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Collateral proofs are derived from the spirit and an exact account o all the landed property of tenure of the Anglo-Saxon laws, but especially the kingdom. Hence it is to be concluded, not from the grants of hereditary estates on condition that William introduced fiefs into England, as of military service. The condition of fiefs under some have imagined, but that he brought them the Anglo-Saxons was very different from what it to their ultimate state of perfection by the introwas afterwards. In their times we find no men- duction of knight-service. This is evident from tion made of those oppressions of which so much the laws enacted during his reign. In these it notice has already been taken ; and this may is not only mentioned that knight-service was en-. easily be accounted for from the alteration of acted, but that it was done expressly with the conthe feudal spirit in different ages. During the sent of the common council of the nation; which time that a warm and generous affection sub- at that time was equivalent to an act of parliasisted between the feudal superiors and vassals, ment. The invention of knight-service proved the incidents were marks of generosity on the generally agreeable; for, as only a few of the one part and gratitude on the other ; but as soon Anglo Saxon fiefs were hereditary, the advanceas variance had taken place, by reason of the ment of the rest to perpetuity, under the tenure of interested disposition which the introduction of knight-service, must have been accounted an acluxury produced, the same incidents became quisition of some importance; as not only augsources of the most flagrant oppression. This menting the grandeur and dignity of the sovereign, was remarkably the case in the time of William but securing the independence of the subject, and the Conqueror; and, during the reign of king improving his property. In the happy state of John, matters were come to such a crisis, that the feudal association, there was indeed no nethe people every where complained loudly, and cessity for the knight's fee; but when the disdemanded the restoration of the laws of Edward cordance and oppression so often mentioned the Confessor. "What the laws of Edward the began to take place, it became then necessary to Confessor were,' says Mr. Hume, which the point out particularly every duty of the vassal, Enzlish every reign, during a century and a half, as well as of the lord ; and this was fully done desired so passionately to have restored, is much by the invention of knight-service. The nobles disputed by antiquarians; and our ignorance of possessed duchies, baronies, and earldoms; them seems one of the greatest defects of the which extensive possessions were divided into as English history.' Dr. Stuart has offered an ex- many fees, each of them to furnish a knight for planation, in a conjecture, that “ by the laws or the service of the king, or of the superior : so that customs of the Confessor, that condition of every feudal state could command a numerous felicity was expressed which had been enjoyed army and militia to support and defend it in case during the fortunate state of the feudal associ- of any emergency. The knights were also bound

The cordiality, equality, and indepen- to assemble in complete armour whenever the dence which then prevailed among all ranks in superior thought proper to call, and to hold society continued to be remembered in less pros- themselves in readiness whenever the king or perous times, and occasioned an ardent desire superior found it convenient to take the field; for the revival of those laws and usages which were so that thus the militia might be marched at the the sources of so much happiness. Besides the shortest notice to defend or support the honor of great distinction between the state of fiefs under the nation. The knights were usually armed with the Anglo-Saxons and under the Normans, they a helmet, sword, lance, and shield; and each were no less distinguished by the introduction of was obliged to keep a horse. This last requisite knight-service. Hitherto the refinement of the was owing to the contempt into which the infanEnglish had been obstructed by the invasion of 'try had fallen, through the prevalence of tournathe Danes, and the insular situation of the king- ments and luxuries of various kinds, though it dom; but after the Norman conquest the fiefs was by means of the infantry that the barbarians were made perpetual. Still, however, the knight's had originally distinguished themselves in their fee and knight-service were altogether unknown. wars with the Romans, and become able to cope William, the sixth duke of Normandy, was well with these celebrated warriors. All proprietors acquainted with every thing relating to fiefs; of fees or tenants by knight-service fought on for that duchy had experienced all the variety foot : the cavalry were distinguished by the name incidental to them from the time of its being of battle ; and the success of every encounter was granted to Rollo by Charles the Simple, A.D. supposed to depend on them alone. They only 912 to 1066, when William conquered England. were completely armed; the infantry, being furOn this event a number of forfeitures took place nished by the villages under the jurisdiction of among those who had followed the fortune of the barons, had at first only bows and slings; Harold II. Their estates were to be disposed though afterwards they were found worthy of of at the pleasure of the conqueror; and it was much greater attention. While the feudal assonatural to suppose that he would follow the ciation remained in perfection, the superior could method practised in his own country. Hence at any time command the military service of his the origin of knight-service in England. A grant vassals ; but in the subsequent degeneracy this oi land, to any person whatever, was estimated service could neither be depended upon when at a certain number of knights' fees; and each wanted, nor was it of the same advantage when of these required the service of a knight. The obtained as formerly. The invention of knight* grants of lands were even renewed to the old te- service tended in a great degree to remedy this nants under this tenure; so that by degrees the inconvenience. Those who were possessed of whole military people in the kingdom acquiesced knight's fees were now obliged to remain forty in it. To accomplish this, Domesday Book is days in the field at their own expense; and this supposed to have been compiled, which contained without exception, from the great crown vassala


to the smallest feudatories; but, if longer service king, as the most dignified person in the comwas required, the prince was obliged to pay his munity, and this allotment was styled his dotroops. In those times, however, when the fate main; while the shares of citizens and warriors, of nations was frequently decided by a single which were likewise in proportion to the merit battle, a continuance in the field for forty days or dignity of each, constituied what was called was sufficient for ordinary occasions. Thus mat- allodiality. But, as it often happened that all the ters seemed once more to be restored nearly to land was not exhausted by these partitions, what their former state. It was now, as much as ever, the remained was considered as the property of the interest of the nation to act with unanimity in community; and in the barbaric codes was called its defence, not only against foreign enemies, but the lands of the fisc. In such German nations against the tyranny of the prince over his sub- as had thus obtained a settlement, it was nejects, or of one part of the subjects over the cessary that there should be a more close connexother. New inconveniencies, however, soon be- ion betwixt the sovereign and the chiefs, as well gan to take place, owing to the gradual improve- as between the chiefs and people, than in others. ments in life and the refinement of manners. This was effected by means of the lands of the From the first institution of military service, a fisc; for of these the sovereign took possession, fine had been accepted instead of actual appear- dealing them out to the chiefs under the burden ance in the field. In the times of barbarity, of appearing in arms whenever he should please however, when men accounted rapine and blood- to call; while the chiefs in like manner dealt out shed their only glory, there were but few who lands to those called their retainers, who were made an offer of this compensation; but as wealth also obliged to supply them with military assistand luxury increased, and the manners of the ance in cases oi necessity. Hence a political people became softer, a general unwillingness of system was founded, which had a prodigious following the army into the field became also effect on society in all those countries where it prevalent. A new tenure, called escuage, was prevailed. The intention and tendency of this therefore introduced ; by which the vassal was system was to render the nation independent both only obliged to pay his superior a sum of money at home and abroad; for, while the people were annually instead of attending him into the field. all armed in their common defence, individuals See Escuage, and KNIGHT-SERVICE. Hence were also properly guarded against the attacks of originated taxes and their misapplication; for, as despotism. The power of the chiefs, who formed the king was lord paramount of the whole king- a regular nobility, was a counterpoise to that of dom, it thence happened that the whole escuage the sovereign; while the number of the retainers money collected throughout the nation centered and vassals, constituting the greatness and power in him. The princes, then, instead of recruiting of the nobility, was a proper barrier against aris their armies, frequently filled their coffers with tocratical oppression; for a chief who oppressed the money, or dissipated it otherwise, hiring his vassals evidently acted against his own inmercenaries to defend their territories when tercst. threatened with danger. These being composed The feudal system, it has been well observed of the dregs of the people, and disbanded at the by another writer, was originally grounded on end of every campaign, filled all Europe with a the universal principles of self-defence, and the disorderly banditti, who frequently proved very necessity of relinquishing a portion of our indidangerous to society. To avoid such inconve- vidual rights for the public security. Every niencies, standing armies were introduced, and freeman, therefore, under this system, upon retaxations began to be raised in every European ceiving a portion of the lands which were divided, kingdom. New inconveniencies, however, arose.' bound himself to appear in arms against the The sovereigns in most of these kingdoms having enemies of the community. This military service acquired the right of taxation, as well as the com- was the condition upon which he received and mand of the military power, became completely held his lands; and, as they were exempted from despotic : but in England the sovereign was de- every other burden, that tenure, among a warprived of this right by Magna Charta, which was like people, was deemed both easy and honorable. extorted from him (See England), so that though The king, or general, who led them to conquest, allowed to command his armies, he could only pay had the largest portion allotted to him; and he them by the voluntary contributions of the people, parcelled it out among those who entered into an or their submitting to such taxations as were obligation to bear arms in his defence. His virtually imposed by themselves.

chief officers imitated his example, in distriThe author of A'View of Society in Europe, buting portions of lands among their depen(book I. chap. ii. sect. 1). has traced the remote dents, upon the same condition. Thus a feudal sources of the feudal laws in an elegant and con- kingdom resembled a military establishment cise manner. Tacitus informs us, he observes, rather than a civil institution. The names that the individuals of each of the German na- of a soldier and a freeman were synonytions cultivated by turns a tract of land pro- mous, Every proprietor of land, girt with a portionable to their number, for the use of the sword, was ready to march at the summons of whole; after which each individual received such his superior, and to take the field against the an allotment of the cultivated tract as his dignity common enemy. The feudal government, howrequired. These nations had not altered their ever, though admirably calculated for defence political principles at the time they overran the against the assaults of any foreign power, was Roman empire; and hence the provinces of it defective in its provisions for the interior order were then divided after the same manner. The of society. The bond of political union was exmost considerable allotment was bestowed on the tremely feeble; and the sources of anarchy were innumerable. The powerful vassals of the crown bours. It was this inefficiency of the feudal soon extorted a confirmation for life of those militia, perhaps, that saved Europe during the grants of land which, being at first purely gra- middle ages from the danger of universal monartuitous, had been bestowed only during pleasure. chy. In times, when princes had little notion They then succeeded in having them converted of confederacies for mutual protection, it is hard into hereditary possessions; and at length in to say, what might not have been the successes rendering them unalienable. The crown vassals, of an Otho the Great, a Frederic Barbarossa, or after having secured the possession of their lands a Philip Augustus, if they could have wielded and dignities, were led by the feudal institutions the whole force of their subjects whenever thir to new, and still more dangerous encroachments ambition required. If an empire equally exten.. on the prerogatives of the sovereign. They ob- sive with that of Charlemagne, and supported by tained the power of supreme jurisdiction, both military despotism, had been formed atout the civil and criminal, within their own territories; twelfth or thirteenth centuries, the seeds of comthe right of coining money ; together with the merce and liberty, just then beginning to shoot, privilege of carrying on war against their private would have perished; and Europe, reduced to a enemies in their own name, and by their own barbarous servitude, might have fallen before authority. Subordination was almost lost, and the free barbarians of Tartary. persons of superior rank aspired at indepen- *If we look at the feudal polity as a scheme dence. Hence a kingdom, considerable in name of civil freedom, it bears a noble countenance. and extent, was broken into as many separate To the feudal law it is

ing, that the very principalities as it contained powerful barons. names of right and privilege were not swept A thousand causes of jealousy and discord sprang away, as in Asia, by the desolating hand ci up among them, and gave rise to as many wars. power. The tyranny which, on every favorable Every country in Europe, wasted or kept in con- moment, was breaking through all barriers, tinual alarm during these endless contests, was would have rioted without control, if, when the filled with castles and places of strength, erected people were poor and disunited, the nobility had for the security of the inhabitants, not against not been brave and free. So far as the sphere foreign force, but against internal hostilities. of feudality extended, it diffused the spirit of Indeed an almost universal anarchy prevailed. liberty, and the notions of private right. Every The guilty escaped punishment, and the innocent one, I think, will acknowledge this, who consicould not find protection. Such was the state of ders the limitations of the services of vassalage, Europe with respect to the interior administra- so cautiously marked in those law-books which tion of government from the seventh to the are the records of customs, the reciprocity of obeleventh century. This system likewise prevented ligation between the lord and his tenant, the nations from acting with vigor in their external consent required in every measure of a legislaoperations. Besides, the feudal anarchy had a tive or general nature, the security, above all, fatal influence on the character and improvement which every vassal found in the administration of the human mind. Without the protection of of justice by his peers, and even (we may in this a regular government, and the certainty of per- sense say) in the trial by combat.' The bulk of sonal security, it cannot be expected that men the people, it is true, were degraded by serviwill make any progress in the arts and sciences, tude; but this had no connexion with the feudal or aim at attaining refinement in taste or manners. tenures. In less than a century after the barbarous na- “The peace and good order of society were tions settled in their new conquests, almost all not promoted by this system. Though private the effects of the knowledge and civility which wars did not originate in the feudal customs, it the Romans_had spread through Europe dis- is impossible to doubt that they were perappeared. The human mind, neglected, un- petuated by so convenient an institution, which cultivated, and depressed, sunk into the most indeed owed its universal establishment to no profound ignorance. The inhabitants of Europe other cause. And as predominant habits of during this period were not only strangers to the warfare are totally "econcileable with those of arts which embellish a polished age, but desti- industry, not merely by the immediate works of tute of the virtues which abound among people destruction which render its efforts unavailing, who continue in a simple state.

but through that contempt of peaceful occupaThe ablest modern picture of the advantages tions which they produce, the feudal system and disadvantages of the feudal system is found must have been intrinsically adverse to the acperhaps in Mr. Hallam's work on the Middle cumulation of wealth, and the improvement of Ages. He thus exhibits both sides of the subject. those arts, which mitigate the evils, or abridge * The utility of any form of polity may be es- the labors of mankind. timated, hy its effect upon national greatness • But as a school of moral discipline, the feuand security, upon civil liberty and private dal institutions were perhaps most to be valued. rights, upon the tranquillity and order of society, Society had sunk, for several centuries after the upon the increase and diffusion of wealth, or dissolution of the Roman empire, into a condiupon the general tone of moral sentiment and tion of utter depravity; where, if any vices could energy. The feudal constitution was certainly, be selected as more eminently characteristic than as has been observed already, little adapted for Others, they were falsehood, treachery, and inthe defence of a mighty kingdom, far less for gratitude. 'In slowly purging off the lees of this schemes of conquest. But, as it prevailed alike extreme corruption, the feudal spirit exerted its in several adjacent countries, none had any thing ameliorating influence. Violation of faith stood to fear from the military supériority of its neigh- iìrst in the catalogue of crimes, most repugnant to the very essence of a feudal tenure, most into the hous of Symount, and modir of Symoundis severely and promptly avenged, most branded wiif • was boldun with grete feveris. Widif. Luk. 4. by general infamy. The feudal law-books

Duncan is in his

grave; breathe throughout a spirit of honorable obli- After life's fitful fever he sleeps well. gation. The feudal course of jurisdiction pro


The white hand of a lady fever thee! moted, what trial by peers is peculiarly calculated

Shake to look on't. Id. Antony and Cleopatra. to promote, a keener feeling and readier percep

Thou madest thine enemies shake, as if the world tion of moral as well as of legal distinctions.

Were feverous, and did tremble. Id. Coriolanus. And as the judgment and sympathy of mankind

It hath been noted by the ancients, that southern are seldom mistaken in these great points of winds, blowing much, without rain, do cause a fever. veracity and justice, except through the tempo- ous disposition of the year;

but with rain not. rary success of crimes, or the want of a definite

Bacon's Natural History. standard of right, they gradually recovered them

O Rome, thy head selves, when law precluded the one, and supplied Is Irowned in sleep, and all thy body fev'ry. the other. In the reciprocal services of lord

Ben Jonson's Catiline. and vassal, there was ample scope for every

Those paiic nts that have inured themselves to a set magnanimous and disinterested energy. The

course of me icinal evacuations, if they intermit their heart of man, when placed in circumstances springs and falli, fall into feverous distempers. which have a tendency to excite them, will sel

Bp. Hall.

All f-verous kinds, dom be deficient in such sentiments. No occa

Convulsions, epilepsies, fierce catarrhs. Milton. sions could be more favorable, than the pro

Should not a lingering fever be removed, tection of a faithful supporter, or the defence of

Because it long has raged within my blood ? a beneficent suzerain, against such powerful ag

Dryden. gression, as left little prospect except of sharing Her blood all fevered, with a furious leap, in his ruin.

She sprung from bed distracted in her mind. Id. * From these feelings, engendered by the feu- We toss and turn about our feverish will, dal relation, has sprung up the peculiar senti- When all our ease must come by lying sull; ment of personal reverence and attachment For all the happiness mankind can gain, towards a sovereign, which we denominate

Is not in pleasure, but in rest from pain. Id. loyalty ; alike distinguishable from the stupid

More fevers and surfeits are got by people's drink. devotion of eastern slaves, and from the abstract ing when they are bot than by any one thing I know.

Locke. respect with which free citizens regard their

To other climates beasts and birds retire, chief magistrate. Men who had been used to

And feverish nature burns in her own fire. swear fealty, to profess subjection, to follow, at

Creech. home and in the field, a feudal superior and his When an animal that gives suck turns feverish, that family, easily transferred the same allegiance to is, its juices inore alkaline, the milk turns from its nathe monarch. It was a very powerful feeling, tive genuine whiteness to yellow. which could make the bravest men put up with

Arbuthnot on Aliments. slights and ill treatment at the hands of their A feverish disorder disabled me. Swift to Pope. sovereign; or call forth all the energies of dis- Common fever few is the sort used in medicine, and

Miller, interested exertion for one whom they never is found wild in many parts of England. saw, and in whose character there was nothing A light feveret, or an old quartan ague, is not a to esteem. In ages when the rights of the com

sufficient excuse for non-appearance. Ayliffe. munity were unfelt, this sentiment was one great Sincere the' unaltered bliss her charms impart, preservative of society; and, though collateral Sedate the enlivening ardours they inspire ; or even subservient to more enlarged principles,

Sbe bids no transient rapture thrill the heart, it is still indispensable to the tranquillity and

She wakes no feverish gust of fierce desire.

Beattis. permanence of every monarchy. In a moral view, loyalty has scarcely perhaps less tendency FEVER. See MEDICINE, Index. The ancients to refine and elevate the heart than patriotism deified the diseases as well as the passions and itself; and holds a middle place in the scale of affections of men. Virgil places them in the human motives, as they ascend from the grosser entrance into hell, Æn., vi. 273. See. Febris. inducements of self-interest, to the furtherance FEVERSHAM, or FavERSHAM, a marketof general happiness, and conformity to the pur- town of Kent,, seated on a branch of the river poses of Infinite Wisdom.'

Thames, which is navigable for hoys. It was a

royal demesne A. D. 811, and called in Kenuif's FE'VER, n. s: & v. a. Sax. fefer; French, charter the King's Litle Town. It was inhabited Fe'ver-cooling, adj. fievre, fiebure ; Latin, by the Britons long before the invasion by FE'VER-WEAKENED febris. ' A disease cha- Cæsar. In 903 king Athelstan held a great FEVERET, n. s. racterised by an in- council here. King Stephen erected a stately FE'VERFEW, crease of heat, an ac- abbey, in 1147, whose. abbots sat, in parliaFE'VERISH, adj.

celerated pulse, a


ment; and he was buried in it, with Maud, tongue, and an im, his queen, and Eustace his son. Two mean gateFE'verous, adj. paired state of several houses are all that now remain of it. The town FE'VERY.

j functions of the body.' -Hooper. See Medicine. Feveret is a dimi- of Feversham, afterwards by Henry VIII., with

was first incorporated by the title of the Barons nutive of fever; a slight fever. Feverfew, a plant, a species of matricaria.

that of the mayor, jurats, and commonalty. The

mayor holds a court of session twice a year, at And Jhesus roos up fro the synagoge : and entride which all offenders committed within the limits

of the town, except those for high-treason, are Journal of his Voyage to the Canaries, and a tried. It is a populous flourishing place, con- collection of corresponding drawings in natural sisting chiefly of two long broad streets, with a history. market-house in the centre, built in 1574. Its

FEʻUILLEMORT, n. s. French. The color ancient church was repaired in 1754, at the ex

of a faded leaf, corrupted commonly to philepeose of £2300; it was originally built in the

mot. reign of Edward II. It is in the form of a cross;

So to make a countryman understand what · feuillethe walls are of fint, quoined with stone from morte colour signifies, it may suffice to tell him, it is Caen. The inside of the church is handsome, the colour of withered leaves falling in autumn, and well worthy of observation; it had origi

Locke. nally a square castellated tower in the middle, FEVRE (Claud le), an eminent French but that was taken down in 1755. Before the painter, born at Fontainbleau in 1633.

He Reformation there were several altars in various studied first in the palace, and afterwards at parts of the church. Many ancient mural mo- Paris under Le Sueur and Le Brun; the latter of numents, and several of brass let into the floor, whom advised him to adhere to portraits, for still remain. It has a free grammar school, which he had a particular talent, and in his style built and endowed by queen Elizabeth in 1582; equalled the best masters of that country. He and two charity schools. It is a member of the died in England in 1675, aged forty-two. cinque-port of Dover, and has a manufactory of FEVRE (Nicolas le), or Nicolaus Faber, was gunpowder. The town was considerably im- born at Paris, June 2nd, 1544. During the course proved in 1773, when a spacious avenue was of his studies a singular misfortune happened to opened from the London road into Preston him. In cutting a pen, a piece of the quill flew Street, and a bridge was erected over the stream into his eye, and gave him such exquisite pain, at the bottom of West Street: in 1789 an act that hastily lifting up his hand, he thrust the Was passed for paving, watching, and lighting, knife into his eye and cut it out. After acquirthe place. The markets, on Saturday and Wed- ing the languages, he studied the civil law at Desday, are well supplied with provision, and. Toulouse, Padua, and Bologna. He travelled are well attended by the London dealers, who through Italy, and spent eighteen months at buy large quantities of the oysters caught on the Rome. In 1587 he published Seneca, with a coast. The Dutch also in time of peace, it is learned preface and notes; and detected the said, carry home as many oysters as amount to defect in Scaliger's demonstration of the Quadabove £2000 a year. The fishermen admit none rature of the Circle. He also wrote on eccleto their freedom but married men. It is nine siastical antiquities, and drew up a preface to miles west of Canterbury, and forty-seven east of the fragments of St. Hilary. He was appointed London.

preceptor to the prince of Conde, by Henry the FEUILLAGE, n. s.

French. A bunch or Great'; after whose death, the queen dowager TOX of leaves.

made him preceptor to Louis XII. He died in Of Homer's head I inclose the outline, that you 1611; and his works were collected by his may determine whether you would have it so large, friend, John le Begue, and printed at Paris in er reduced to make room for feuillage or laurel round 1614. the oval.

Jervas to Pope. Fevre (Tannegui le), an excellent scholar in FEVILLEA, in botany, a genus of the pen- Greek and Roman learning, born at Caen in tandria order and diæcia class of plants; natu- Normandy, in 1615. Cardinal Richelieu gave ral order thirty-fourth, cucurbitaceæ. The male him a pension of 2000 livres to inspect all the Cal. and cor. quinquefid; stamina five; necta- works published at the Louvre, and designed to rium consisting of five filaments closing together: have made him principal of a college he was female Cal. quinquefid; styles three; FRUIT, a about to erect at Richelieu. But the cardinal's hard trilocular apple with a hard bark. Species death cut off his hopes; and his pension was ill two, of the East and West Indies, both climb- paid. Some time after, the marquis de Fran

ciere, governor of Langres, took him with him FÈUILLE'E(Lewis), a celebrated French natu- to bis government, where he embraced the Protalist and mathematician, of the religious order of testant religion; after which he was invited to Minims. He was a native of Provence, and sent Saumur, where he was chosen Greek professor. by Louis XIV., in early life, to South America to He there taught with extraordinary reputation. make researches in natural history and philosophy, Young men were sent to him from all the prothe result of which appeared in his Journal des vinces in the kingdom, and even from foreign Observations Physiques, Mathematiques, et Bo- countries, while divines and professors themtaniques, faites sur les Côtes Orientales de l'Ame- selves gloried in attending his lectures. He was rique Meridionale, et dans les Indes Occiden- preparing to go to Heidelberg, whither he was tales, 1714, 2 vols. 4to. In 1724 he was em- invited by the prince Palatine, when he died, ployed, on the recommendation of the Academy aged fifty-seven. He wrote Notes on Anacreon, of Sciences, in an expedition to the Canary Lucretius, Longinus, Phædrus, Justin, Terence, Islands, to ascertain the position of the me- Virgil, Horace, Ælian, Eutropius, Aurelius ridian of Ferro; a task 'he performed in a Victor, Dionysius, &c. A short account of the very able manner. He was rewarded with the lives of the Greek poets. Two volumes of post of botanist to the king, and a pension. He letters; and many other works. He left a son, died in 1732, at Marseilles, where an astrono- and two daughters, one of whom was the celemical observatory had been built for him. In the brated Madame Dacier. In bis Latin works he Royal library at Paris are preserved, in MS., a assumed the name of Tanaquil Faber.

ing plants.

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