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We are naturally inclined to inquire, in the first place, into the causes of this increased expenditure. And the first question would seem to be, Are the necessary expenses of this University much greater than in many other colleges of reputation in the United States. Let us examine the expense of boarding. The report informs us that the charge for Steward and Commons for thirty-eight weeks of term time is $76.50 or $2 per week,—that those who board at private houses, pay (including the charge for steward and a general assessment for the commons establishment) from $2.67 to $3.42 per week. But the commons-hall being sufficient to accommodate all the students, it is clear that boarding out must be a matter of taste with the students, sanctioned by their parents or guardians; the real and necessary expense, therefore, cannot fairly be considered greater than the first charge, or $2 per week. If we compare this with the rate of board at the colleges in our own and the five neighbouring States, we shall see no reason to object to the expense at Cambridge in this particular. The following table is collected from Worcester's Gazetteer of the United States. Harvard
usually 2.00 Brown.
1.50 to 1.75 Dartmouth
1.25 to 1.50 Yale
2.00 to 2.50 From this table it appears that of eight institutions of this character, the price of board in two only is less than it is at Cambridge, while in three it is greater. And considering the situation of this University, and its neighbourhood to a populous city, it will appear that this part of the establishment is conducted with remarkable economy.
This is an expense, moreover, that cannot well be affected by the superior endowments of this College, since no part of its funds could be expected to be appropriated to the diminution of the expense of subsistence till all that of instruction was wholly extinguished. This remark of course is not intended to apply to the beneficiaries of the institution, whose expenses of every kind are diminished by the application of the income of specific bequests. The next in order of the necessary expenses is thus stated.
“ Instruction for the two first years $46, for the third and fourth $64. Average $55."
Let us compare this, as in a former instance, with the same expense in other colleges. Harvard
18.00 Brown, including room rent,
25.00 Princeton, N. J.
62.34 Burlington, including rent and library, 16.00 Columbia, all College charges,
80.00 Williams, all charges exclusive of board, 40.00 William and Mary's, instruction,
60.00 It will be perceived from this statement that the expense of instruction in this college is, with one or two exceptions, greater than in any in the neighbourhood, and in most instances exceedingly so;—that it is nearly double that of Yale, and more than double that of Dartmouth. It may be observed in regard to this subject, that the instructers of Harvard are more numerous, and the opportunities for a complete e lucation or improvement in many particular branches are more complete. But, on the other hand, it must be considered, that Harvard College is far more richly endowed ; and sufficiently so, it has been supposed, to balance this circumstance, and to furnish a more complete education at a less expense, so far as mere instruction is concerned, than any of its neighbours. We are not in possession of documents which would enable us to institute a comparison between the income of the funds of this and any other College, but we are enabled hy this report to ascertain what the income is in this particular instance, and to form an opinion concerning the economy with which it has been managed.
Froin the first document of this report we learn, that the income of the College for the year 1824, arising from various permanent sources, as stock, rents, annuities, &c. was
$22244 74 That there was received for admission to advanced standing
1000 00 From fees of certain degries (probably medicine and law)
That there was assessed on the students exclusive
of charges for board
21 431 41
44956 15 To this amount ought to be added the value of the rent of the President's house, as it forms a part of the income of his office, and stands in the place of an amount which must have been assessed upon students, provided he had the same income that he now enjoys,
$300 00 A similar remark may be made concerning half the fees for the degree of A. M. amounting, according to the treasurer's average, to about 35, at $5,
$175 00 Also the fees for the degree of A. B. which are in fact paid by the students, and of which the average, if we judge from the Triennial Catalogue, is about 60, at $5,
$300 00 The whole amount of income then will be $45731 15
The expenditure during the same year, including, as above, the addition for the President, was
$44841 36 Of this expenditure, there was devoted to the offi
cers concerned in the instruction or discipline of Undergraduates
24556 16 The funds, other than the amount levied upon un
dergraduates for the payment of this sum, amounted to
9328 09 Balance to be assessed upon undergraduates, including fees for degrees of A. B.
15228 07 The actual amount assessed upon undergraduates,
according to the treasurer's account, was 15710 00 Add fees for degrees not included by the treasurer 475 00
Deduct balance in treasury
$15290 21 which differs from our calculation by $62, which is probably an error in our account. The exact amount, however, is not material in this investigation.
Whether so large an expenditure, and its consequence, so large an assessment, is necessary, may be estimated by a more particular consideration of the salary of each individual of the instructers.
acy 8 40
The President's income is thus stated.
age 35, at $5 The fee for degrees of A. B. of which the aver
age for the last ten years is 60, at $5
3333 40 That part of this sum, which goes to increase the assessments on the students, is about one-sixth of the whole amount of these assessments, and that exclusive of the fee for degrees of A. B. which is in reality also assessed upon them.
In the next place, we observe that there are seven resident Professors concerned in the instruction of undergraduates, each of whom has an income, under the names of salary and grant, of $1700, amounting to $11900. One of these Professors has an addition of $325 to the above salary and grant, for other services. And another has an addition of $150. The whole amount, therefore, is $12373. The regular funds for the payment of these salaries will furnish only $3546.68, leaving a balance of $8826.32, which is to be furnished by assessments.
[To be continued.]
An Address to the Members of the Bar of Suffolk, Mass. at their
Slated Meeting on the First Tuesday of March, 1824. By
WILLIAM SULLIVAN. Boston. 1825. 8vo. pp. 63. In this address Mr Sullivan proposes to offer such facts as he has been able in a short time, and amidst many avocations, to collect, on the origin and history of the profession" of law in Massachusetts. In pursuance of which design, he gives numerous memorabilia of the history and practice of the law, with biographical notices of its professors; taking a cursory view of the rank of the profession and mode of practice in other countries in one of the notes, and in others touching concisely upon the subjects of chancery jurisdiction and codification
Mr Sullivan cites Hutchinson for a fact, which shows both the simplicity of the early times, and the thoroughly popular spirit of our institutions. It was enacted by the colony laws, that " whensoever any juror or jurors are not clear in their judgment or conscience concerning any case wherein they are to give their verdict, they shall have liberty in open court (but not otherwise) to advise with any man they shall think fit to resolve or direct them, before they give their verdict."**
The first lawyer noticed in our history was one Lechford, who came over about ten years after the scttlement of the colony. But he did not merit, or at least he did not find, much encouragement; for in consequence, as is supposed, of some offence committed by him, he was debarred from pleading any man's cause except his own. He accordingly returned home very little satisfied with the colony; and published a pamphlet under the title of Plain Dealing, in which he said, that in New England he found that every church mem, .ber was a bishop, and not being inclined to become one bimself, he could not be admitted a freeman among them—that the general court and quarter-sessions exercised all the powers of parliament, king's bench, common pleas, chancery, high commission, star chamber, an:) all the other courts of England. But a law of 1654 prohibited any common attorney in any inferior court from sitting as a deputy in the general court.
In Rhode Island, at the present day, as every body knows, the judges are not usually selected from among practising lawyers. So it was formerly in Massachusetts, and Mr Sullivan says, that since 1776 three judges have been appointed to the supreme bench, who were not lawyers; two of whom accepted the appointment. In a subsequent part of the discourse Mr Sullivan, while he acknowledges that the profession is held in some respect, seems to think that the prospect of emoluments is somewhat discouraging. The modern practice of selecting the ablest lawyers for judges is doubtless one of the causes of blighting the prospects of the rest ; for it is obvious that where the judges are least competent, and the lawyers are most railed at, litigation, especially of the most vexatious sort, is the most flourishing.
Mr Sullivan (though he does not mention this himself) took an active part in 1804 in introducing a very important improve
* General Laws and Liberties of the Massachusetts Colony, Ed. 1672, p. 87.