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celestial mummery pay their visits to the inbabitants, in full cos. tume, to receive their contributions. As all the children are considered as sacred and under the peculiar patronage of the Madonna, a place upon the machine is eagerly sought for by their parents, and a ray of the sun or the moon brings no inconsiderable profit to its proprietor. After this, it must be superfluous to cite any further proofs of the pitch of stultification to which the Messinese populace have been reduced as the consequence of the complete ascendancy gained over them by an ignorant, lowbred, and cuoning priestbood. Nothing is too gross for the credulity of these wretched people; and when the epidemic frenzy of superstition las been once awakened, nothing can exceed the tumultuous violence of their zeal. In no section of the Papal empire does the dogma that Ignorance is the parent of devotion, receive so perfect an illustration. The universal testimony of travellers assigns to the inhabitants of this city, an in- . contestible pre-eminence in devotion to the Madonna, its Great Diana, and in a dull, abject, senseless fanaticism. One is almost led to fancy that some spell or some curse must rest upon this devoted spot, that the atinosphere must be charged with some deleterious vapours that act on the brain, or that a hereditary taint of constitutional imbecility attaches to the general body of the inbabitants. We can account for the diversities of national character, arising as they do from the obvious operation of climate, political condition, religion, and employment; and we expect to find a difference, at least in the degree of intelligence, between the citizen and the villager of the same country. But where the latitude, the professed religion, and the political circumstances of two places are nearly or precisely identical, (as is the case with the inhabitants of Catania, for instance, and the Messinese,) it is not a little remarkable to see a local character so distinct exclusively adhering to generation after generation of the citizens of one particular city or town; as if certain propensities and moral qualities were indigenous to the soil. Yet are we not without some analogous instances, even in our own country, of a peculiarity of character, less marked, indeed, but still broad enough to become proverbial, and strictly to be termed a moral peculiarity, attaching to a limited portion of the population. Such peculiarities are fast disappearing before the progress of education. But where the light of instruction bas not yet been able to pierce the gross darkness, in Heathen or in Popish countries, it is truly astonishing how retentively and unvaryingly the folly or the wickedness that superstition or any other chance influence bas instituted in a particular place, is cherished and practised by the successive generations that spring up and pass. away under the same unhappy predicament. The state of intellectual debasement into which the Messinese appear to be sunk,
might seem, however, to receive an adequate explanation in the statement of our Author, that every tenth person you meet iu
the streets will be either a monk or a priest.'
• The houses of the great, especially those blessed with a pious Jady at their head, are over-run with these retainers, to the total destruction, too often, of domestic comfort: nor are the families even of the lower classes exempt from the same burden. The ascendancy too and
power thus gained by the priesthood, and exercised over the minds of the people, is perfectly degrading.'
And yet, when we allow Messina to exhibit an extreme specimen of the fatuity produced by the joint influence of ignorance and priestcraft, the general state of the Island, and of nearly the whole of Southern Europe, comes so little behind that of the worshippers of the Holy Letter as scarcely to warrant our viewing their conduct in any other light than as a fair specimen of Popery.
Io his route to Messina, Mr. Hughes met, near the village of Giardini, a shepherd's boy playing upon three flutes, or pipes, • (the ancient áurol) all inserted in his mouth at the same time;' one of them not being perforated with holes, but sounding the key-note. The music is said to bave been extremely soft and sweet, The instruments were the workmanship of the performer.
After passing nearly four months* in this beautiful Island, the Travellers set sail for the sbores of Greece. We pass over the chapter which is devoted to the description of Zante, more recent accounts of the Ionian Islands having been furnished by later visitants. A very interesting paper on the Tar-springs of Zante, by Mr. Hawkins, is inserted in the Continuation of Mr. Walpole's Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey. We observe a rather material disagreement between Mr. Hughes and Dr. Holland, as to the size and population of this island. The latter states the circumference to be nearly sixty miles,' and the inhabitants to be reckoned at 40,000, of whom nearly half, he says, reside in the city of Zante. The former gives seventy miles as the circumference of the Island, adding, with the appearance of minuter accuracy, that its extreme length is twenty-one, and its greatest breadth eighteen : he estimates the population at 30,000 only, of whom about two fifths, he says, reside in the city; that is, 12,000 instead of near 20,000, Dr. Holland's computation. We believe that Mr. Hughes's state
* Mr. Hughes states at p. 143, that they anchored in the roads of Zante on the 25th of Sept. ; but at p. 172, the 8th of Sept. is given as the date of their casting anchor in the Bay of Padras. The former should have been, we presume, the 25th of August.
ment is the correct one, and that Dr. Holland has been misled by some old Gazetteer or Encyclopedia. The present Writer anticipates the happiest consequences to the Ionian republic from the establishment of a free press in Zante, connected with the publication of elementary books, patriotic tracts, and scientific researches subservient to the system of public education, laudably patronized by Government. A periodical work, styled the Ionian Ephemeris or Zante Gazette, embracing literary as well as political topics, is stated to have a very extensive circulation. What promises, however, to be attended by still more important benefits to these Islands, as well as to the neighbouring continent, is, the formation, in the course of last year, of an Ionian Bible Society at Corfu, under the auspices of the President of the Senate, the Greek Bishop, the Catholic Vicar-general, and the chief persons in the island, together with auxiliary societies in Cephalonia and Zante. The Athens Bible Society was formed on the 20th of August in the same year. We feel persuaded that we should do great wrong to Mr. Hughes, if we did not believe bim to take a very lively interest in these proceedings. He does not, indeed, while dwelling ou the possible benefits which the Greeks may derive from the progress of knowledge, bint at such a thing as the introduction of pure Christianity; nor does he, while pleasing himself with the thought that England might be the nation to whom, under • Providence, the Greeks would owe the recovery of their free
dom,' advert to the consideration that this country ought to be under Providence the means of their becoming possessed of a blessing still more precious than liberty. Nevertheless, as a clergyman, every consideration must appear to him infinitely subordinate to that of the eternal interests of men, and the extension of that kingdom which shall one day absorb every other.
It should seem that a vague expectation is entertained by some of the Greeks,-or, rather roas entertained, for at the time Mr. Hughes was in Greece, the cession of Parga had not taken place,—some vague expectation that their liberation from their Mussulman tyrants may be looked for from England. While he was detained at Tripolizza, a Signor Demetrio, who was sent to sound the party respecting their motives for travelling, took up, at one of his visits, a copy of Childe Harold, and opened it at the Romaic song beginning
Δευτε παιδες των Ελλήνων. The discovery seemed to electrify him: running with the book to his companions, he communicated to them the important fact, and after a short but animated conversation, flew out of the room with the book in his hand. His friends soon followed, and as none of
them returned that day, our minds began rather to misgive us lest some plot might be in agitation, and these cunning Greeks might think it a good opportunity of paying court to the Pasha, and shewing their zeal in his service, by exciting his suspicions against us, and giving him some pretext for the brutality of bis conduct. In this, however, we wronged them. The book was carried off by Demetrio, for the purpose of copying the song, and exhibiting to a few of the principal inhabitants a specimen of what was done for the Grecian cause in England. Not understanding the context, they supposed that the whole work related either immediately or relatively to the liberation of the Greeks, and the very idea created in their minds an ecstacy of joy, which it would have been a pity to damp by explanation.
The extreme simplicity, however, wbich could rest on such doubtful premises so large a conclusion, is scarcely consistent with the wily character of the Greek. Demetrio might well be pleased to discover the song in question, and eagerly copy it, without taking quite so much for granted with regard to the whole volume. But Mr. H. could hardly be mistaken; and it is some confirmation of the anecdote, that when Mr. Cockerell was staying at Andrutzena, in Arcadia, he met with an unexpected degree of urbanity and disinterested kindness from the villagers, by whom he was continually asked, “When will the
English come? Why do they not come, since the Greeks
would be so ready to join them? In the highly interesting letter from that gentleman inserted in the present work, contaiping an account of the discovery of the Pbigalian marbles, mention is made of such an antiquarian jollification as is not to be paralleled, we apprehend, in the annals of Travelling.
• The party was very large, consisting of Gropius' (most apt cognomen !)Haller, Foster, Bronstedt, Lynckh, and Stakelberg, besides their servants, superintendants, &c. amounting to above fifteen persons. On the top of Mount Cotylium, from whence there is a grand prospect over nearly all Arcadia, they established themselves for three months, building round the temple huts covered with the boughs of trees, amounting almost to a village (a city I should have said) which they denominated Francopolis. They had frequently fifty or eighty men at work in the temple, and a band of Arcadian music was constantly playing, to entertain this numerous assemblage: when evening put an end to work, dances and songs commenced, lambs were roasted whole on a long wooden spit, and the whole scene, iu such a situation, at such an interesting time, when every day some new and beautiful work of the best age of sculpture the world has ever known was brought to light, is hardly to be imagined. Apollo must have wondered at the carousal which disturbed his long repose, and have thought that his glorious days of old were again returned !'
Our limits will not admit of our following the Author in his travels through Greece: we must avail ourselves of our privilege
of selection. He passed nearly a month at Athens most agreeably, except that during part of the time be was confined to bis bed by a tertian ague; but he made neither excavations nor discoveries; and Dr. Clarke bas left little, in the way of description, to be done by any subsequent traveller. He took the usual rainbles, explored the Theseum, the Areopagus, the Parthenon ; 'recited the first Philippic oration upon the very Bema
of Demosthenes,' in the ears of Athenians who understood not a word of it; traced out the foundations of the Academy, and wandered along the delightful but ungenial banks of the Cephissus; feeling all that it became him to feel as a scholar and classical antiquary on the occasion. He had the advantage of being accompanied in some of his exploratory visits by Mr. Cockerell, who, he informs us, among his other observations on the architecture of the Parthenon, had his attention directed to the entasis or swelling in the columns which Stuart has been unnecessarily reproached with having overlooked.
. With a great deal of difficulty he measured them, and found by a straight line stretched from the capital to the base, that this swell at about one third of the height, equalled one inch. That in the temple of Jupiter at Ægina equalled half an inch, which was in proportion to the other; so that he had no doubt but that there was a general rule on this point with the ancient architects. This protuberance is so delicate that it must be ascertained by measurement : the eye alone cannot perceive it. The fact had escaped Stuart and our other most accurate observers.'
Mr. Hughes joins in the general outcry against the Despoiler of the Parthenon. In visiting it, he was struck forcibly with the lamentable overthrow and ruin wantonly occasioned during its last spoliation. • Shafts, capitals, and entablatures lie heaped together in masses capable of furnishing materials to build a palace of marble.' But spoilers more barbarous and mischievous by far than Lord Elgin, are perpetually carrying on the work of sacrilegious devastation. Never does either English or French frigate anchor in the Piræus, but Siguor Lusieri bas literally a shivering fit from the anticipation of what is to follow. ' The young midsbipmen are then let loose upon the venerable
monuments of Athens, and are seldom deterred by the religion • of the place from indulging in the most wanton devastation of
statues, cornices, and capitals, from which they carry off me' mentos of their Athenian travels.' This evil is stated to be on the increase, from the greater number of vessels that arrive at the port. It is only surprising that after all the spoliations to which the city of Minerva has been subjected, so much should remain to repay the zeal of classical pilgrims. • Romans burn
it,' remarks Mr. Hughes, Goths sack it, Venetians bombard 'it, Turks grind down its monuments for mortar, and coldVol. XIV. N. S.