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Fine tools of this description are called floats. All filed and mangled. Chapman's Iliad. When teeth are crossed they are called files ; File, in law, is a record of the court; and and when, instead of the notches standing in a the filing of a process of a court makes it a re- right line, a number of single teeth are raised cord of that court. An original writ may be all over the surface, it is called a rasp. Files filed after judgment given in the cause, issued are cut upon the surface with a sharp-edged forth before ; declarations, &c., are to be filed, chisel. In rasps, the tooth is raised with a triand affidavits must be filed, some before they are angular punch. The file is adapted for working read in court, and some immediately after. Be- metals, but the rasp is more fitted for wood, fore filing a record removed by certiorari, the bone, and horn. Files are distinguished by justices of B. R. may refuse to receive it, if it being single or double cut. The single cut file appear to be for delay, &c.; and remand it back is simply cut once dver, and is employed for for the expedition of justice; but if the certiorari filing brass, and the softer metals. *A second be once filed, the proceedings below cannot be course of teeth is cut to form the double cut revived. An indictment, &c., cannot be amended file, crossing the first diagonally. This kind is after it is filed.

best suited to iron and steel. File, in the art of war, is the depth of the The steel employed for files requires to be battalion or squadron. The files of a battalion very hard, and in consequence undergoes a of foot are generally three deep; as are some- longer process in the conversion (see STEEL). times those of a squadron of horse. The files It is said to be doubly con

rted. The very must be straight and parallel one to another. heavy files, such as smiths' rubbers, are made

A File on horseback occupies in the ranks of the inferior marks of blistered steel : the about two feet eight inches; thus three file eight more delicate kind, such as watch-makers' files, feet. A file on foot occupies in the ranks twenty- of cast steel. The steel is previously drawn at two inches.

the tilt, into rods of suitable size. The flat and Files, Close, of infantry, are soldiers standing square files are made wholly with the hammer, in rank, contiguous to one another, upon any and the plain anvil. Two workmen, one called given depth of line or column. The soldiers in the maker and the other striker, are required in the ranks should then touch lightly each other, the forging of heavy files. The anvil is prowithout crowding or pressing.

vided with a groove, for the reception of bosses Files, Open, are soldiers standing in rank or dies, which are used for the purpose of at given distances without touching each other. forging the half-round and three-angled files.

Files, Indian, a line of men advancing or re- The half-round boss contains a hollow which is treating from either of the flanks, from the centre, the segment of a sphere, less than half a circle. or from any proportion of a line in succession to That used for the triangular files has a hollow one another.

consisting of two sides, terminating in an angle FILE-LEADER is the soldier placed in the front at the bottom. In forging the half-round file, of any file, or the man who is to cover all the steel is drawn out, as if intended to make those that stand directly in the rear of him, a flat file. It is then laid in the die, and hamand by whom they are to be guided in all their mered, till the under side becomes round. The movements. File-leaders must be particularly steel for the triangular file is tilted into square careful to preserve


proper distances rods. The part to form the file is first drawn from which ever hand they are to dress to, and out with the hammer, as if intended to form a the followers of each file must only he attentive square file. It is then placed in the die with to cover, and be regulated by their proper file- one of the angles downwards, and by striking leaders.

upon the opposite angle, two sides of the square Files, Close, in cavalry, are at the distance are formed into one, and consequently a threewhen each man's boot-top touches, but does not sided figure produced. By successively prepress, that of his neighbour.

senting the different sides to the action of the Files, Loose, in cavalry movements, are six hammer, the figure is rendered still more cominches distant from boot-top to boot-top, being plete. In forming the tangs of most files, it is calculated for the gallop as well as the walk of a necessary to make the shoulders perfectly square squadron.

and sharp. This is performed by cutting into Files, Opey, in cavalry, are the full breadth the file a little on each side with a sharp instruof a horse from boot-top to boot-top. They ment, and afterwards dr ring out the part so contain the distance which is left, when from marked off, to form the tang. close files, the left files rein back to dismount. After forging, and previcusly to their being

File Making. Many useful tools have been ground and cut, the files require to be annealed. invented for performing mechanical operations, This process is generally performed by piling up which consist of a number of wedges or teeth, a great quantity together in a furnace for the which may be conceived to stand upon, or rise purpose, and heating them red hot; suffering out of a flat or curved metallic surface. When them afterwards to cool slowly; on the whole these teeth are formed on the edge of a plate, a very objectionable method, since the surface the instrument is called a saw (see Saw); but of steel, when heated red hot in the open air, when they are formed ipon a broad surface, it is so liable to oxidation. A superior method constitutes what is denominated a file. The of annealing is practised by some file-makers, comb-makers use a tool of this description, and, since hardness in a file is so essential a procalled a quonet, having coarse single teeth, to perty, it ought to be generally adopted. This the number of about seven or eight to an inch. method consists in placing the files in an oven

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or trough, having a close cover, and filling up strap, which goes over each end of the file and
the interstices with sand. The fire is made to passes round his feet, which are introduced into
play on every side of the vessel, as gradually the strap on each side in the same manner as
and uniformly as possible, till the whole mass stirrups are used. The file-cutter, therefore,
• becomes red hot. The fire is then discontinued, sits as if he were on horseback, holding his
and the whole suffered to cool before the cover chisel with one hand, his hammer in the other,
is removed from the trough. Another evil may at the same time he secures the file in its place
however arise from keeping steel red hot, even by the pressure of his feet in the stirrups.
in a close vessel, for too great a length a time. Great pains ought to be taken in preparing
It assumes a kind of crystallisation, under the edge of the chisel. It is, in the first place,
which its tenacity is much impaired. Steel hardened and tempered by heating it gradually
annealed in this way, is perfectly free from that till it appears of a yellowish brown. It is next
scaly surface acquired in the open air; and if ground very true to form the edge, which is
each corticle be perfectly surrounded with the afterwards finished upon a Turkey stone with
sand, and the cover not removed before the steel oil. It is not required to be very sharp, the
is cold, the surface will appear of a silvery bottom of the tooth requiring to be rather open,
white color. If the steel be suspected to be to prevent the file from clogging with the sub-
too kind, from containing too little carbon, pow. stance to be filed. The edge is also required to
dered charcoal may be employed instead of be very smooth, in order that it may slip easily
sand, or sand mixed with charcoal. In this upon the surface of the files : this is also faci-
case the files should be stratified alternately litated by slightly greasing the surface. From
with the charcoal, in order that the extra-con- this advantage the worker, after making one
version may be uniform.

tooth, is enabled by feeling only, to form at its
The next thing is to prepare the files for proper distance the succeeding tooth, by sliding
cutting, by making the surface to 'contain the the chisel close up against the back of the pre-
teeth as level as possible. This was formerly ceding one.
effected by means of files, and the process is

In the double-cut files, the first set of teeth, called striping. The same is still practised by which the workmen call up-cutting, are, prethe Lancashire file-makers, and by others not vious to cutting the second course, filed slightly having convenience for grinding. The greatest upon the face, in order to allow the chisel in quantities of files, however, are ground to slide freely. The single-cut file is more durable prepare them for cutting. The stones employed than the double-cut, and ought to be preferred for the purpose are of the sand-stone kind, the for all purposes excepting for iron and steel. texture of which is compact and sharp, but The same method is employed in cutting the rather rough. They are of as great diameter rasp. The workman is, however, guided comas can be used with convenience; and about pletely by his eye in regulating the distance of eight inches broad over the face. When used, the teeth from each other. The rasp ought to the surface is kept immersed in water. The be cut in such a manner that no one of the teeth grinder sits in such a position as to lean over may stand opposite to another; this not only the stone, while its motion is directly from him. allows the rasp to cut faster, but makes the Its surface moves at about the same speed with surface either of wood or other substance much those used in grinding cutlery. Since the object smoother. in grinding files is to make the surface as even The operation of simple file-cutting seems to and fat as possible, and as this cannot be done be of such easy performance that it has for so completely upon a small stone, the stones of the almost two centuries been a sort of desideratum file-grinder are laid aside when they are reduced to construct a machine to perform that, which to a certain size, and are employed for grinding is not only done with great facility by the hand, other articles. Though grinding is by far the but with wonderful expedition. We are told most expeditious method, it does not give that that a lad not very much experienced in the truth to the surface which can be effected by business will produce, with his hammer and filing. If the price of the articles would admit, chisel, nearly 300 teeth in a minute. With however

, it would be well to render the surface respect to machinery, it is said, that a Frenchmore even by the file after grinding. If the man named Mathurin Jousse, in a work surface be not flat, it is obvious, that when the entitled La fidelle Ouverture de l'Art de Serfile is used for filing a large surface, those teeth rurier, published at La Fleche, in Anjou, so in the hollow parts of the file will not be brought long ago as the year 1627, gives a drawing and into action. It is from attention to this circum- description of one, in which the file is drawn stance, and to the care.in annealing and harden- along by shafts by means of wheel-work, and ing, that the Lancashire file-makers have gene- the blow is given by a hammer. There are rally excelled. They are, however, confined several machines of this kind, or at least to chiefly to the small articles, since the larger files effect the

same purpose, in the Machines would not pay for the process of striping. The Approuvées par l'Academie Royale de Paris : tools of the file-cutter consist of an anvil placed there is also one published in the second volume upon a block of such a height that the man sits of the Transactions of the American Philoto his work. He has also a piece of lead al- sophical Society, of which we shall give some loyed with tin, on which he lays the files when account, as we shall of another for which Mr. one side is cut. The chisel and hammer are William Nicholson obtained a patent in the year of such size as the size and cut of the file re- 1802 ; premising that the principal requisites, quire. He is also provided with a leathern in a machine for file-cutting, are that the metal

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from which it is manufactured should be stea- such a length that the excavation here described dily supported, and the chisel adapted to the face shall be considerably longer than the longest without any unequal bearing.

files intended to be cut; and it is supported upon The American machine consists of a bench of straight bearers from the platform, upon which well seasoned oak, and the face of it planed by projecting pieces, or "slides, or wheels, or . very smooth ; and a carriage on which the files friction-rollers, it can be moved endwise in a are laid, which moves along the face of the bench straight-lined direction, without shake or deviaparallel to its sides, and carries the files gradually tion. At one end of the said excavation is fixed under the edge of the cutter or chisel while the a clip, resembling a hand-vice, for holding the teeth are cut. The carriage is made to move by file by its tail or tang; and in the opposite end a contrivance somewhat similar to that which of the said excavation there is a sliding block or carries the log against the saw of a saw-mill. piece, which being brought up to the other end The lever or arm, which carries the cutter, works of the file does, by means of a notch or other on the centres of two screws which are fixed obvious contrivance, prevent it from being moved into two pillars in a direction right across the sideways. The said clip is so fixed at its head bench. By tightening or loosening these screws, or shank, by means of an horizontal axis on the arm which carries the chisel may be made gudgeons and sockets, that the file is at liberty to work more or less steadily. There is likewise to move up and down, but not sideways or a regulating-screw, by means of which the files a-twist. In this manner it is that the file being may be made coarser or finer: also a bed of fixed in the carri is

pressed down


the lead, which is let into a cavity formed in the anvil by a lever and weight proceeding from the body of the carriage, somewhat broader and platform, and bearing upon the face of the file longer than the largest-sized files: the upper by a small roller of wood, ivory, bone, or soft face of this bed of lead is formed variously, so metal. The anvil is solidly fixed on the platas to fit the different kinds of files which may be form, and may be of any suitable figure which required.

shall be sufficiently massy to receive and resist When the file or files are laid in their place, the blow; but its upper part must be so conthe machine must be regulated by the screw to tracted as to stand up in the excavation of the cut them of a due degree of fineness. This carriage and support the file; and the upper machine is described as being so simple, that part of all must be constructed in such a manwhen properly adjusted a blind person may cut ner that it shall fairly apply itself to the under a file with more exactness than can be done in surface of the file, and support it without leaving the usual method with the keenest sight; for by any hollow space, notwithstanding any casual striking with a hammer on the head of the cut- irregularities of the said surface. I produce ter or chisel all the movements are set at work; this effect by making a cavity in the anvil of the and by repeating the stroke with the hammer, the figure of a portion of a sphere, not much less files on one side will at length be cut; then they than a hemisphere, and in this cavity I place must be turned, and the operation repeated for (with grease between) a piece of iron or steel cutting the other side. This machine may be made exactly to fit, but of which the lower surmade to work by water as readily as by hand, face is a greater portion of the sphere, and the to cut coarse or fine, large or small files, or any upper surface fat and plain. The file rests upon number at a time: but it may be more particu- this last flat or plain surface, which is either larly useful for cutting the very fine small files faced with lead, or (in preference) a slip of lead for watchmakers.

is put under the file and turned round the tang We shall now give an account of the machine thereof, so as to move along with it. It is evifor which Mr. Nicholson obtained his majesty's dent that the upper or moveable piece of the letters patent. “My machinery,' says the pa- said anvil will, by sliding in its socket, actentee, ' consists in four essential parts, suitably commodate and apply itself constantly to the constructed and combined together; namely, surface of the file, which is pressed and struck First, a carriage or apparatus, in or by which against it. Or, otherwise, I make the con. the file is fixed or held and moved along, for the cavity in the upper moveable piece, and make purpose of receiving the successive strokes of a the fixed part convex: or, otherwise, I support cutter or chisel. Secondly, the anvil, by which the upper part, or in some cases the whole of the file is supported beneatn the part which re- my anvil upon opposite gudgeons, in the manner ceives the stroke. Thirdly, the regulating gear, of the gimbals of sea compasses : or, otherwise, by which the distance between stroke and stroke I form the upper part of my anvil cylindrical, is determined and governed. And, fourthly, the of a large diameter, supported on thick gudgeons, apparatus for giving the stroke or cut. The four the axis of the said cylinder being short, and at several parts are supported by, or attached to a right angles to the motion of the carriage : or, frame or platform of solid and secure workman- otherwise, I form only a small portion, namely, ship, either of wood or inetal, or both, according the upper extremity of my anvil, of a cylindrical to the nature of the work intended to be per- form as aforesaid, and cause the same to continue formed, and the judgment and choice of the motionless by fashioning the same out of the engineer. The carriage is a long block of wood, same mass as the rest of the anvil, or fixing the or metal, of the figure of a parallelipidon, or same thereto. And in both the last-mentioned nearly so, having a portion cut out between its cases of the cylindrical structure I fix the head upper and lower surfaces to admit the anvil to or shank of the clip (by which the tang is held), stand therein, without coming into contact with not by a single axis or pair of gudgeons, but by the carriage itself. The said carriage is made of an universal joint or ball and socket, so that the


file becomes at liberty to adapt itself not only by the stroke : or, otherwise, the said chisel may upwards and downwards, but also in the way of have a notch, or a hole, instead of a protuberrotation or a-twist, and supplies the want of ance, to meet a correspondent part in the mouthmotion in the anvil by the facility with which piece or claws; but I prefer the first-mentioned itself can be moved in the last-mentioned man- construction. By the construction of the chisel,

as here mentioned and fixed, the edge of the said “The regulating-gear is that part of the instrument is at liberty to apply itself fairly from machinery by which the carriage, and conse- side to side of the file notwithstanding any windquently the file, is drawn along. It consists of a ing or irregularity, whatever may be the fineness screw revolving between centres fixed to the of the cut upon a broad surface. The mouthplatform, and acting upon a nut attached to the piece, with its chisel, is firmly fixed in another carriage with usual and well known precautions piece, which by its motion gives the stroke. for working of measuring screws; and the nut This last-mentioned piece may either be a lever, being made to open by a joint when the carriage or a moveable carriage between upright sliders; is required to be disengaged and slided back. but I greatly prefer the lever. The chisel must And the said screw is moved either constantly be so fixed that the moving piece shall carry it by a slow motion from the first mover, or (which fairly edge onwards to the file without scraping is better) by interrupted equal motions, so as to or slapping in the least; and the obliquity of draw the carriage during the interval between the stroke may be adjusted by fixing the centres stroke and stroke. And the quantities of those of the level either higher or lower at pleasure, respective equal. motions may be produced and or by inclining the last-mentioned sliders. The governed at pleasure by wheel-work applied to lever may be raised and let fall (or the other the head of the screw, or by the well known ap- chisel apparatus moved) by a tripping-piece or paratus used in the mathematical dividing engine snail-work, or other usual connexion with the for circles; or by other contrivances well known first mover; and its power of stroke may be to workmen of competent skill, and therefore increased by the addition of a weight, or by the unnecessary to be described at large: or, other action of a spring; which last method is of exwise, the motion of the carriage may be pro- cellent use, and may, (if required from the varyduced by a toothed rack from the carriage drawn ing breadth of the file) be made to increase or by a pinion; and this pinion moved by a ratchet- diminish its power during the run by several wheel on the same arbor moved by a click-lever

, easy and commonly used methods or contriwhich shall gather up and drive a greater or less vances for pressing more or less against the number of teeth, according to the coarseness or spring. Or, otherwise, the lever, or holdingfineness of the file; and the click-lever itself piece, may be kept immediately above the file may be moved by a tripping piece from the first by the re-action of a slight spring, or weight, mover, or by various other evident means of and be struck by a hammer moved and acted connexion : or, otherwise, the said carriage may upon by the first mover, as aforesaid : and to be moved by a small cylinder, and rope or chain this method I give the preference, because the constantly acting : or, otherwise, the said motion lever will then have less strain upon its pivots; may be effected by a train of two or more wheels, or the said lever may even be supported by suffered to move by any of the escapements spring-joints without any pivots or centres at used in time-pieces, and the fineness of stroke all. Or, instead of a hammer, the blow may be may be regulated either by changing the wheels given by a ram, or a fly and screw, as in the common fuzee engine, or by the greater the preference to the hammer. The lever may or less frequency of escape during each turn of move in a vertical circle immediately over the the first mover.

And in every case I prefer a file, or in an oblique circle at right angles to it, counter-weight to the carriage, acting either con- or at any intermediate angle consistent with the stantly against, or constantly in the direction of foregoing instructions: and the chisel may be its motion ; though this is not absolutely neces- set with its edge at any angle whatever, with the sary when the work is well executed. I may line of the length of the lever; but, in general, also observe, that it is possible to construct my I have set the lever in the first-mentioned posisaid machinery by fixing and rendering motion- tion, and have varied the angle between the less that part which I have called the carriage, chisel-edge and the lever, according to the inprovided the other three principal parts be made tended slope of the cut upon the face of the to move instead of the carriage itself; but I con- file. The edge of the chisel must be sharpened sider this disposition as less eligible than that to such an angle as the intended cut and strength which requires the carriage to be moved. The of burr may require. Lastly, I describe the apparatus for giving the stroke or cut, consists of general action of the said machinery as follows: a chisel, which is held between the jaws of a i. The tile being prepared as usual for cutting, mouth-piece or claws resembling a strong hand- must be fixed in the clip of the carriage, and vice without teeth. One of the jaws' is made the sliding-block brought up and fixed, to steady Fery stout, and the chisel is formed narrow from its other extremity. 2. The nut of the screw edge to back, and wide from side to side, and being then opened (or the other regulating gear has a semi-circular protuberance on its back, disengaged) the carriage is slided to its place, which rests in a circular notch in the strong jaw so that the chisel may be situated over that part aforesaid; and there are two or three bended of the file which is to receive the first stroke. fiat rings or wasbers of iron or metal under the 3. The nut is then closed (or the other reguthumb-screw of the said mouth-piece or claws, lating gear connected) and the small roller of which prevent the chisel from becoming loose the pressing lever is made to bear upon the face

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of the file. 4. The first mover being then put attached to the file, that the greatest part of i: into action, raises and lets fall the apparatus for was rubbed off into the fire, and was sublimed giving the stroke by which the file receives a cut. up the chimney, without producing any effect. And, 5, immediately afterwards, or during the Some file-makers are in the habit of using the same action, as the case may be (according to coal of buint leather, which doubtless produces the construction as before described), the regu- some effect; but the carbon is generally so ill

ating gear moves the carriage, and consequently prepared for the purpose, and the time of its the file, through a determinate space. 6. The operation so short, as to render the effect very cut is then again given; and in this manner little. Animal carbon, when properly prepared (the strength of cut being duly proportioned to and mixed with the above hardening composition, the

space between cut and cut) the file becomes is capable of giving hardness to the surface even cut throughout. 7. The file is then taken out of an iron file. The carbonaceous matter may and cut on the other side. 8. The burr is then be readily obtained from any of the soft parts of taken off, or not, as the artist may think best; animals, or from blood. For this purpose, howand the cross-strokes are given over the surfaces ever, the refuse of shoe-makers and curriers is as before. And the said machinery, by certain the most convenient. After the volatile parts slight, necessary, and obvious changes in the have been distilled over, from an iron still

, a structure and disposition of the chisels, and bright shining coal is left behind, which, when some other of the parts thereof, is adapted to reduced to powder, is fit to mix with the salt. manufacture all other forms and descriptions of Let about equal parts, by bulk, of this powder, files, whether Aoats, rasps, half-round, three- and muriate of soda, be mixed together, and square, or any other figure or denomination. brought to the consistence of cream, by the addi

Three things are strictly to be observed in tion of water. Or mix the powdered carbon with hardening files; first, to prepare the file on the a saturated solution of the salt, till it becomes of surface, so as to prevent it froin being oxydated the above consistence. Files which are intended by the atmosphere, when the file is red hot, to be very hard, should be covered with this which effect would not only take off the sharp- composition, previously to hardening: By this ness of the tooth, but render the whole surface method, files made of iron, which in itself is inso rough, that the file would, in a little time, susceptible of hardening, acquire a superficial become clogged with the substance it had to hardness sufficient to answer the purposes of any work. Secondly, the heat ought to be very uni- file whatever. Files of this kind may be bent formly red throughout, and the water in which it into any form, and in consequence are rendered is quenched fresh and cold, for the purpose of useful for sculptors and die-sinkers. giving it the proper degree of hardness. Lastly, The mode of heating the file for hardening, is the manner of immersion is of great importance, by means of a fire similar to that employed by to prevent the files from warping, which in long common smiths. The file is to be held in a pair thin files is very difficult. The first object is ac- of tongs by the tang, or tail, and introduced complished by laying a substance upon the sur- into the fire, consisting of very small cokes, pushface, which, when it fuses, forms as it were a ing it more or less into the fire, for the sake of varnish upon it, defending the metal from the heating it regularly. When it is uniformly heated action of the oxygen of the air. Formerly the of a cherry color, it is fit to quench in the water, process consisted in first coating the surface of An oven is commonly used for the larger kind the file with ale-grounds, and then covering it of files, into which the blast of the bellows is diover with pulverised common salt. After this rected, being open at one end for the purpose of coating becomes dry the files are heated red-hot, introducing the files and the fuel. After the file and hardened; then the surface is lightly brushed is properly heated, for the purpose of hardening, over with the dust of cokes; when it appears it should be cooled as quickly as possible; this is white and metallic, as if it had not been heated. usually done by quenching it in the coldest This process

has lately been improved, at least water. Clear spring water, free from animal so far as relates to the economy of the salt, and vegetable matter, is best calculated for the which, from the quantity used, and the increase hardening of files. of duty, had become a serious object. Those When files are properly hardened, they are who use the improved method do not consume brushed over with water and powdered coke, above one-fourth the quantity of salt used in the when the surface becomes clean and metallic. old way. The process consists in dissolving the They may likewise be dipped into lime-water, salt in water to saturation, which is about three and dried before the fire as rapidly as possible, pounds to the gallon, and stiffening it with ale- after which they should be rubbed over with grounds, or with the cheapest kind of flour, olive oil, in which is mixed a little oil of turpensuch as that of beans, to about the consistence tine, while warm, and then they are finished. of thick cream. The files only require to be In the operations of filing, the coarser cut dipped into this substance, and immediately files are always to be succeeded by the finer; heated and hardened. The grounds or the and the general rule is, to lean heavily on the file flour are of no other use than to give the mass in thrusting it forward, because the teeth of the consistence, and by that means, allowing a file are made to cut forwards. But in drawing larger quantity of salt to be laid upon the surface. the file back again, for a second stroke, it is to be In this method, the salt forms immediately a lifted just above the work, to prevent its cutting firm coating. As soon as the water is evaporated, as it comes back. The rough, or coarse-toothed the whole of it becomes fused upon the file. In file, called a rubber, serves to take off the uneventhe old method, the dry salt was so loosely ness of the work, left by the hammer in forging,

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