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To kecp up an establishment of permanent Tutors within the walls, like the Fellows of the English Universities, seems difficult, till we can attach to their offices the obligation of celibacy and the prospect of church preferment. The system of gradually increasing salaries, referred to in a former part of this article, appears best calculated to diminish the frequency of changes in this department of instruction. Mr Pickering next observes, that,
In the administration of the government, too, it was a manifest inconvenience, that the whole body of instructers mtist be convened in order to decide upon many offences of the smaller kinds, which might as well be committed to a part of them; and with the same view of preserving some gradation in the powers of the government, it appeared to be an improvement, that the President should have the authority and rank proposed in the Report. It seems to us that this question may be resolved into another, which is, whether the President shall have the entire control and right of final decision in every case of misdemeanor. If we understand the Report, a sort of appeal lies, in every instance, from the inferior courts, if we may so speak, to the President. Now if this be the case, we can have no doubt, that such an appeal will be made in every instance, and very little concerning the authority likely to be retained by the inferior officers, after a single reversion of their decisions. We can not be quite so certain which, in such a state of things, would be the most disagreeable office, that of the President, or that of the inferior officers. The opinion of the author of the “ Remarks,” concerning the expediency of giving such powers to the President, is very decided.
The power given to the President is in its nature arbitrary and irresponsible, dependent merely on his own judgment and will, such as is not exercised by any other individual in the country, and such as I trust in the good providence of God, never will be.
With respect to the inconvenience " of convening the whole body of instructers, it seems to us that it affects the resident officers only; and however considerable the inconvenience may be, we are very doubtful whether they would be gratified with the kind of relief proposed in this Report. Concerning the arrangement of powers, however, Mr Pickering professed himself not to be strenuous—he thought a change in the system of instruction more important. He then went into an examination of the duties of the instructers under the present system, and endeavoured to show, that they might reasonably be called
on to do much more. We think, from the examination of the table in the second report, that there is ground for this objection, although it seems to be stated in rather stronger terms than was quite candid, for, as it afterwards appears, much time is occupied in a manner which was not taken into consideration in forming the table. Moreover, it appears that the duties performed by some of the inferior officers, occupy more time (in the table at least) than those of some of the Professors. But this last circumstance does not strike us as evidence of an improper system.
We think that the business of the Professors is not merely the instruction of the youth of the College, but also the instruction of the community ; in other words, the advancement of science and literature. This is in itself a pleasant toil, and we before inferred, from this
circumstance, that their present salaries were too high.
A Professor's labours, in this way, cannot be estimated by tables, or any mechanical contrivance whatever. We would not have them, to be sure, relieved from every duty of instruction; but if they are to be tied down to an everlasting round of drilling, our previous reasoning respecting their salaries falls to the ground, and we cheerfully give it up. Admitting, however, that enough personal attention, in general, has not been paid to instruction, we agree with the committee, that this is the fault of the system rather than that of the officers, and wish we could perceive how this defect will be remedied by most of the provisions of the new one.
This system proposes to divide the officers of College, for the purposes of instruction, into departments, consisting of a head and members. On referring to the catalogue of officers, we perceive that there must be six or seven departments, of which two or three will contain but two individuals, and the others only one. But if Mr Pickering is correct in his notion, that the present officers have so little occupation, it would seem that they are rather too numerous, than otherwise. Their number does not call for increase, but diminution. Instead of having more members to each department, it would appear to follow, that it would be better to make one person do the whole duty. But it would be clearly impossible for individual heads of departments to arrange their lessons and lectures without consultation and combination, and thus this fiction of departments reduces itself to the simple proposition, that the Immediate Government (under a new name, the Faculty,) shall have the control, direction, and are
rangement of the course of study, &c. in the University. This, as will appear in the consideration of the Memorial before mentioned, is the very point which the immediate government have long desired to obtain, and so far the views of the committee will probably be agreeable to them.
The next topic considered by Mr Pickering is the shortening of the vacations. In this particular we are happy to agree with him entirely. We think a quarter of the year too much to be taken up by vacations, and that the winter is not the most favourable period for the longest one. With respect to holidays and half holidays also, we think with him, that they are too numerous. One argument in favour of the winter vacation is thus satisfactorily opposed :
It had been urged in favour of a winter vacation, that it was beneficial to indigent students, who would thus have an opportunity of keeping country schools and earning something towards defraying their College expenses. This was certainly deserving of attention, and he was ready to go as far as any member of the board, in granting to meritorious scholars of that description, every reasonable indulgence. It would not be amiss, however, to look at the operation of the present practice upon the whole University. It appeared from the documents on the table, that, on an average, fifty.three students (about one fifth of the whole) annually were permitted to keep school, and were allowed a part of the winter term in addition to the vacation; and during that portion of the term the usual lectures were suspended, besides which, the government inform us, that those who remain at the University during that period, suffer a loss, and the standard of scholarship generally is lowered for a time. Thus four fifths of the students are sacrificed, to a certain extent, to one fifth ; this was too great an inequality; it would be better to aid such indigent scholars by an assessment on the other four fifths, or by reinitting their tuition fees, or in any other mode than the present. It should be considered, also, that the wealthier classes of citizens, who have contributed to endow the University, have some claims; they ought to have a fair portion (consistently with the just claims of others) of all the advantage of an institution which they have generously contributed to build up for the benefit of all.
Mr Pickering next remarks, that With a view to preventing the frequent intercourse with the capital, and keeping the students under regular employment, within the College walls, the committee had recommended in the Report, that the room of every student should be visited by the instructers every evening at nine o'clock, and report made of every absence; but perhaps this object might be as effectually accomplished by requiring one of the regular recitations to be in the evening, and to continue at least as late as that hour. Some effectual regulation was indispensable, in the opinion of every parent.
The author of the Remarks” observes, with respect to
the proposal, that the students' rooms should be visited at nine o'clock in the evening, that,
As a large portion of the students are scattered about in rooms in different dwellinghouses in the town, at the distance of at least half a mile from each other, the proposal seems hardly practicable. If the visitation should be confined to the rooms in the College buildings, its principal effect would be to lead those inclined to irregularity, to take rooms in the town. But it seems objectionable on other grounds. Such kind of inspection degrades the officers. It takes from them that influence with the students which is of more importance, as regards the true objects to be aimed at in the discipline of the College, than the enforcing of any amount of rules of such a character. It is treating the whole body of students as suspected persons; and tends to produce irritation and reaction on their part, and generally a state of feeling unfavourable to the operation of those motives, on which the main reliance must be placed as a security for their good conduct.
We shall take this opportunity of throwing together a few remarks on this very important subject of the discipline, habits, and manners of the students-observing, in the first place, that those of Cambridge have been much amended within the period to which our personal experience extends. We believe that the College has been improving rapidly within that period in many particulars; that the students learn more and better; that they are guilty of fewer irregularities and vices, and less wasteful dissipation of time, than They have been at any time within the last twenty years; and thai customs and practices were formerly common which would not now be thought of; and that no other University in this country would better support, to say the least of it, the severe scrutiny to which that at Cambridge has lately been subjected. Still it must be conceded to the committee, that there is room for improvement, and admitted, that some objectionable customs have been gaining ground; such, for instance, as the employment of servants, which, ten years since, was a rare circumstance.
One distinction between a school and a University, we take to be, that, in the former, the pupil is compelled to learn, while in the latter, he may learn if he will
. A University is therefore adapted to pupils of more advanced age and greater maturity of mind than a school. The students in the medical, law, and theological schools, want no coercion. But all the Universities in this country, as well as some in Europe, are of a mixed nature; and while some of the motives which influence the students in a pure University, exist with respect to the undergraduates in our own, and more might be made operative, the students
in most of them are too young to be entirely free from the coercion which prevails in a school. We intimated that some motives might be brought into action, which are now dormant or feeble with a large proportion of the students. A powerful one is public opinion, the public opinion of the students, without the co-operation of which every system of checks and balances, short of the form, the birch, and the master's eye, must be feeble. An indirect mode of influencing this is the removal of some objects of interest foreign to literary improvement. One of these is the Military Company of the University, which we regard as a preposterous incongruity in a literary institution. It occupies the time and thoughts, and excites the interest of the students to an improper degree. Moreover it offers objects of ambition, no way connected with literary excellence; and a youth may console himself for deficiency in his class with the splendour of an epaulet, or the glory of commanding a squad. These things go to prevent the feeling, which ought to prevail, that the only rank must be derived from literary eminence. But it is urged, that the students need exercise, and that this a good method. Do they need exercise more now, than they did twenty years since ? Or have they been more healthy since the company was established ? But this is an idle plea. Of the four classes, only two can be members. The officers are chosen from the senior class, and of course few, if any, of them will probably be privates. A few, therefore, of one class, and not the whole of another, enjoy this exercise; and what have the younger classes to do with it, but to gaze, and long for the time, when they too may figure in the ranks, or at the head of the array ? Lastly, it is a source of expense, and as good exercise may be had at a cheaper rate.
[To be continued.]
ITALIAN LYRICAL POETRY.
FILICAJA. VINCENZO DA FILICAJA was born in Florence in 1642. His parents were both of noble extraction, and fully indulged the taste for study, which, mingled with strong feelings of piety, was early exhibited by their son. He lived for many years a tranquil