of the poems show a

teiro. trace of Scotland. What the free airs of the hills, mingled with “a “Bonnie Lesley.” By Mrs. Her. waft of old ancestral lore,” will bert Martin, Author of “Cast eventually do for the “ listing Adrift,” &c. London: Griffith and sense” of the writer, we cannot Farran. 1878. prophecy.

The story of “Bonnie Lesley" The following is a philosophic opens with the rather hackneyed poem of fourteen lines, but not an situation of two girls obliged on orthodox sonnet:

the death of their father, a profes

sional man, to turn out to earn TO CERTAIN SCIENTIFIC MEN.

their own living. Both have reLike a poor insect, labouring to scale ceived the ordinary education of

Yon lofty mount piercing eternal snows, young ladies, but not having gone Upon whose latest peak there hangs a veil Of shadowy clond ;—and up the Atom

in for competitive examinations and goes

the higher education of women, are With pain a foot or so—the weary trail ; not qualified for governesses. MarThen looking up, “ Yonder's no light,” jory, the elder, finds a home with the

he vows, And spreads about with pride the assured

usual querulous old lady of title, a tale,

distant relation of the family, but And crawls another inch, and dies, and the more adventurous Lesley, after knows !-

in vain sending round her manu. So are, as he, ye scientific men,

scripts to the leading periodicals, Who of your scanty knowledge grow boldly resolves to go out as lady. too fond ;

help. She consults Lady Thornely, How can ye hope in your three-score-and.. the benevolent woman with theories, ten

who offers her the post of lady'sTo win Heaven's secret to Earth's tired maid in her own establishment. sod ?

Bonnie Lesley, choking down her Might ye but gain that height, and see beyond,

pride, accepts the situation, and in Would not the light be there attending

that capacity accompanies Lady God ?

Thornely to her London residence.

a blind

Her duties as lady’s-maid appear devotion to her lost darling, is to be confined to looking out her rather offended with her for remistress's evening dress and jecting her boy, but magnani. clasping her jewels for her before mously forgives her. Lesley, she goes

down to dinner. Her own however, concludes that she had meals Lesley takes with the house- better seek another situation, keeper, a very superior person, the which she finds with widow of a surgeon, another of the literary man, to whom she acts destitute ladies whom it is Lady as secretary, residing with a friend Thornely's "fad” to employ as of her childhood, whom she hapdomestics. Lesley is furnished

pens to meet in church, and who with a little light occupation for is now married and settled in Lonan hour or two in the morning don. Lesley winds up by marryas amanuensis to her mistress, ing her blind employer, who who is engaged in preparing a thereupon goes to a German oculittle work for the press; but the list and recovers his sight. Mar. very first morning after her ar- jory's irascible relative dies and rival Helen Thornely, the invalid leaves her a fortune, which enables daughter, takes a desperate fancy her to marry a young curate with to her, and henceforth Lesley eighty pounds a year and no spends most of her time in Helen's expectations. It is rather an apartment, reading to her and anachronism to represent a curate shaking up her pillows. Lionel, with eighty pounds a year in the the only son of Sir Stephen and days of lady - helps.

Such an Lady Thornely, a languid young exemplary young man as Frank exquisite, attempts to get up a could get 1501. any day, and the Alirtation with his mother's hand. cordial welcome of many an oversome maid, but Lesley indignantly worked rector. Lionel consoles rejects his advances.

He is so himself with a clever American smitten, however, that he proceeds girl, who makes him go into Parto insult his pretty little empty- liament; and Constance, Lady headed fiancée, so that she breaks Thornely's onlyremaining daughter, off their engagement. Now he is also makes a very good match. free to make real love to Lesley, All these young married people whom he follows to the seaside, dine together with Sir Stephen and where Helen has been sent Lady Thornely, and with the dinfor the benefit of her health, ner the story of “Bonnie Lesley" with her bosom friend Lesley is brought to a conclusion. It is as a companion. Lionel urges his not a very exciting romance, and is suit, and Lesley is half wavering, neither specially well nor specially when Helen is opportunely seized ill written. The character of Lady with a sudden attack of illness. Thornely is the best drawn. We Her mother and sister are sum- think it would not be very difficult moned and arrive only in time to to guess the original of the see her die. Lesley of course does character. But if young ladies in everything for everybody, and a similar position to the heroine's comforts them all round. When should be tempted, on reading the all is over Lionel renews his pro- story, to seek situations as lady. posal, which is refused, Lesley helps, we fear that they will not having decided that she can never easily find any in real life that will love him. Lady Thornely, who be such a sinecure as Bonnie had been won over by Lesley's Lesley's.

THE

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

OCTOBER, 1878.

THE REVOLUTION IN PROGRESS IN THE ARTS

OF ATTACK AND DEFENCE.

By F. R. CONDER, C.E.

The great object of the mariner, Trigonometry affords the special from that early prehistoric epoch notation in which observations of when the trunk of some great tree the visible parallaxes of the was first hollowed by fire, and heavenly bodies naturally come to dressed by rude stone celts into a be recorded. And in trigonometry primitive canoe, down to the pre- there is requisite, not only geosent century, has been the improve metric definition of form, but a ment of the art of navigation. To determination of proportions which that end the whole range of rudi- led to the first recorded use of the mental art and incipient science value of place, or the adoption of a was made to contribute. The ship. radix, in the degrees and scrupules builder was led, by the very condi. of the Babylonian astronomers, in tion to which his work was sub- terms of which the earliest obserjected, to acquire an experimental vations of eclipses are quoted by knowledge of the strength of Claudius Ptolemy. Conceptions of materials, the laws of structural the relation of the earth to the form, the power of resisting strains, celestial planets, and thus of the and the action of wind and of form and movement of the former, currents, such as forms the primer must have originated from the of the technic art. The study of combination of distant travel, for astronomy was shared between the the most part carried on by sea, navigator and the astrologer. If with astronomical observation. geodesy did not owe its origin to Knowledge of the difference of the need of delineating coasts and climates and of seasons followed, harbours and shoals and shallows, the notation of the different angles yet the work of the geographer has subtended between the zenith and been aided and stimulated by the the path of the sun, or between the kindred toil of the hydrographer. pole star and the horizon, as the Astronomical observations for venturous mariner put forth beyond maritime purposes led to the culti- the pillars of Hercules, or even vation of mathematical science. circumnavigated Africa before the

Nile had brought down the deposit cations that it is about to enter that blocked the channel from the into a new phase. For an insular Mediterranean to the Red Sea. people, whose power and freedom These, to say nothing of the direct depend on their command of the extension given to human know- sea, a knowledge of the causes and ledge by the acquirements of com- of the course of this revolution in merce — silk and gold, tin and maritime construction, and espeamber,.“ ivory, apes, and peacocks” cially in maritime warfare, is

-the indirect stimulus to study of primary interest and importand to industry which was afforded ance. by the requirements of the navi. We may illustrate the difference gator, have been such as to entitle between the transformation of the seaman to a foremost place naval construction within the past among the instructors of mankind. two years and the slow advance of

From the commencement of ship preceding centuries and tens of building in the form of the canoe, centuries, by the analogy of those or the perhaps earlier invention of insects, which, after spending the catamaran or raft, down to the months, or even years, in a larva application of steam to the pro state, steadily attending to the one pulsion of ships, the chief aim of great duty of finding and devourthe shipbuilder has been to improve ing food, suddenly burst into the the navigable qualities of his craft. dignity of winged creatures, desHe has sought to combine capacity tined to but an ephemeral life. The with such elegance of form as invention of Watt has added an should pass with least resistance automatic motive power to the through the water. The use of ship quite as much in advance of the wind as a motor power has not the capabilities of the trireme, or only led to the perfection of masts, even of the sailing packet, as are yards, and sails, but introduced a the wings of the beetle compared practical acquaintance with the to the legs and pro-legs of the important element of naval sta. larva. At the same time the aggresbility, that is to say, the resistance . sive power of the ship of war has which a vessel offers to over- been developed in a no less marked throw by wind or wave. To degree. If we refer again to the make a vessel thoroughly sea- transformation of the insect, it can worthy was indispensable. And only be to remark how far the with the steady, though slow, pro- arms furnished to many of the gress from the triremes of the Hymenoptera-effective as they are fleet of Pompey the Great to the for the defence of the social first-rate man-of-war of the time of store of the hive, or for the house Nelson, the same consistent requi. building of the solitary species, sites have ever been the study of —are proportionately inferior in the shipbuilder.

aggressive power to the artificial The present century has witn projectile. With this increase in nessed a change in this respect. the motive power, and in the aggresChange is hardly an adequate sive power, of the ship of war, has term; it would be more correct to been carried on a development of say revolution. A mighty revo- the resisting power of its skin (far lution is in full course with regard superior in proportion to that of to naval construction, a revolution the horny thorax or elytra of the of which no one can foresee the most herculean beetle) which may upshot, although there are, as I be measured as the addition of propose to show, remarkable indi. more than an inch of solid iron to

its thickness year by year for the water, no doubt gives the first last sixteen years.

idea, as it furnished the first mateDevelopment in the means of rial, for shipbuilding. Cork, attack naturally calls attention to which is still used for the condevelopment in the means

of

struction of buoys—and the introdefence. Any great invention, duction of which into certain porwhich for a time may give appa- tions of a war ship is one of the rent superiority to either the active latest improvements, or experior the passive side of a combat, is ments, of the day—is less than likely to turn the inventive faculty one-fourth of the weight of the towards the discovery of a counter- water which it displaces. Cedar, poise for the new arm. The early which is still used, where the use of stone projectiles from cata- utmost delicacy of line is combined pults or balistæ led to the attempts with the least attainable weight of to protect walls by wool, by wood, material, in the boats for the or-according to an early fabulist annual University matches, is - by leather. The first account about half the weight of fresh which we have, in modern times, water. Dantzic fir varies in its of any attempt to protect the decks specific gravity from ·478 to 673, and sides of war vessels from pro- taking water as unity. English jectiles, such as were discharged oak has a specific gravity of 858; from engines like those which they African teak, of .993; Spanish oak, themselves carried, was at the of 1.042; Australian blue gum, of Siege of Gibraltar in 1782. The 1.029; and Burmese iron wood, of French and Spaniards then con- 1.176. But boat-building cannot structed floating batteries for the have very far advanced before the assault of the isolated rock. They builders became aware that it was covered the sides of vessels with rather on the amount of water disgreen timber, junk, and cowhides placed by the hull of the vessel to a thickness of seven feet, and than on the thickness and weight considered that they had made the of the sides and planks, that the decks bomb-proof. The largest of flotation depended. The difference these vessels

1400 tons in the specific gravity of a pine or burden. They were armed with an oak plank was as nothing com32-pounders, provided with fur- pared to the size of the hull of naces for red-heating, the shot, the vessel. Strength, in fact, is a and manned each with five hun- more important quality in the

They were repelled,

ere repelled, material required for shipbuilding and quickly set on fire by the than lightness. The whole of the use of the same novel and formid.

ancient, and now unfortunately able projectile which they were obsolete, regulations that protected built to use. Thirty years later, the growth of oak in our English Fulton, who enjoyed the posses- forests were based on tacit sion of a diabolical ingenuity in acknowledgment of this fact. the fabrication of engines of des- As oak to fir, however, it became truction, constructed steam evident, half a century ago, might floating battery for the United iron become to oak. With the States.

rapid advance made in the manuTo enable a body to float it is facture of iron, the applicability necessary that its weight shall be

of that metal to the purposes of less than that of an equal bulk of the shipbuilder became more and the fluid in which it is to float. more obvious. The first iron vessel, Wood, as generally lighter than the Aaron Manby, was built in

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