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hat no soguer given vp my former project, but my of their estates by the body of the people, yet both bead was presently fall of draining fens and marshes, the sovereign and the subjects in general would be, banking out the sea, and joining new lands to my enriched by the very loss. country; for since it is thoughi impracticable to in- . If the people only make the riches," the father of erease the people to the land, I fell imnaediately to ten children is a greater benefactor to his country consider how much would be gained to the prinee than he who has added to it 10,000 acres of land, by increasing the land to the people,

and no people. It is certain Lewis has joined vast II the same omnipotent power which made the tracts of land to his dominions : but if Philarithmus world, should at this time raise out of the ocean, says true, that he is not now master of so many and join to Great Britain, an equal extent of land, subjects as before ; we may then account for his with equal buildings, corn, cattle, and other couve- not being able to bring such mighty armies into the niences and necessaries of life, but no men, women, field, and for their being neither so well fed, nor, por children, I should hardly believe this would add clothed, nor paid as formerly. The reason is plain, either to the riches of the people, or revenue of the Lewis must needs have been impoverished not only prince; for since the p:esent buildings are sufficient by his loss of subjects, but bý bis acquisition of for all the inhabitants, if any of them should forsake lands.-T., the old to inhabit the new part of the island, the in- 1 crease of house-rent in this would be attended with an equal decrease of it in the other. Besides, we

No. 201.] SATURDAY, OCTOBER 20, 1711. have such a sufficiency of corn and cattle, that we Religentem esse oportet, religiosum nefas. give bounties to our neighbours to take what ex

Incerti Autoris apud Aul. Gell. ceeds of the former off our hands, and we will not A man should be religious, not superstitious. suffer any of the latter to be imported upon us by It is of the last importance to season the passions our fellow-subjects; and for the remaining product of a child with devotion, which seldom dies in a of the country, it is already equal to all our mar- mind that has received an early tincture of it. kets. But if all these things should be doubled to Though it may seem extinguished for a while by the same buyers, the owners must be glad with half the cares of the world, the beats of youth, or the their present prices, the landlords with half their allurements of vice, it generally breaks out and present rents; and thus, by so great an enlarge discovers itself again as soon as discretion, consi. ment of the country, the rents in the whole would deration, age, or misfortunes, have brought the man not increase, nor the taxes to the public.

to himself. The fire may be covered and overlaid, · On the contrary, I should believe they would be but cannot be entirely quenched and smothered. very much diminished; for as the land is only A state of temperance, sobriety, and justice, yaluable for its fruits, and these are all perishable, without devotion, is a cold, lifeless, insipid condition and for the most part must either be used within the of virtue; and is rather to be styled philosophy than year, or perish without use, the owners will get rid religion. Devotion opens the mind to great conof them at any rate, rather than they should waste ceptions, and fills it with more sublime ideas than in their possession : 80 that it is probable the annual any that are to be met with in the most exalted production of those perishable things, even of the science; and at the same time warms and agitates teoth part of them, beyond all possibility of use, the soul more than sensual pleasure. will reduce one hall of their value. It seems to be It has been observed by some writers, that man is for this reason that our neighbour merchants, who more distinguished from the animal world by devotion engross all the spices, and know how great a quan- than by reason, as several brute creatures discover tity is equal to the demand, destroy all that exceeds in their actions something like a faint glimmering it it were natural

, then, to think that the annual of reason, though they betray in no single circumproduction of twice as much as can be used, must stance of their behaviour any thing that bears the reduce all to an eighth part of their present prices ; least affinity to devotion. It is certain, the proand thus this extended island would not exceed one- pensity of the mind to religious worship, the natufourth part of its present yalue, or pay more than ral tendency of the soul to fly to some superior one-fourth part of the present lax.

being for succour in dangers, and distresses, the It is generally observed, that in countries of the gratitude to an invisible superintendent which arises greatest plenty there is the poorest living; like the in us upon receiving any extraordinary and unexschoolman's ass in one of my speculations, the pected good fortune, the acts of love and admirapeople almost starve between two meals. The truth tion with which the thoughts of men are so wonderis, the poor which are the bulk of a nation, work fully transported in meditating upon the divine goly that they may live ; and if with two days' la- perfections, and the universal concurrence of all Lour they can get a wretched subsistence for a the nations under heaven in the great article of week, they will hardly be brought to work the other adoration, plainly show that devotion or religious four. But then with the wages of two days they worship must be the effect of tradition from some can neither pay such prices for their provisions, nor first founder of mankind, or that it is conformable such excises to the government.

to the natural light of reason, or that it proceeds That paradox, therefore, in old Hesiod, that“ half from an instinct implanted in the soul itself. For is more than the whole,” is very applicable to the iny own part, I look upon all these to be the conpresent ease; since nothing is more true in political current causes : but whichever of them shall be arithmetic, than that the same people with half a assigned as the principle of divine worship, it country is more valuable than with the whole. I manifestly points to a Supreme Being as the first begin to think there was nothing absurd in Sir W. author of it. Petty, when he fancied that if all the highlands of I may take some other opportunity of considering Scotland and the whole kingdom of Ireland were those particular forms and methods of devotion sunk in the ocean, so that the people were all saved which are taught us by Christianity; but shall here and brought into the lowlands of Great Britain; observe into what errors even this divine principle Day, though they were to be reimbursed the value I may sometimes lead us, when it is not moderated

by that right reason which was given us as the guide and which take possession in the same manner, and of all our actions.

are never to be driven out after they have been The two great errors into which a mistaken devo-once admitted. I have seen the Pope officiate at tion may betray us, are enthusiasm and superstition. St. Peter's, where, for two hours together, he was

There is not a more melancholy object than a busied in putting on or off his different accoutreman who has his head turned with religious enthu- ments, according to the different parts he was to siasm. A person that is crazed, though with pride act in them. or malice, is a sight very mortifying to human na- Nothing is so glorious in the eyes of mankind, türe ; but when the distemper arises from any in- and ornamental to human nature, setting aside the discreet fervours of devotion, or too intense an ap- infinite advantages which arise from it, as a strong, plication of the mind to its mistaken duties, it steady, masculine piety; but enthusiasm and superdeserves our compassion in a more particular man- stition are the weaknesses of human reason, that ner. We may however learn this lesson from it, expose us to the scorn and derision of infidels, and that since devotion itself (which one would be apt sink us even below the beasts that perish. to think could not be too warm) may disorder the Idolatry may be looked upon as another error mind, unless its heats are tempered with caution arising from mistaken devotion ; but because reflectand prudence, we should be particularly careful to ions on that subject would be of no use to an keep our reason as cool as possible, and to guard English reader, I shall not enlarge upon it.-L. ourselves in all parts of life against the influence of passion, imagination, and constitution.

Devotion, when it does not lie under the check No. 202.] MONDAY, OCTOBER 22, 1711. , of reason, is very apt to degenerate into enthusiasm. Sæpe decem vitiis instructior, odit et horret. When the mind finds herself very much inflamed

Hor. 1 Ep. xviii. 25. with her devotions, she is too much inclined to think Tho' ten times worse themselves, you'll frequent view

Those who with keenest rage will censure you-P. they are not of her own kindling, but blown up by something divine within her. If she indulges this The other day, as I passed along the street, I thought too far, and humours the growing passion, saw a sturdy 'prentice-boy disputing with a backneyshe at last Alings herself into imaginary raptures coachman; and in an instant, upon some word of and ecstasies; and when once she fancies herself provocation, throw off his hat and periwig, clench under the influence of a divine impulse, it is no his fist, and strike the fellow a slap on the face; at wonder if she slights human ordinances, and refuses the same time calling him rascal, and telling him to comply with any established form of religion, as he was a gentleman's son. The young gentleman thinking herself directed by a much superior guide. was, it seems, bound to a blacksmith; and the de

As enthusiasm is a kind of excess in devotion, bate arose about payment for some work done about superstition is the excess, not only of devotion, but a coach, near which they fought. His master, of religion in general, according to an old heathen during the combat, was full of his boy's praises; saying, quoted by Aulus Gellius,* Religentem and as he called to him to play with his hand and esse oportet, religiosum nefas ;“ A man should be foot, and throw in his head, he made all us who religious, pot superstitious." For, as the author stood round him of his party, by declaring the boy tells us, Nigidius observed upon this passage, that had very good friends, and he could trust him with the Latin words which terminate in osus generally untold gold. As I am generally in the theory of imply vicious characters, and the having of any mankind, I could not but make my reflections upon quality to an excess.

the sudden popularity which was raised about the An enthusiast in religion is like an obstinate lad; and perhaps with my friend Tacitus, fell into clown, a superstitious man like an insipid courtier. observations upon it, which were too great for the Enthusiasm has something in it of madness, super occasion; or ascribed this general favour to causes stition of folly. Most of the sects that fall short of which had nothing to do towards it. But the young the church of England have in them strong tinc. blacksmith’s being a gentleman, was, methought, tures of enthusiasm, as the Roman.catholic religion what created him good-will from his present equality is one huge overgrown body of childish and idle with the mob about him. Add to this, that he was superstitions.

so much a gentleman, as not, at the same time that The Roman-catholic church seems indeed irre- he called himself such, to use as rough methods for coverably lost in this particular. If an absurd his defence as his antagonist. The advantage of his dress or behaviour be introduced into the world, it having good friends, as his master expressed it, was will soon be found out and discarded. On the con. not lazily urged; but he showed himself superior to trary, a habit or ceremony, though never so ridicu- the coachman in the personal qualities of courage lous, which has taken sanctuary in the church, and activity, to confirm that of his being well allied, sticks in it for ever. A Gothic bishop, perhaps, before his birth was of any service to him. thought it proper to repeat such a form in such If one might moralize from this silly story, a man particular shoes or slippers; another fancied it would say, that whatever advantages of fortune, would be very decent if such a part of public devo- birth, or any other good, people possess above the tions was performed with a mitre on his head, and rest of the world, they should show collateral emia crosier in his hand. To this a brother Vandal, pences besides those distinctions; or those distinctas wise as the others, adds an antic dress, which he ions will avail only to keep up common decencies conceived would allude very aptly to such and such and ceremonies, and not to preserve a real place of mysteries, till by degrees the whole office has dege- favour or esteem in the opinion and common sense nerated into an empty show.

of their fellow-creatures. · Their successors see the vanity and inconvenience The folly of people's procedure, in imagining of the ceremonies ; but instead of reforming, per- that nothing more is necessary than property and haps add others, which they think more significant, superior circumstances to support them in distinct

ion, appears in no way so much as in the domestic • Noctes Atticæ, lib. iv. cap. 9,

part of life. It is ordinary to feed their humours

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into unnatural excrescences, if I may so speak, and

TO THE SPECTATOR. make their whole being a wayward and uneasy condition, for want of the obvious reflection that all

“The humble petition of John Steward, Robert parts of buman life is a commerce. It is not only

Butler, Harry Cook, and Abigail Chambers, in

behalf of themselves and their relations belonging paying wages, and giving commands, that constitutes a master of a family; but prudence, equal be

to and dispersed in the several services of most of

the great families within the cities of London haviour, with readiness to protect and cherish them,

and Westminster; is what entitles a man to that character in their very hearts and sentiments. It is pleasant enough Showeth, to observe, that men expect from their dependants, “ That in many of the families in which your pe from their sole motive of fear, all the good effects titioners live and are employed, the several heads which a liberal education, and affluent fortune, and of them are wholly unacquainted with what is busievery other advantage, cannot produce in them- ness, and are very little judges when they are well selves. A man will have his servant just, diligent, or ill used by us your said petitioners. sober, and chaste, for no other reason but the terror “ That for want of such skill in their own affairs, of losing his master's favour; when all the laws, and by indulgence of their own laziness and pride, divine and human, cannot keep him whom he serves they continually keep about them certain miswithin bounds, with relation to any one of those chievous animals called spies. virtues. But both in great and ordinary affairs, all “ That whenever a spy is entertained, the peace saperiority, which is not founded on merit and vir- of that house is from that moment banished. tue, is supported only by artifice and stratagem. “ That spies never give an account of good serThus you see datterers are the agents in families of vices, but represent our mirth and freedom, by the humourists, and those who govern themselves by any words, wantonness and disorder. thing but reason. Make-bates, distant relations, “ That in all families where there are spies, there poor kinsmen, and indigent followers, are the fry is a general jealousy and misunderstanding. which support the economy of a humoursome rich “ That the masters and mistresses of such houses man. He is eternally whispered with intelligence live in continual suspicion of their ingenuous and of who are true or false to him in matters of no true servants, and are given up to the management consequence, and he maintains twenty friends to of those who are false and pertidious. defend him against the insinuations of one who “ That such masters and mistresses who entertain would perhaps cheat him of an old coat.

spies, are no longer more than ciphers in their own I shall not enter into further speculation upon families; and that we your petitioners are with this subject at present, but think the following great disdain obliged to pay all our respects, and letters and petition are made up of proper senti- expect all our maintenance from such spies. ments on this occasion.

“ Your petitioners therefore most humbly pray, “ MR. SPECTATOR,

that you would represent the premises to all per“ I am a servani to an old lady who is governed

sons of condition; and your petitioners, as in by one sbe calls her friend, who is so familiar a one,

duty bound, shall for ever pray,” &c.-T. that she takes upon her to advise her without being called to it, and makes her uneasy with all about her. Pray, Sir, be pleased to give us some remarks

No. 203.] TUESDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1711. upon voluntary counsellors; and let these people Phæbe pater, si das hujus mihi nominis usum know, that to give any body advice, is to say to that Nec falsa Clymene culpam sub imagine celat; person, • I am your betters.' Pray, Sir, as near as Pignora da, genitor

Ovid. Met. ii. 38. you can, describe that eternal flirt and disturber of Illustrious parent! if I yet may claim

The name of son, O rescue me from shame : families, Mrs. Taperty, who is always visiting, and

My mother's truth confirm; all doubt remove putting people in a way, as they call it. If you can

By tender pledges of a father's love. make her stay at home one evening, you will be a general benefactor of all the ladies' women in town, yet taken notice


, that ramble into all the corners

There is a loose tribe of men whom I have not and particularly to, “ Your loving friend, SUSAN Civil."

of this great city, in order to seduce such unfor.

tunate females as fall into their walks. These "MR. SPECTATOR,

abandoned profligates raise up issue in every quar"I am a footman, and live with one of those ter of the town, and very often for a valuable conmen, each of whom is said to be one of the best-sideration, father it upon the churchwarden. By bumoured men in the world, but that he is pas. this means there are several married men who have sionate. Pray be pleased to inform them, that be a little family in most of the parishes of London who is passionate, and takes no care to command and Westminster, and several bachelors who are bis hastiness, does more injury to his friends and undone by a charge of children. serrants in one half hour, than whole years can When a man önce gives himself this liberty of atone for. This master of mine, who is the best preying at large, and living upon the common, he man alive in common fame, disobliges somebody finds so much game in a populous city, that it is erery day he lives; and strikes me for the next surprising to consider the numbers which he something I do, because he is out of humour at it. If times propagates. We see many a young fellow these gentlemen knew that they do all the mischief who is scarce of age, that could lay his claim to the that is ever done in conversation, they would re-jus trium liberorum, or the privileges which were form; and I who have been a Spectator of a gen-granted by the Roman laws to all such as were tleman at dinner for many years, have seen that in- fathers of three children. Nay, I bave heard a discretion does ten times more mischief than ill. rake, who was not quite five-and-twenty, declare nature, But you will represent this better than himself the father of a seventh son, and very pru* Your abused humble servant, dently determine to breed him up a phrsiciar.

* THOMAS Smax Y." In short, the town is full of these young patriarchs,

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not to mention several battered beaus who like make for their own crimes, and indeed the only heedless spendthrifts that squander away their es- method that is left for them to repair their past tates before they are master of them, have raised miscarriages, up their whole stock of children before marriage. I would likewise desire them to consider, wbether

I must not here omit the particular whim of an they are not bound in common humanity, as well as impudent libertine, that had a little smattering of by all the obligations of religion and nature, to keraldry; and, observing how the genealogies of make some provision for those whom they have not great families were often drawn up in the shape of only given life to, but entailed upon them, though trees, had taken a fancy to dispose of his own ille. very unreasonably, a degree of shame and disgrace. gitimate issue in a figure of the same kind : And here I cannot but take notice of those depraved Nec longum tempus et ingens

potions which prevail among us, and which must Exiit ad cælum ramis felicibus arbos,

bave taken rise from our natural inclipation to Miruturque novas frondes, et non sua poma. favour a vice to which we are so very prone, namely,

Virg. Georg. ii. 80.

that bastardy and cuckoldom should be looked upon And in short space the laden boughs arise, With happy fruit advancing to the skies :

as reproaches; and that the ignominy which is The mother plant admires the leaves unknown only due to lewdness and falsehood, should fall in so

of alien trees, and apples not her own.--DRYDEN, unreasonable a manner upon the persons who are The trunk of the tree was marked with his own innocent. name, Will Maple. Out of the side of it grew a I have been insensibly drawn into this discourse large barren branch, inscribed Mary Maple, the by the following letter, which is drawn up with such name of his unhappy wife. The head was adorned a spirit of sincerity, that I question not but the with five huge boughs. On the bottom of the first writer of it has represented his case in a true and was written in capital characters, Kate Cole, who genuine light. branched out into three sprigs, viz. William, Richard, and Rebecca. Sal Twiford gave birth to an

“SIR, other bough that shot up into Sarah, Tom, Will, and “ I am one of those people who by the general Frank. The third arm of the tree had only a single opinion of the world are counted both infamons and infant on it, with a space left for a second, the unhappy. parent from whom it sprung being near her time “ My father is a very eminent man in this kingwhen the author took this ingenious device into his dom, and one who bears considerable offices in it. head. The two other great boughs were very plen- I am his son, but my misfortune is, that I dare not tifully loaden with fruit of the same kind : besides call him father, nor be without shame own me as which there were many ornamental branches that his issue, I being illegitimate, and therefore de did not bear. In short, a more flourishing tree prived of that endearing tenderness and unparal. never came out of the herald's office,

leled satisfaction which a good man finds in the What makes this generation of vermin so very love and conversation of a parent. Neither have I prolific, is the indefatigable diligence with which the opportunities to render him the duties of a son, they apply themselves to their business. A man he having always carried himself at so vast a disdoes not undergo more watchings and fatigues in a tance, and with such superiority towards me, that campaign, than in the course of a vicious amour.- by long use I have contracted a timorousness when As it is said of some men, that they make their before him, which hinders me from declaring my business their pleasure, these sons of darkness may own necessities, and giving him to understand the be said to make their pleasure their business. They inconveniences I undergo. might conquer their corrupt inclinations with half “ It is my misfortune to have been neither bred the pains they are at in gratifying them.

a scholar, a soldier, nor to any kind of business, Nor is the invention of these men less to be ad- which renders me entirely incapable of making mired than their industry and vigilance. There is provision for myself without his assistance; and a fragment of Apollodorus the comic poet (who was this creates a continual uneasiness in my mind, contemporary with Menander) which is full of hu- fearing I shall in time want bread; my father, if mour, as follows: “ Thou mayest shut up thy I may so call him, giving me but very faint as. doors,” says he, “ with bars and bolts. It will be surances of doing any thing for me. impossible for the blacksmith to make them so fast,

“ I have hitherto lived somewhat like a gentlebut a cat and a whore-master will find a way through man, and it would be very hard for me to labour for them.” In a word, there is no head so full of stra- my living. I am in continual anxiety for my future tagems as that of a libidinous man.

fortune, and under a great unhappiness in losing Were I to propose a punishment for this infamous the sweet conversation and friendly

, advice of my race of propagators, it should be to send them, after parents; so that I cannot look upon myself other. the second or third offence,' into our American co-wise than as a monster, strangely sprung up in lonies, in order to people those parts of her majesty's nature, which every one is ashamed to own. dominions where there is a want of inhabitants, “ I am thought to be a man of some natural parts, and in the phrase of Diogenes, " to plant men." and by the contingal reading what you have offered Some countries punish this crime with death; but the world, become an admirer thereof, which has I think such a punishment would be sufficient, and drawn me to make this confession; at the same. might turn this generative faculty to the advantage time, hoping, if any thing herein shall touch you of the publie.

with a sense of pity, you would then allow me the In the mean time, until these gentlemen may be favour of your opinion thereupon; as also what part thus disposed of, I would earnestly exhort them to 1, being unlawfully born, may claim of the man's take care of those unfortunate creatures whom they affection who begot me, and how far in your opinion have brought into the world by these indirect me. I am to be thought his son, or he acknowledged as thods, and to give their spurious children such an my father. Your sentiments and advice herein will education as may render them more virtuous than be a great consolation and satisfaction to, their parents. This is the best atonement they can C. ' Sir, your admirer, &c. W. B."

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No 204.) WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1711. fellows who look at you, and observe your eye wan

der after new conquests every moment you are in a Unt grata protervitas,

public place; and yet there is such a beauty in all Et vultus nimium lubricus aspici.

Hor, 1 Od. xix. 7. your looks and gestures, that I cannot but admire Her face too dazzling for the sight

you in the very act of endeavouring to gain the Her winning coyness fires my soul,

hearts of others. My condition is the same with I feel a strange delight'

that of the lover in the Way of the World. I have I am not at all displeased that I am become the studied your faults so long, that they are become as courier of love, and that the distressed in that pas-familiar to me, and I like them as well as I do my sion convey their complaints to each other by my own. Look to it, Madam, and consider whether means. The following letters have lately come to you think this gay behaviour will appear to me as my hands, and shall have their place with great amiable when a husband, as it does now to me a willingness. As to the reader's entertainment, he lover. Things are so far advanced that we must will, I hope, forgive the inserting such particulars proceed; and I hope you will lay to heart, that it as to him may, perhaps, appear frivolous, but are to will be becoming in me to appear still your lover, the persons who wrote them of the highest conse- but not in you to be still my mistress. Gaiety in quence. I shall not trouble you with the prefaces, the matrimonial life is graceful in one sex, but excompliments, and apologies, made to me before each ceptionable in the other. As you improve these epistle when it was desired to be inserted: but in little hints, you will ascertain the happiness or ungeneral they tell me, that the persons to whom they easiness of, are addressed have intimations, by phrases and al

“Madam, your most obedient, lusions in them, from whence they came.

most humble servant,

“T. D." “ TO TAE Sothades.

SIR, « The word, by which I address you, gives you, " When I sat at the window, and you at the other who understand Portuguese, * a lively image of the end of the room by my cousin, I saw you catch me tender regard I have for you. The Spectator's late looking at you. Since you have the secret at last, letter from Statira gave me the bint to use the same which I am sure you should never have known but method of explaining myself to you. I am not by inadvertency, what my eyes said was true. But affronted at the design your late behaviour discovered it is too soon to confirm it with my hand, therefore you had in your addresses to me, but I impute it shall not subscribe my name.” to the degeneracy of the age, rather than your particular fault. As I aim at nothing more than being

“ There were other gentlemen nearer, and I know yours, I am willing to be a stranger to your name, no necessity you were under to take up that flipyour fortune, or any figure which your wife might pant creature's fan last night; but you shall never expect to make in the world, provided my commerce touch a stick of mine more, that's pos. with you is not to be a guilty one. I resign gay

“ PAILLIS." dress, the pleasures of visits, equipage, plays, balls, and operas, for that one satisfaction of having you

“ To COLONEL Rs in Spain.* for ever mine. I am willing you shall industriously “ Before this can reach the best of husbands and conceal the only cause of triumph which I can know the fondest lover, those tender names will be of no in this life. I wish only to have it my duty, as well more concern to me. The indisposition in which as my inclination, to study your happiness. If this you, to obey the dictates of your honour and duty, has not the effect this letter seems to aim at, you are left me, has increased upon me: and I am ac to anderstand that I had 'a mind to be rid of you, quainted by my physicians I cannot live a week and took the readiest way to pall you with an offer longer. At this time my spirits fail me; and it is of what you would never desist pursuing while you the ardent love. I have for you that carries me be. received' ill usage.' Be a true man; be my slave yond my strength, and enables me to tell you, the while you doubt me, and neglect me when you think most painful thing in the prospect of death is, that I love you. I defy you to find out what is your pre. I must part with you. But let it be a comfort to sent circumstance with mé : but I know, while I you, that I have no guilt hangs upon me, no unrecan keep this suspense,

pented folly that, retards me; but I pass away my *** I am your admited “BELINDA." last hours in reflection upon the happiness we have “ Madam,

lived in together, and in sorrow that it is so soon to " It is a strange state of mind a man is in, when have an end. This is a frailty which I hope is so the very imperfections of the woman he loves turn far from criminal, that methinks there is a kind of into excellences and advantages. I do assure you, piety in being so unwilling to be separated from a I am very much afraid of venturing upon you. i state which is the institution of heaven, and in Dow like you in spite of my reason, and think it an which we have lived according to its laws. As we ilercumstance to owe one's bappiness to nothing I know ng more of the next life, but that it will be a bat infatuation. I can see you ogle all the young why may we not please ourselves, at least to alle

happy one to the good, and miserable to the wicked, The Portuguese word Saudades (here inaccurately written viate the difficulty of resigning this being, in imaSothades) signifies, the most refined, most tender, and ardent gining that we shall have a sense of what passes desire for something absent, accompanied with a solicitude and anxions regard, which cannot be expressed by one word below, and may possibly be employed in guiding the in any other language. Saudade," say the dictionaries, steps of those with whom we walked with innocence

gosca Pinissimo sentimiento del bien ansente, com deseo when mortal? Why may not I hope to go on in my de pracerlo tan-Hence the word Saudades comprehends every usual work, and, though

unknown to you, be assistgood wish; and Maitas Saudades is the highest wish and compiispent that can be paid to another. So if a person is ob- ant in all the conflicts of your mind! Give me leave Hrved to be melancholy, and is asked, " What ails him ?" il be answers. Tenho Saudades; it is understood to mean, I The person to whom this letter is addressed was generally

Ender the most refined torment for the absence of my love; believed to be Colonel Rivers, at the time when this paper er from being absent from my country," &c

was first published.

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