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wherefore of the subject at hand and it is one of the objects of this book to assist employees in a thorough and systematic mastery of the rules so that their self-reliance may be sufficient for the business at hand.

The responsibilities of train service are so great that examinations are necessary in order to make sure that the rules are understood, because the safety of the train and its load depends on each employee having a clear and definite idea of his duties.

In order that the public may distinguish employees with whom they may have dealings, certain employees are required to wear a prescribed badge and uniform. And, finally, remember the Golden Rule, and do unto others as you would that others would do unto you.

Definitions

Engine.When the word, "engine" is used in the rules it refers to a locomotive propelled by any form of energy. Thus a gasoline motor or an electric motor is considered an "engine" under the rules.

Train. The definition of a “train” is of great importance and it will be well for the student to become thoroughly familiar with the interpretation of the term. When the term is used in the rules it always implies an engine, or more than one engine coupled, with or without cars, displaying markers. If no markers are displayed it cannot be considered a train, but simply equipment; thus, if an order is given to meet No. 5 at D and No. 5 arrives without its markers the opposing train cannot proceed because it has not met train No. 5 as no markers were displayed. · Regular Train.-A “Regular Train” is a train which is represented on the time-table. That is, it has a schedule printed on the timetable. It may be that this schedule is only in effect for one day a week, or it may run daily; it makes no difference, it is a regular train if it has a schedule on the time-table regardless of the number of days it is in effect during the week. A train which runs over the road extra is not a regular train even though it may run every day in the week.

A “Sectionis a train which is using a time

table schedule when there has been, or is to be, another train using the same schedule. When it is desired to run more than one train on a schedule all trains using that schedule, except the last, display green signals. In such cases each train using the schedule is called a section, each section being numbered in regular order, for example, the first train using schedule No. 1 is called ist No. 1, the second train using the schedule is called and No. 1, and so on.

An Extra Trainis a train which has no timetable schedule. Extra trains are distinguished from regular trains by the white signals which they display on the front of the engine. There are two kinds of extra trains; work extra, and extra. The term “work extra” is used exclusively to designate a work train, and the term "extra” is used to designate any other extra train. Extra trains are known and designated in train orders by the number of the engine. For example, if engine 345 is running extra, it is known as extra 345. In case two engines are used on an extra train the number of the leading engine is generally used to designate the ex

tra by, although some roads require that both engine numbers be used in all orders.

A “Superior Trainis one having preference or precedence over another train. The term is generally used as between two trains, that is, No. 2 being a train of superior direction is superior to No. 1, but both trains are first-class trains; No. 24 is superior to No. 25 as it is a train of: superior direction, both trains are second-class, therefore No. 24 would be called a “Superior Train” in connection with train No. 25, but in connection with train No. 1 it would be an inferior train, because it is a train of inferior class. There are three methods of giving a train preference: (1) By “right,” which is conferred by train order; (2) by “class,” which is conferred by time-table, and this superiority lasts until a schedule becomes twelve hours late, or until the schedule is annulled, or until the precedence of the schedule has been restricted by train order; and (3) by “direction,” which is conferred by time-table and affects trains of the same class only, in relation to each other.

Rightis superior to class or direction. Whenever a train order is issued which gives

No. I right over No. 2 it supersedes the superiority by direction which the time-table conferred upon No. 2, making No. I a train of superior right. When a meeting point is made between No. 1 and No. 2, No. 1 becomes superior to No. 2, to the meeting point. If No. 2 is directed to run one hour late and No. 1 is given the time, then No. 1 becomes superior to No. 2 until No. 2 is an hour late.

Classis conferred by time-table: the first class is superior to the second class, and the second class is superior to the third class, and so on. Thus, No. 1 is superior to No. 24 because No. I is a first-class train and No. 24 is a second-class train.

Directionis conferred by time-table: On single track each time-table contains a foot-note which states that trains in a certain direction are superior to trains in the opposite direction, and a train moving in the direction in which trains are superior, as stated by the foot-note, are superior to trains of the same class in the opposite direction. Superiority of direction applies only between trains of the same class.

Time-Table.—The Standard Code states

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