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number. Perhaps, and probably the pro- | that they get near those who are praying, tectors of the octagon world.

and endeavour to confound them; that “ 2. Maroutoukels. Only two.

they may omit some of the ceremonies pre“ 3. Guinerers. Gods of music.

scribed by their ritual. It is by this means, " 4. Guimbourouders. Of singing. and not by their own works, that they can “ 5. Chidders.

find grace before the Lord. When they “ 6. Vitiaders.

have collected a sufficient quantity of pray“7. Guerouders. They have wings, and ers, they are permitted to change their natheir noses are like the eagle's beak. Viche- ture; and then from wandering unfortunate nou rides on a Guerouder.

genii they become souls, passing into the “ 8. Grindouvers, famous for their beauty. bodies of men, and by this change enjoyThey have wings, and love to fly in the air ing the happiness promised to the latter. with their wives.

In order to prevent such surprise is the “9. Pidourdevadegals ; protectors of the reason that the Indians, in beginning the dead. The only tribe that is adored and divine service, repeat a prayer, and fling supplicated.”

water three times over the left shoulder,

which is the only part where the genii can “ Tue Calis and Poudaris are tutelary attack them.” divinities, protectresses of cities. Each city has its own. They delight in blood, “ They believe also in spirits, attributand some of them in human sacrifice. They ing the same qualities to them which we are not immortal, of giant stature, many- give to hobgoblins. They name them armed, their heads surrounded with flames. Mouni, or Cateri, or Pichache. They have Several fierce animals are also placed under no body, but take what form they please. their feet."

It is particularly during the night-time

that they roam to hurt mankind, endea" Or the giants, or bad genii, are five vouring to lead astray travellers to precitribes.

pices, wells, and rivers; transforming them" 1. Achourers, of whom some have go- selves into Will-o'-the-wisps, houses, men, verned the world, a favour they obtained or animals, to conceal the danger into which by their penunces.

they are conducting the traveller. To make ".. linchadars, who have often subjected them propitious, the Indians erect colossal the world under the government of some of statues to their honour, and pray to them." their kings. But these monarchs, abusing the power given them by the greater gods, “ The wicked will be flung into hell, a were punished by Vichenou and Eswara. place beneath the earth, near the south,

“ 3. Bouders, or Boudons, attendants and called Padalam. Rivers of fire, horrible guards of Eswara.

monsters, destructive arms, infectious in4. Caleguejers. The most powerful sects, and all sorts of evils are concentered race of giants. They inhabit the Padalon. in this terrible corner. After the death of

" 5. Guingerers, endowed with extra- these unfortunate people, the Emaguinguilordinary strength. They serve the Achou- liers, the giant servants of Yamen drag rers as soldiers, and inhabit also the Pada- them, tied and bound with cords; they are lon.

beat, whipt, and trod under foot; they “Many of these malicious genii are con- walk on points of iron; their bodies shall demned to wander on the earth after their be picked by crows, and gnawn by dogs ; decease, on account of their bad actions; and they shall be flung into a burning river. and cannot quit it but by collecting the It is not till after these cruelties have been prayers the Indians make to the gods ; so exercised upon them that the ministers of



death will conduct them before Yamen. | which their torments shall be lengthened, This incorruptible and severe judge will and by an effect of the Divine power they condemn them according to the faults they shall find themselves again in the seed of have committed. Those who have despised

This seed diffused in the womb, the duties of religion shall be cast on heaps shall be, during a whole night, like mud. of cutting arms, and suffer this torment as The fifth day it shall be like globules of many years as they have hairs on their bo

water. In the fourth month, the sinews of dies. Those who insult the Bramins and the fætus shall be formed. In the fifth, he persons in high office, shall be cut in pieces. shall experience hunger and thirst. In the Adulterers shall be forced to embrace a sixth, an epidermis shall cover his body. statue made hot with fire. Those who fail In the seventh, he shall be sensible of moin their duty, who do not take care of their tions. He will inhabit the right side of his family, and who abandon them to roam mother, and be nourished by the suction of about, shall be continually torn by the the nourishment she takes. Reduced to

Those who do hurt to men, or who flutter in his excrements, the worms shall kill animals, shall be cast from precipices bite him; the sharp nutriture and warm to be tormented by wild beasts. Those who water which his mother drinks will give have not reverenced their parents, nor the him acute pains. He will suffer much in Bramins, shall burn in a fire whose flames his birth; and when born will be still subshall rise to 10,000 yogenais. Those who ject to infinite pains. It is thus that this have ill-used old men and children shall be painful birth shall be renewed, till these cast into furnaces. Those who have slept unhappy creatures have the courage to give in the day time with lewd women shall be themselves up entirely to the practice of forced to walk on thorns. Slanderers and virtue." calumniators, stretched upon beds of redhot iron, shall be obliged to eat excrements.? " ALL souls whom a violent death hasMisers shall serve for food to the worms. tens to the grave, except those who perish Those who rob the Bramins shall be sawed in a war, or in defence of their gods or through the middle of their bodies. Those their country, remain wandering and ramwho from motives of vanity slay cows and bling upon the earth as long a time as they other animals in the sacrifices, shall be beat were destined to live in the bodies they on an anvil. False witnesses shall be Aung lately animated. They can be judged only from the top of high mountains. Lastly, after this interval.” the sensual, the idlers, and those who have had no pity on the poor and miserable, “ If the destiny of the soul has been so shall be flung into burning caverns; shall unfortunate, that it is doomed to animate be crushed under mill-stones, and trod un- the body of an animal, it will successively der foot by elephants; and their bruised pass into different disguises of this kind, and torn flesh shall serve for food to those except some fortunate circumstance delianimals. All these miserable sinners shall vers it from this deplorable state; because suffer in this manner during many thou- an animal cannot perform a meritorious act. sand years ; and their imperishable bodies, Those fortunate circumstances are, the sight although divided by torments, shall re-unite of a deity, whether in his temples or in the as soon as quicksilver. They afterwards streets during the ceremony of a procession. shall be condemned to a new life, during Sometimes the sight alone of a holy place

may operate for the deliverance. At this I See 2 Kings, xviii. 27; Isaiah, xxxvi, 12.

epocha the soul passes into the body of a It is said that these disgusting expressions are

man, and thus wanders from body to body still used.-J. W. W.

till it becomes perfectly pure."

“ The gods and the giants desiring to is painted. Those animals are given her as procure themselves immortality, after the attributes, because they are held infamous counsel of Vichenou, transported the moun- by the Gentoos. The physician Danoutain of Mandriguiri into the sea of milk, to vandri afterwards came out from the bottom get the Amourdon: they surrounded it with of the sea with a vase full of Amourdon. the serpent Addissechen, and drawing it | Vichenou distributed it among the gods alternately, some by the head and some by alone; and the giants, who saw themselves the tail, they turned the mountain topsy- disappointed, furious for having been deturvy, that they might change the sea into ceived, dispersed themselves over the earth, butter. They drew it with such swiftness, preventing homage being paid to any deity that Adissechen, overcome with weariness, whatever, and exercised all kinds of cruelty could no longer support the fatigue ; his to make themselves adored." body trembled, his thousand shivering mouths made the earth resound with his " VICHENOU assumed the form of a wohissings; a torrent of flame issued from his man, under the name of Moyeni, to seduce eyes; his thousand tongues, black and the giants and take the Amortam from them. hanging, palpitated; and he vomited a ter- Eswara was so struck with her beauty, that rible poison, which in an instant spread he could not resist bis desires, and became itself every where. Vichenou, more intre- with her the father of Ayenar. The Gentoos pid than the other gods and giants, who fled, esteem this son of Eswara and Vichenou as took the poison, and rubbed his body with the protector of the world, of good order, it, which immediately became blue. It is and of the police; but they do not rank in commemoration of this event, that in him with gods of the first class. They build almost all the temples dedicated to him, small temples to him in the woods, comthey represent him of a blue colour. The monly at a distance from the highway, but gods and giants returned to their work ; never in towns. He is known by the quanthey laboured during a thousand years, after tity of horses made of dried earth, which which the mountain sunk by degrees into they consecrate to him, and are placed withthe sea.

Vichenou then took the form of a out side the temple, but under cover. It tortoise of an extraordinary size, went into is not permitted to pass near those temples the sea, and easily lifted up the sunk moun- in a carriage, on horseback, or on foot with tain. All the gods, after having given him shoes on. He is the only god to whom praises, united to turn the mountain. At sanguinary offerings are made; kids and last, after many ages, the cow Camadenou cocks being sacrificed to him.” came out of the sea of milk, as also the horse Outchisaravam, and the white ele- “LATCHIMI, the wealth-giver, the mother phant Ariapadam, and the tree Calpaga of the world, the perfectly beautiful, had by Vroucham. Their labours also produced her husband Vichenou, Manmadin, god of three goddesses, Latchimi, goddess of riches, love, a child in figure like Cupid, carrying wife of Vichenou ; Sarasouadi, goddess of a quiver on his shoulders, and a bow and sciences and harmony, whom Brahma took arrow in his hand; but his bow is of sugar to his wife; and Moudevi, goddess of dis- cane, his arrows of all sorts of flowers, and cord and misfortune, with whom, for good he is mounted on a parroquet. Although reason, no person would trouble themselves; an infant, they have given him a wife called for the Indians suppose, that whoever is Radi, which signifies Debauch ; they repreunder her influence will never have a grain sent her as a beautiful woman, on her knees, of rice to appease his hunger. She is re- on horseback, throwing a dart.” presented green, mounted on an ass, carrying a banner in her hand, on which a raven

“ ESWARA unites in himself both sexes,

his wife Parvadi is only a part of himself. I strength of penances, had obtained the goThe first and greatest of his sons is Pollear. vernment of the world and immortality; He presides over marriages. The Indians but became so wicked that God was obliged build no house, without having first carried to punish him. He sent Soupramanier, who a Pollear on the ground, which they sprinkle fought him unsuccessfully for ten days; but with oil, and throw flowers on it every day. at last, making use of the Velle, arms which If they do not invoke it before they under- he had received from his father, he cut the take any enterprize, they believe that God giant in two. These two parts changed, one will make them forget what they wanted to into a peacock, and the other into a cock. undertake, and that their labour will be in Soupramanier gave them a better heart, and vain. He has an elephant's head, and rides from that moment they paid homage to a rat: but in the pagodas they place him Eswara. He enjoined the peacock always on a pedestal with his legs almost crossed. to carry him, and the cock to be always in A rat is always put before the door of his his standard." chapel. This rat was a giant, Gudje-mougachourin, on whom the gods had bestowed “ VAIREVERT, the third son of Eswara, immortality, as well as great powers; which was created from his breath, to overthrow he abused, and did much harm to mankind. the pride of the Deverkels and the PeniPollear, intreated by the sages and peni- tents, and to humble Brahma, who had tents to deliver them, pulled out one of his vaunted that he was the greatest of the tusks, and threw it against the oppressor. three gods. Vairevert pulled off one of The tooth entered the giant's stomach, and Brahma's heads, and received the blood of overthrew him. He immediately changed all the Deverkels and Penitents in the skull; himself into a rat, as large as a mountain, but afterwards brought them to life again, and came to attack Pollear : who sprung and gave them purer hearts. This is the on his back, telling him, that hereafter he god who by Eswara's command will come should ever be his carrier. The Hindoos, to destroy the world at the end of the ages. in their adoration of this god, cross the He is blue, three-eyed, with two tusks like arms, shut the fist, and in this manner give crescents, a collar of heads round his neck, themselves several blows on the temples: falling on his stomach ; his girdle is made then, but always with the arms crossed, of serpents, his hair of a fire colour, bells they take hold of their ears, and make three are on his feet, he rides a dog." inclinations, bending the knee; after which, with their hands joined, they address their “ The fifth incarnation of Vichenou was prayers to him, and strike their forehead. in a Bramin dwarf, under the name of They have a great veneration for this deity, Vamen; it was wrought to restrain the whose image they place in all temples, pride of the giant Bely. The latter after streets, highways, and in the country at the having conquered the gods, expelled them foot of some tree, that all the world may from Sorgon. He was generous, true to have an opportunity of invoking him, be- his word, compassionate and charitable.' fore they undertake any concern, and that travellers may make their adorations and

“ Their talk was of the city of the days

Of old, Earth's wonder once, and of the fame offerings to him before they pursue their of Baly its great founder, - he whose name journey."

In ancient story and in poet's praise,

Liveth and flourisheth for endless glory, The second son of Eswara is Soupra- Put down the wrong, and age upheld the

Because his might manier, whom his father produced from the

right,” &c. eye in the middle of his forehead, to destroy

The Curse of Kehama,- The City of the giant Soura-Parpma. This last, by

Bely, xv. 4.-5. W. W.


Vichenou, under the form of a very little give him a place he could inhabit; he only Bramin, presented himself before him while desired the space of an arrow's flight, which he was sacrificing, and asked him for three he would shoot. Varounin consented, but paces of land to build a hut. Bely ridi- the penitent Narader, witness of the proculed the apparent imbecility of the dwarf, mise he had just given, made him sensible in telling him, that he ought not to limit of his imprudence, by assuring him, that it his demand to a request so trifling ; that was Vichenou himself, and that he would his generosity could bestow a much larger send his arrow beyond all the seas; in donation of land. Vamen answered, that which case Varounin would not know what being of so small a stature, what he asked to do with his waters. Varounin, lamentwas more than sufficient. The prince imme- | ing at not being able to recall his promise, diately granted his request, and to ratify ran speedily to Yamen,god of death, begging his donation, poured water into his right his assistance in this dilemma. To oblige hand; which was no sooner done, than the him, Yamen changed himself into a white dwarf grew so prodigiously, that his body ant, called Karia among the Indians, who, filled the universe. He measured the earth in the night time came when Parassourama with one pace, and the heavens with an- was asleep, and by favour of the darkness other,' and then summoned Bely to give gnawed his bow-string in such a manner, as him his word for the third. The prince then to leave just string enough to keep the bow recognized Vichenou, adored him, and pre- stretched. Parassourama, not perceiving sented his head to him: but the god, satis- the trick played him, repaired in the mornfied with his submission, sent him to govern ing to the sea shore; he put an arrow to his Padalon, and permitted him to return annu- bow, which he was preparing to shoot with ally to the earth, on the day of the full moon all his strength; but in drawing the string, in November, the anniversary of his over- to give it more elasticity, it broke in such throw, to witness the fireworks and illu- a manner, that the arrow could not go far. minations, a sight of which he was very The land over which it passed dried, and fond."

formed the country of Malealon, which we

call the coast of Malabar. Parassourama “ PARASSOURAMA was only one part of recalling to mind the ingratitude of the Vichenou. He declared war against the Bramins, cursed them, and imposed this lot kings of the race of the sun, defeated them upon them, that if a Bramin should die on all, and gave their kingdom to the Bramins. this new spot of earth, he should return to He would afterwards have retired into a earth again, in the shape of an ass. Therecorner of the country he had presented fore no Bramin’s residence is to be seen on them, to pass his days in tranquillity, but this proscribed coast. According to the none of the Bramins would permit him : Tamoul tradition, this god still lives on the and finding no asylum on the earth, he re- Malabar coast. They represent him a tertired on the Gauts, whose foundation was rible and disagreeable figure. On the Corowashed by the waves. It was there that he mandel coast he is painted green, with a called Varounin, god of the sea, begging more agreeable countenance, holding in one him to withdraw his waters, in order to hand a hatchet, and a fan of palm leaves in

the other." | The classical reader will call to mind Ho. MER's description of strife, Iliad, A. 443.

“ MARIATALE? was wife of the penitent Ουρανώ έστήριξε κίρη, και επί χθονί βαίνει. With which may be compared the words in

? All these materials were of course collected the Book of Wisdom, “ It touched the heaven,

for the “

urse of Kehama." This is quoted to but it stood upon the earth.” xviii. 16.

the lines, J. W. W. “ It chanced that near her, on the river brink,

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