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These words are used with the ABRIDGE. Or as it one him suddenly did call.
ABRIDG'ER, same application as Abbreviate,
So, oftentimes he out of sleepe abrayd,
ABRIDGʻMENT. ) (qv.) and are usually referred to
leads us immediately right.-Abreger, from the German
Brechen, 'frangere, to break ; Saxon, Abræccan.
But isaie crieth for israel, if the noumbre of the children of israel
schal be as grauel of the see, the relifs schulen be maad saaf. for
lord schal make a word breggid on al the erthe. religious, who derived their appellation from one
Wiclif. Romayns, chap. ix. Abraham, a native of Antioch, or, as the Arabs called
But Esay cryeth cocernig Israel: though the nombre of the him, Ibrahim. The emperor Theophilus, who united chyldren of Israel be as sonde of ye sea, yet the remnaút shall in his own character, the apparent zeal of a Christian be saued. For he fynysheth the word verely, ád maketh it short in with the fury of a persecutor, exterminated the ryghtewesnes. For a short worke wil God make on erth.
Bible, Lond. 1539. Abrahamites, on a vague charge of idolatry, in the
Largesse it is, whose priuilege ninth century
There maie no auarice abrege.
Gower, Con. A. book vä.
, and prospect, surrounded by luxuriant gardens and plan- precheth to him that listen not heren his wordes, his sermon bein tations. It is near the mouth of the Tajo; and is now anoieth.
Chaucer. The Tale of Melibeus, vol. ii. p. 78. celebrated for a famous battle, in which the English
And nere it that I wilne as now abredge and French forces greatly signalized themselves. The
Diffusion of speache, I could alnuoste French general, Junot, was afterwards created duke
A thousand olde stories thce aledge, of Abrantes. The town suffered much during the late
Of women loste, through false & fooles boste.
Id. Third booke of Troilus, fol. 168, col. iii. war. The castle, in particular, was greatly injured. At the time here alluded to, Abrantes contained nearly coumpte. He is but a very late writer in comparison of the Ancient
Of Theophylactes authoritie wee never made any great se40,000 inhabitants, and several convents, alms-houses, Fathers. For the most parte of that he writeth, he is but an and hospitals. W. lon. 70°, 18'. N. lat. 390, 13'. abbridger of Chrysostome. Jewel's Defence of the Apologie.
ABRĀSAX, or ABRAXAS, a cabalistic word com- Wherefore to abbridge his power, and to minishe his aucthoritie posed of the following letters a, b, g, a, &, a, s, making, they determined to bryng hym into the hatred of the people, and according to the Grecian numeration, the number 365. into the disdain of the nobilite.
Hall, repr. 1809, p. 223. This word was used as an amulet, or charm, by the
But as our parts abridge, or length our age, disciples of Basil, father of the monks of Pontus.
So passe we all, while other fill the stage. Sackville.
[The emperoure) specially chargynge the sayde bysshop that he on which the word is engraven, and sometimes the wold shewe vnto his sayde sone ye great dauger that he was in names of saints, angels, gods, and even Jehovah him- agaynste God for the displeasurys doon to hym, & specyally that self. Specimens, supposed to be as old as the third he was a cause of the abrygement, or shortynge, of his dayes. century, are still extant. If the Abraxas originally
Fabyan, repr. 1811, p. 154.
Time is the nurse and breeder of all good; came from Egypt, as is believed, it may be regarded
Here if thou stay, thou canst not see thy loue; not as a curiosity fit only for the cabinet, but as one Besides, thy staying will abridge thy life--of those rich spoils of time which may illustrate the
Hope is a lover's staffe, walke hence with that history of that country.
And manage it against despairing thoughts. ABREAST, adt. See BREAST.
Shakespeare's Two Gent. of Ver. p. 30, act iii. sc. 1.
Tue. Say, what abridgement baue you for this euening? ABREAST, a maritime phrase, signifying side by side, What maske? What musicke? How shall we beguile or even opposite to; and used to denote ships lying, or The lazie time, if not with some delight? sailing, with their sides parallel to each other. The
Id. M. N. Dreame, p. 159. act v. sc. 1. term, however, has a more particular reference to the
Fond women, and scarce speaking children mourn, line of battle at sea. When the line is formed abreast,
Bewail his (Hertford's] parting, wishing his return,
That I was forc'd to abridge his banish'd years, the whole squadron advances uniformly and evenly; When they bedew'd his footsteps with their tears. the commander-in-chief being always stationed in the
Drayton's Richard II. to Queen Isabel, p. 101, centre, and the ships equidistant from each other.
Beasts too were his command: what could he more? Abreast of any place, signifies being opposite to it. In
Yes, man he could, the bond of all before;
In him he all things with strange order hurl'd; the interior of the ship, abreast means to be on the In him, that full abridgment of the world. starboard or larboard side of the main hatchway, in
Cowley's Davideis, book i. opposition to afore or abaft the hatchway.
If I should abridge all the holy prophets, and gather up out of ABREOLHOS, or ABREogos, a dangerous point of them all the menaces of judgments which they denounce against their land stretching out from the coast of Brazil, in W. lon.
sinful Israel, I might well bring them home to our own doors, and 39°, 18. S. lat. 17o, 18', terminated by some hidden justly affright us with the expectation of such further revenge from
Divine Justice : for how can we otherwise think, but the same sins rocks and sands, on which frequent shipwrecks have oc- must carry away the same punishments ? curred. It requires great skill and knowledge of the
Bishop Hall's Sermons. coast to avoid this point.
When our blessed Lord gives an abridgement, or abstract, of the ABRETENE, or ABRETTINE, an ancient district of ten commandments, he doth it in these words. Matth. xxii
. 37,38,39, Mysia, in Asia. The people were called Abretteni, in
" Love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and soul, that is, love habiting the country between Ancyra of Phrygia, and And the second is like unto it; love thy neighbour as thy self.”
God above all things; this is the first and great commandment, the river Rhyndacus.
Watts's Sermons VOL. XVII.
Persians on the 13th day of the month Tir, corre. ABRIZAN.
ABROAD. As a wit, if not first, in the very first line !
people sprinkled each other with water, from the higher Goldsmith's Retaliation, odoriferous plants.
" This heathenish festival was That man should thus encroach on fellow man,
apparently preparatory to the descent of the rain in Abridge him of his just and native rights,
those countries; being about the time of the autumnal Eradicate him, tear him from his hold
equinox, and has been adopted by the Mahometans."
“ Might not the returning Jews," Harmer asks, “ think
of adding some memorial of Jehovah's being the giver of
rain to that ancient national solemnity that had been Moves indignation.
enjoined by Moses, to be observed just about the same
Corper's Task, b. v. time of the year with that of the Persian festival,
which that people, with solemnity, ascribed to some
the gift of Jehovah ?” Observations on Passages of
ABROACH', .) Sax. Abræcan. To break.
ABROACH', adr. ) To broach a vessel is to break into
in that state in which the contents of a vessel compress
the thoughts of an author into a few, if it be broached or broken into are. still an adequate number of words, subserves the in
And whan that I have told thee fortlı my tale terests of literature and science. To do this, however,
Of tribulation in mariage, it is not sufficient that his abridgment should consist
Of which I am expert in all min age, of a string of merely garbled extracts, and loose quo
(This is to sayn, myself hath ben the whippe) tations; even should those extracts prove to be the
Than maiest ihou chesen wheder thou wolt sippe
Of thilke tonne, that I shal abroche.
Chaucer. The wife of Bathes Prologue, vol. i. p. 233.
But of this trouble I [quene Katheryne) onely maie thanke you
my lorde Cardinal of Yorke, for because I haue wondered at your so far restrain themselves, during the heat of compo
high pride and vainglory, and abhorre your volupteous life, and
Hall, p. 755.
firste abroche? who taught it? who cofirmed it? who allowed it?
Jewel's Defence of the Apologie, first to divest himself of all undue prepossession in
Whose frightful vision, at the first approach,
With violent madness struck that desp'rate age, favour of the author's subject and style of writing;
So many sundry miseries abroach, and particularly from all merely personal predilections
Giving full speed to their anbridled rage. for the author before him. He will then sit down
Drayton's Barons Wars, p. 34. coolly and carefully to his second duty, which is that
Let but some upstart heresy be set abroach, and presently their of ascertaining (to a certainty if possible) his author's
are some out of a curious humour; others, as if they watched an precise meaning and drift.
When the abridger has so occasion of singularity, will take it up for canonical, and make it far prepared himself, he should then keep a jealous eye part of their creed and profession.
Bishop Wilkins's Discovery of a new World.
And spoil, like bales unopen'd to the sun.
Young's Complaint, Night ii. may be found in the writings of Gibbon, who, it is to be
The similitude between the rites practised, and the doctrines feared, like some others, occasionally sacrifices even
taught in the Grecian and Egyptian inysteries, would be alone sufli. historical veracity to the desire of expressing a simple cient to point up to their original: such as the doctrines taught of fact in the finest language.
a metempsychosis, and a future state of rewards and punishments, An abridger should be scrupulous not to omit, which the Greek writers agree to have been first set abroach by the
Warburton's Div. Legation of Moses.
ABROAD'; Abrod, R. Gloucester; O brode, R. Brunne;
another man's thoughts in one's own words, With thulke stroc he smot al of the scolle & ek the croune,
R. Gloucester, p. 476.
Therfore thei don alle her werkis, that thei be seen of men, for to analyze a subject is not always to abridge it.
thei drawen abrood her falateries and magnyfien hemmes, and thei ABRIZAN, or ABRIZGhian, or ABREEZGAN,
loven the firste sittynge placis in soperis, and the firste cbaieris in the Persian word Abriz, “a vessel proper for pouring sinagogis
, and salutaciouns in cheping, and to be clepid of. men out water: the name of a feast observed by the old maistir.
Mi'iclif, Matthew, chap. xxiii.
Natu. Perge, good M. Holofernes, perge, so it shall please you ABRO-
Shakespeare, Love's L. L. p. 131, act iv, sc. 2.
That robe of Rome proud Beauford now doth wear
In every place such, sway should never bear :
The crosier-staff in bis imperious band,
To be the scepter that controuls the land;
That home to England dispensations draws,
Which are of power to abrogate our laws.
Drayton's Duke Humphrey to Elenor Cobham, p. 110.
The negative precepts of men may cease by many instruments,
by contrary customs, by public disrelish, by long omission : but the
negative precepts of God never can cease, but when they are exAnd I haue thrust my selfe into this maze,
pressly abrogated by the same anthority.
Taylor's Rules and Exercises of Holy Living and Dying.
It appears to have been a usual practice in Athens, on the estab-
lishnient of any law esteemed very useful or popular, to prohibit
for ever its abrogation and repeal.
That which I demand is, what peace of mind a sinner can have in
this world, who knows not how soon he may be dispatched to that
place of torment? Can he bind the hands of the Almighty, that he From the four hinges of the world, and fell
shall not snatch him away till he doth repent? or can he reverse On the vex'd wilderness.
the decrees of heaven, or suspend the execution of them? Can
Stilling fleet's Sermons.
Nor is it well, nor can it come to good,
That, through profane and infidel contempt
or holy writ, she (London] has presum'd t'annul
And abrogate, as roundly as she may,
The total ordinance and will of God.
Couper's Task, book i.
Taylor's Sermons. plants belonging to the natural order of Columniferæ,
the Malvaceæ of Jussieu, and the 18th class of polya-
delphia dodecandria. Dryden's Duke of Guise, act ii. sc. 1. ABRUG-BANYA, a rich and populous town of It is not unknown to any that observes the state of things in the Transylvania, in the province of Weissenburg, abounding world, how many erroneous religions are scattered abroad in the
with mines of gold and silver. E. lon. 23°, 24'. Ni lat. world ; and how industrious meu of false persuasions are to make
ABRUP'TION, or away from. Broken off from.
ABRUPT'LY, Generally used where the breach
ABRUPT'NESS. and separation is sudden, or
violent, or hasty, or unexpected.
Troy. O Cressida, how often have I wisht me thus?
Cres. Wisht my lord ? The gods grant ! O my lord.
taine of our loue ?
Shakespeare, Tr. & Cr. p. 90. liinited.
Junius, Letter i.
Or if thou hast not broke from companie
Thou hast not lou'd.
Id. As You Like It, p. 191. act ii..
Pardon, if my abruptnesse breed disease ;
“ He merits not t'offend, that hastes to please.” legem, to repeal; to annul; abolish a law: and in this
Jonson's Part of the King's Entertainment in passing application the word is usually found in English.
to his Coronation, Beside this, all estatutes made by king Edward, were clerely
The divel he is a spirit, and hath ineanes and opportanitie to reuoked, abrogated, and made frustrate.
Hall, p. 286.
mingle himselfe with our spirits, and sometimes more slily, soine-, I do not abrogate the grace of God; for if righteousness be by times more abruptly and openly, to suggest divelisb thoughts into the law, then Christ dyed without a cause.
our hearts. Geneva Bible, 1561. Galatians, chap. ii. v. 21.
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy. Which fulfyllinge the lawe concluded oure religion within the Did not I note your dark abrupted ends lynnitis of fayth and loue, all the ceremonies of the temple, both
Of words half spoke ; your
“ wells, if all were known?" sacred and canall abrogated.
Your short " I like not that?” your girds and buts ?
Ford's Love's Sacrifice, act iii. sc. 2.
ABRUPT. The effects of whose (the sun's) activity are not precipitously line termmated at some certain point, cut off by an ABSCISSE. abrupted, but gradually proceed to their cessations.
ordinate to a curve. See MATHEMATICS, Div.i. ABSCISSE, Brown's Vulgar Errours, book vi. chap. X.
ABSCISSION, a figure of speech ; in which, after It is a rudeness in manners to depart from the house of our beginning a discourse, it is suddenly broken off, upon friend as soon as the tables are removed, and an act of irreligion the supposition that enough has been already, intiHow much more absurd and impious, then, were it for us to deparimated : as, “ Such a reception of a man so eminent, abruptly from the Lord's table.
supported by such credentials, having so important a Comber's Companion to the Temple, part iii. sect. 19. commission, at a moment so critical- -I need add Abrupt, with eagle-speed she cut the sky;
ABSCISSion, in Surgery, signifies the act of
instrument. It is used by medical writers to denote
planet, by another outstripping it.
ABSCOND', r. ab: condo, to hide from(Condo est a
cum et do, quasi simul in interiorem locum do: ut Festus
ait Vossius.) To hide from; to conceal; to secrete ;
to depart or go away for the purpose of con
Couper's Retirement. cealment.
Ajax, to shun his [Pluto's] general power,
In vain abscondiea in a flower;
An idịc scene Tythonus acted,
Prior's Turtle and Sparrow, seed produced by one of the phascola, or kidney
When there are no more insects in the air, as in winter-time, those beans, commonly called Angola seeds.
birds (swallows] do either abscond, or betake themselves into hot
Ray's Wisdom of God in the Creation.
That animates all right, the tripple sun!
Sun of the soul! her never-setting sun ! districts are divided by the river Pescara. The face
Triune, unutterable, unconceiv'd, of the country is diversified by the towering heights of
Absconding, yet demonstrable, great God ! the Appenines, the Monte Cavallo, and the snow-clad
Young's Night Thoughts.
Outlawry always supposes a precedent right of arresting, which
ABSENT', . in Turkey wheat, rice, oil, and wines ; but a still
AB'SENT, adj. greater article of their trade and commerce is wool,
Ab: esse. To be away from, to which is the staple commodity. The warlike nations
ABSENTEE', which formerly occupied this country have left a valu
be or go, or send away from. To ABSENTER,
retreat, to withdraw. able residue of monumental memorials and inscriptions.
ABSENT'MENT. It is probable, from their appearance, that the mountains contain veins of metallic ore; and the botanist The archebisshop desiryng the duke [Henry of Lancaster] to might find an ample field of research in the incalculable absent all other persons than suche as wer his copanions saied these
or like wordes to hym.
Hall, repr. 1809, p. 6.
Oonli lyue ghe worthili to the gospel of crist, that whethir
whanne I come and se ghou; either absent I heere of ghou that ghe
Wiclif, Filipensis, chap. i.
Wyth fyre infernale in myne absence also
I sall the follow, and fra the cald dede
Reyf from my membrys thys saul, in euery stede
My goist sall be present the to aggrise.
Douglas, bke iv. p. 113. !
Lo badde is nothing els, but absence or negatiue of good, as dark.
ness is absence or negatiue of light
With burial brandes I absent shall thce trace :
And when cold death from life these limes deuides,
My gost ecbe where shall still on thee awaite.
Ifloue forget himselfe by length of absence let
Who doth me guide (Owofull wretch) vnto this baited net, transverse axis of a conic section, intercepted between
Where doth encrease my care, nuch better were for me the vertex, or some other fixed point and a semiordi
As dumme as stone, all thing forgot, still absent for to be. nate. In a more general sense, it is the segment of a
as the pope.
But father nowe ye haue all herde,
ABSOLVE. ABSENT. Ho (Edward the Confessor] sent for home into England his Dephew Edward the sonne of king Edmund his brother, who by
In this maner howe I haue ferde
Of cheste, and of dissencion,
Yeue me your absolucion.
Gower, Con. A. book iii.
cate any person; and that any priest might absolve such a one as well
Stow's Chronicle, Houes's Ed. 1614, p. 272.
Pray speake in English; heere are some will thanke you,
If you speake truth, for their poore Mistris sake;
Beleeue me, she has had much wrong. Lord Cardinall,
May be absolu'd in English.
Shakespeare, H. VIII. p. 218, act i. sc. 1.
Duke. Be absolute for death: either death or life
Shall thereby be the sweeter.
Ib. M. for M. p. 70, act üi. sc. 1.
Now if to salve this anomaly, we say the heat of the sun is more
powerful in the southern tropick, because in the sign of capricorn
falls out the perigeum, or lowest place of the sun in his eccentrick, End, and dismiss thee ere the morning shine.
whereby he becomes nearer unto them than unto the other in cancer, Milton's Paradise Lost, book vi.
we shall not absolve the doubt.
Brown's Vulgar Errours, book vi. chap, x.
BAR. Finding in his conscience
A tender scruple of a fault long since
By him committed, thinks it not sufficient
To be absolu'd of 't by his confessor, of his body discernible, yet there does not always follow so great a
If that in open court he publish not darkness as might be expected from bis total absence.
What was so long conceal'd.
Beaumont and Fletcher's Spanish Curale, act iii. sc. 3.
We are bounde to heare the Pope, and his Cardinalles, and other the strong illusions of enthusiasm, and the mimic arts of impos- like Scribes, and Phariseis, not absolutely, or without exception, what
Gibbon's Roman Empire.
so ever they liste to saie; but only so long, as they teache the lawe of
Jewel's Defence of the Apologie. very weak, or a very affected man. Chesterfield, Leiter xü.
We must know what is to be meant by absolute, or absolutenes ;
whereof I finde two main significations. First, absolute signifieth might not nevertheless supply bills of exchange, sufficient to answer
perfect and absolutenessé, perfection : hetice we have in Latin this the demand of absentees in England, or elsewhere?
Bishop Berkeley's Querist.
expression, Perfectum est omnibus, numeris absolutum. And in our
vulgar language we say, a thing is absolutely good, when it is perAbsence, in Scots Law, when a person cited fectly good. Next, absolute signifieth free from tye or bond. before a court does not appear, and judgment is pro
Knor's History of the Reformation. Preface. nounced. No person can be tried criminally in
It is fatal goodness left to fitter times, absence.
Not to increase, but to absolve, our crimes.
Dryden's Poem to the Lord Chancellor Hyde.
The proper object of love, is not so much that which is absolutely
good in itself, as that which is relatively so to us.
Bp. Wilkins's Sermon on the Hope of Rewarde.
Though an absolutory sentence should be pronounced in favour of
guilt; to acquit, to pardon. The may again be proceeded against as an adulterer.
As the priests of the law were to pronounce a blessing upon
the offerers, so those of the gospel are to dispense of the blessing of
absolution unto the penitent. But let the sonne of perdicion perisshe, and absolue we the
Comber's Companion to the Temple, part i. sect. iv. chapter, the aungel yet speking with Daniel. The Exposicion of Duniet, by George Joye, p. 146.
Reason pursued is faith ; and unpursued
Where proof invites, 'tis reason, then, no more:
Young's Complaint, Night IV.
Aspasia. Since fear predominates in every thought, tbis question, whether God haue not an absolute iustice as wel as an
And sways thy breast with absolute dominion. absolute power? If God have also an absolute iustice, then can not
Johnson's Irene, act ii. sc. 1. his absolute power preuayle vntyll his absolute iustice be fullie Possibly one part of the office (for the sick] may seem to have countrepyased. A Boke made by Johan Fryth, printed 1548. ascribed so bigh a power to the minister, of absolving the sick from
their sins, as may lead them into great mistakes.
Rocking sets children to sleep better than absolute rest; there is
indeed scarce any thing at that age, which gives more pleasure than For it was a gilery, pou knew not per tresoun.
to be gently lifted up and down. R. Brunne, p. 215.
Burke on the Sublime and Beautiful,