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Inhabited, though finless, more than now, 690
Avoided pinching cold and scorching heat ?
These changes in the Heav'ns, though low, produc'd
Like change on sea and land, fideral blast,
Vapor, and mist, and exhalation hot,
Corrupt and pestilent: Now from the north

Of Norumbega, and the Samoed shore,
Bursting their brazen dungeon, arm’d with ice
And snow and hail and stormy gust and flaw,
Boreas and Cæcias and. Argestes loud
And Thrascias rend the woods and seas upturn; 700

With it setve Ouest. Orest, 1010. and Guft and foul flaws to herdsmen Horace cæna Thyeste. De Art. Poet. and to herds. 91. and Mr. Pope would read here

699. Boreas] The north wind. Thyestes'.

Cecias the north-west. Argeftes the 696. Of Norumbega, and the Sa- north-east. Thrascias blowing from moed shore,] Norumbega a pro- Thrace, northward of Greece. Notas

. vince of the northern America. Sa- the south wind. Afer or Africus, the moieda, a province in the north-east of southwest from Africa ; Muscovy, upon the frozen fea. Hume.

Notusque ruunt creberque procellis 697. arm'd with ice &c.] So

Africus. Virg. Æn. I. 85. Claudian de Rapt. Prof. I. 69.

From Serraliona or Lion Mountains; ceu turbine rauco Cum gravis armatur Boreas, glacie- cause of the perpetual ttorms there

a range of mountains so callid be. Richardson.

roaring like a lion. These are to 698. and formy gust and flaw,] the south-west of Africa, within a Gustand flaw seem to be words much few leagues of Cape Verd, the of the same import, only flaw is the wekern point. Eurus and Zephyr the Atronger, derived (as Junius says) east and west, call'd also Levant from the Greek pazas to break. and Ponent winds (rising and setting) Shakespear uses both words in his the one blowing from whence the Venus and Adonis,

sun rises, the other whence it lets. Like a red morn that ever yet be- Sirocco ventus Syrus, the south-east: token'd

and Libecchio ventus Lybicus, the

que nivali &c.


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With adverse blast upturns them from the south
Notus and Afer black with thundrous clouds
From Serraliona; thwart of these as fierce
Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds
Eurus and Zephyr with their lateral noise,

Sirocco, and Libecchio. Thus began
Outrage from lifeless things; but Discord first
Daughter of Sin, among th' irrational,
Death introduc'd through fierce antipathy:

709 Beast now with beast ’gan war, and fowl with fowl, And filh with fish; to graze the herb all leaving,

Deal fouth-west : Italian terms used by Prælia fæva gerit : jam priftina pafeamen of the Mediterranean.

bula fpernunt, Hume and Richardson. Jam tondere piget viridantes graIn this account of the winds is a

mine campos ; needless oftentation of learning, and Alterum et alterius vivunt animalia a ftrange mixture of ancient and letho : modern, Latin and Italian names Prisca nec in gentem humanam retogether. These are the foibles and verentia durat, weak parts of our author, and of Sed fugiunt, vel fi fteterant, fera these it may too truly be faid,

bella minantur Such labor'd nothings, in so strange Fronte truci, torvofque oculos jacua stile,

lantur in illam. Amaze th’ unlearn'd, and make the And perhaps two or three instances learned smile.

at molt in Milton are something fimi

lar to passages in Masenius: whe710. Beast now with beast ther accidentally or designedly is a

Glar'don himpalling ] These question : but surely it is great abverses are very like some upon surdity to charge Milton therefore the same occasion in Masenius, as with borrowing

the substance of 2000 cited by Mr. Lauder.

lines from him. Quadrupedi pugnat quadrupes, vo- 711, - to graze the herb all leavlucrique volucris,

ing, &c.] The word all here Et piscis cum pisce ferox hoftilibus makes ftrange sense of this passage, armis fince according to common canftruc

Devour'd each other; nor stood much in awe
Of Man, but fled him, or with count’nance grim
Glar'd on him paffing. These were from without
The growing miseries, which Adam faw

715 Already' in part, though hid in gloomiest shade, ,

To tion it implies that beafts, fowl, and The greatest difficulty is with regard filh, all graz'd before the fall, and to the fish, but of these Milton says immediately after it began all to prey exprelly VII. 404. that they upon each other, neither of which

Graze the sea weed their pasturecould possibly be Milton's meaning. How to restore the true reading I And therefore according to this no don't pretend to determin, but the tion, it may be faid of fowl and fille following lines seem to confine the as well as beasts, devouring to the beasts, and might not therefore the word those be sub

to graze the herb all leaving,

Devour'd each other Atituted in the place of all? Thyer. Whether Milton's notion was right But all here is not all and every one or not is another question, but cere in particular, but only all in general. tainly it was his notion that beaft, Fowl prey upon fowl, and fifh upon fowl, and fill grazed the herb before fish, as much as beaft upon beaft

. the fall. Of the beasts there can be Beaft

, fowl, and fish, all the three no doubt; and the fowl have the kinds, tho' not all of the three kinds, green herb given them for meat as devour each other. well as the beasts. Gen. I. 30. And 712. nor food much in awe to every beast of the earth, and to of Man, but filed bim,] Dr. Bentley every fowl of the air I have given reads but sounn'd him: because (he every green herb for meat. And the says) they fed him, it was a fign goose particularly is by the poet who of fear, of more than awe. True, has beit imitated Milton called clofe- and for that very reason fted is right grazer. Philips's Cyder. B. 1. here, because nothing more thows

our not standing much in awe of a On the barren heath Man than our fearing him. Awe is The shepherd tends his flock, that a respect or reverence paid to one daily crop

whom we love, and love excludes Their verdant dinner from the fear. Pearce, moffy turf

714.-These were from without &c.] Sufficient; after them the cackling The tranfition to Adam here is very goose,

easy and natural, and cannot fail of Clole grazer, finds wherewith to pleasing the reader. We have seen eale her want.

great alterations produced in nature,


To sorrow' abandon’d, but worfe felt within,
And in a troubled fea of paffton tost,
Thus to disburden fought with fad complaint,
O miserable of happy'! is this the end

720 Of this new glorious world, and me fo late

The and it is now time to see how Adam many of the fathers, and the most is affected with them, and whether orthodox writers. Milton has by the disorders within are not even this means filled a great part of his worse than those without.

poem with that kind of writing 718. And in a troubled fea of pas- which the French critics call the fron toft,

tender, and which is in a particuThus to disburden fought with sad lar manner engaging to all sorts

complaint.) A metaphor of readers. Adam and Eve, in taken from a ship in a tempest, un. the book we are now considering lading, disburd’ning to preserve itself are likewife drawn with such fentifrom finking by its weight. ments, as do not only interest the

Richardson. reader in their afflictions, but raise 720. O miserable of happy! &c.] in him the most melting passions of The parts of Adam and Eve, or the humanity and commiseration. When human persons come next under our Adam sees the several changes in confideration. Milton's art is no nature produced about him, he apwhere more shown than in his con- pears in a disorder of mind suitable ducting the parts of these our first to one who had forfeited both his parents. The representation be gives innocence and his happiness; he is of them, without falfifying the story, filled with horror, remorse, despair ; is wonderfully contriv'd to influence in the anguish of his heart he expothe reader with pity and compassion ftulates with his Creator for having towards them. Though Adam in- given him an unask'd existence. volves the whole species in misery; Did I request thee, Maker, from his crime proceeds from a weakness which every man is inclin'd to par. To mold me Man? &c.

my clay don and commiserate, as it seems rather the frailty of human nature, He immediately after recovers from chan of the person who offended. his presumption, owns his doom to Every one is apt to excuse a fault be just, and begs that the death which he himself might have fallen which is threaten'd him,may be innto. It was the excess of love for ficted on him, Eve, that ruin'd Adam and his poste

why delays ity. I need not add, that the au- His hand to execute what his decree hor is juftify'd in this particular by Fix'd on this day? &c.

The glory of that glory, who now become
Accurs'd of blessed, hide me from the face
Of God, whom to behold was then my highth
Of happiness! yet well, if here would end

The misery; I deserv'd it, and would bear
My own deservings; but this will not serve;
All that I eat or drink, or shall beget,
Is propagated curse. O voice once heard
Delightfully, Increase and multiply,

730 Now death to hear! for what can I increase Or multiply, but curses on my head? Who of all ages to succeed, but feeling

, The evil on him brought by me, will curse My head ? Ill fare our ancestor impure,

For This whole speech is full of the Is propagated curfe.] Meat and like emotion, and varied with all drink propagate it by prolonging those sentiments which we may sup- life, and children by carrying it on pose natural to a mind fo broken to posterity. The thought is borand disturb’d. I must not omit that row'd and improv'd from Grotius. generous concern which our first Adamus Exul. Ac v. Father shows in it for his posterity, Quod comedo, poto, gigno, diris and which is so proper to affect the reader. Who can afterwards behold

subjacet. the father of mankind extended up- 740. On me as on their natural cenon the earth, uttering his midnight ter light complaints, bewailing his existence, Heavy, though in their placı,] Dr. and wilhing for death, without sym- Bentley has really made some very pathizing with him in his distress just objections to several lines here

Addison. together. He finds fault with Adam's 728. All that I eat or drink, or not keeping up a due decorum, and jball beget, in that heavy seriousness and anxiety



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