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supported by girders, upon which floor joists are supported, and to the under side of which the line-shaft hangers are attached.
The side walls are built 20 inches thick for the first story, or 16 feet, and 16 inches thick for the remainder of the height, and are strengthened by buttresses of 8 inches projection and 24 inches wide. Each bay, or division, is 18 feet 3 inches centers, and the side wall is pierced for two windows on each floor, each window being 4 feet wide; the lower ones 10 feet, and the upper ones 9 feet high.
Above the wing roofs is a monitor roof construction having another series of windows 5 feet high, extending the entire length of the building and separated one from the other only by about 12 inches, thus giving ample light to the central portion of the building. Every alternate sash is pivoted so as to be opened for ventilation.
The roof is constructed as has already been described, with an outward covering of corrugated iron, and has a pitch of 32 inches to the foot, as have the roofs of all the buildings of the plant. The form of truss is the usual one, as shown in the engravings.
The foundry is built on a
plan similar to that of the machine shop, with a central part 35 feet wide and side wings 25 feet wide each. On the cupola side the wing proper is extended 30 feet further, to furnish accommodations for the cupola platform, chipping, core, and flask rooms. See Figs. 5 and 6.
The central part of the foundry is covered by a traveling crane supported by plate girders resting on the main columns and having a clear space of 30 feet beneath it, while the side wings are 20 feet in the clear. The operations of the foundry do not require this height, but it is very desirable to have ample space for the steam and gases, incident to “shaking out” the flasks after pouring off, thus adding much to the comfort of the men.
To further facilitate the exit of these gases, the upper windows 5 feet in height, opening over the roofs of the side wings, are all made with pivoted sashes, so as to be readily opened when necessary.
The bays or divisions between columns are 18 feet 6 inches centers. The side walls are 20 inches thick, strengthened by buttresses of inches projection and 18 inches wide, and each bay is provided with two windows 4 feet wide and 12 feet high, affording ample light to the side wings and, by the aid of the ventilator windows in the monitor roof construction, completely lighting the whole interior.
The lower member of the roof trusses for the side wings is of latticed form to afford sufficient strength for supporting the cranes, and for trolley hoists at any point
where they may be needed. Pickling
The cupola platform construction is shown in cross-section in Fig. 5 and at right angles with this
in Fig. 6. A floor supported by Fig. 6. — Section through Cupola Platform at suitable timbers forms the cupola Right Angles to Fig. 5.
platform proper. This may be constructed entirely of iron, if desired, in order to lessen the liability to damage by fire. The platform should be covered with sheet iron, at least in the immediate vicinity of the cupolas, and should be placed at a proper height to suit the cupolas used. It may be reached by way of an elevator carrying one of the yard tram cars, as will be described hereafter in another chapter.
The forge shop is built much heavier in proportion to its size than the other buildings, on account of the strains and shocks caused by heavy hammers and drop presses. It is 50 feet wide, 80 feet long, and 18 feet high in the clear, and no columns or other obstructions interfere with the free working. The
roof girders are strongly built and thoroughly braced, and the lower member made in latticed form for supporting the usual overhead work of the shop as shown in Fig. 7.
The walls are 20 inches thick and 18 feet high, strengthened by buttresses 8 inches thick for a height of 8 feet, and for the remaining height 4 inches thick by 20 inches wide. The spaces or bays are 13 feet centers and the wall is pierced for one window to each space. The windows are 4 feet wide and 12 feet high, and located, five on each side, three in the front and one in the rear, making fourteen in all.
The roof ventilator is 12 feet wide and extends the entire length of the building, with openings 41 feet high, as shown in Fig. 7.
Along the outer wall are arranged chimneys for six forges. If the system of downward draft is employed these would not be needed, the smoke and gases from all being carried to one chimney of sufficient dimensions and conveniently located for that purpose.
In consequence of the arrangement necessary for these chimneys, when such construction must be used, the buttresses on this side are placed opposite the chimneys and the windows between. This necessitates the use of a steel I-beam in the wall over the windows for supporting the roof trusses. By reducing the number of chimneys to five, this may be avoided.
The power house is of construction similar to the other buildings. The walls are 16 inches thick and 20 feet high, with buttresses 4 inches thick and 20 inches wide. 12-inch walls divide the boiler room, engine room, waterclosets and wash rooms from one another, the last two being built in two floors — the lower one 10 feet and the upper 9 feet high, in the clear. There is a ventilator of monitor construction, 12 feet wide, running the whole length
of the building, with pivoted window sashes on each side, 5 feet high, shown in Fig. 8.
When the power required would render it necessary the entire building might be devoted to the boiler and engine room, and the wash rooms and water-closets be provided for in a side addition. They are placed as shown in order to secure a central location and immediate connection with the machine shop without encroaching upon its space.
Plenty of light is provided for the wash rooms and water-closets by rows of ten windows, 3 feet wide, on each floor, the upper ones being 51 feet and the lower ones 6 feet high.
The engine room and also the boiler room are lighted by four windows, 4 feet wide and 12 feet high, in the outer wall; while two extra windows are placed in the end of the boiler room for the purpose of giving ample light in the rear of the boilers.
In the end of the boiler room is a double door 12 feet wide, one half of which only need be opened to admit the coal car. Near this door are the track scales for weighing the coal as it is brought in. The tram track is continued the length of the boiler room, in front of the boilers and through the door into the engine room, as a convenient means of bringing in or taking out any small machines such as dynamos or similar apparatus.
The engine room connects with the machine shop by an opening 14 feet wide and 16 feet high, through which engines or large pieces of machinery may be moved, and through which main belts may be run.
This space may be closed up, after the power plant is installed, either by doors or by a wooden partition containing suitable doors.
The storehouse for finished machinery, and the carpenter shop adjoining,
Fig. 9, are of the same general construction as the other buildings, so far as the walls and roofs are concerned. Both have 16-inch walls, 14 feet high for the carpenter shop and 18 feet for the storehouse, and strengthened by buttresses of 4 inches projection by 16 inches in width.
The storehouse floor is 3 feet above the level of the machine shop floor. Near the back wall (next to the railway track) the floor is cut out and a specially constructed tram car traverses the space, the top being on a level with the floor.
Fig. 9. — Cross Section through Storehouse, Carpenter Shop, Tracks, etc.
This car track crosses the machine shop floor, and passes over the scales located in it, directly under the traveling crane. By this arrangement machines may be transferred from any point in the shop to this car, standing on the scales, and may be weighted, run into the storehouse and stored away or conveniently run into a car on the railway track, the top of the cars being also on a level with the storehouse floor.
In case the machinery built is of sufficient weight to make such an arrangement desirable, the lower member of the roof trusses should be of latticed form, or, if needed, several of them may be plate girders, on which may run trolley hoists for lifting a machine from the tram car and running it back into the rear of the storehouse or out upon a railway car.
The girders may project out over the railway tracks sufficiently to permit of easy handling in loading cars.
Two sliding doors, one of 8 feet and the other of 12 feet in width and both 12 feet high, are provided for shipping convenience. The storehouse is lighted by eleven windows, each 4 feet wide and 10 feet high.
Additional windows might be located in the rear wall, over the storage sheds and in the end toward the forge shop if the machinery manufactured was of such small size and such variety as to make a division of the storehouse necessary to properly store and care for it.