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attorney-general, they gave him express for making glass-bottles. orders to bring writs of scire facias against For encouraging the breed of horses. the charters or patents of the York-build- For discovering gold mines. ing's company, Lustring company, Eng- For an assurance against thieves. lish copper, Welsh copper, and lead, and for trading in hair. also against other charters or patents For loan offices. which had been, or should be made use of, for dealing in hops. or acted under, contrary to the intent or For making of china ware. meaning of an act passed the last ses For furnishing funerals. sion of parliament, &c.

For a coral fishery. They likewise instructed the attorney. For a flying machine. general to prosecute, with the utmost For insuring of horses. severity, all persons opening books for For making of looking-glasses. public subscriptions; or receiving money for feeding of hogs. upon such subscriptions; or making or For buying and selling estates. accepting transfers of, or shares upon, For purchasing and letting lands. such subscriptions ; of which they gave For supplying London with provisions public notice in the Gazette, as “a farther For curing the gout and stone. caution to prevent the drawing of unwary For making oil of poppies. persons, for the future, into practices con For bleaching coarse sugar. trary to law.” This effectually frustrated for making of stockings. the plans of plunder, exercised or con For an air-pump for the brain. templated at that period. How necessary for insurance against divorces. so vigorous a resistance was must be ob- For making butter from beech-trees. vious from this fact, that innumerable for paving London streets. bubbles perished in embyro; besides an in- For extracting silver from lead. credible number which could be named For making of radish oil. that were actually set in motion, and to For a perpetual motion. support which the sums intended to be · For japanning of shoes. raised amounted to about 300,000,0001. For making deal boards of sawdust. The lowest advance of the shares in any of For a scheme to teach the casting of nathese speculations was above cent. per tivities. cent., most of them above 400l. per cent.; and some were raised to twenty times the price of the subscription. Taking these JOINT STOCK COMPANIES OF 1825. circumstances into account, the scandalous projects would have required seven

The large quantity of surplus capital hundred millions sterling, if such a sum

and consequent low rate of interest could have been realized in the shape of during the last, and in the present, year, capital. To such a height of madness induce its possessors to embark their had the public mind been excited, that money in schemes for promoting general even shares were eagerly coveted, and utility. One of the advantages resulting bargained for, in shameless schemes which from a state of peace is the influx of were not worth the paper whereon their wealth that pours forth upon the country proposals were printed, at treble the price for its improvement. Yet it behoves the they nominally bore. From a list of only prudent, and those of small means, to be a part of those that the air of 'Change- circumspect in their outlays; to see with alley teemed with, the names of a few are

their own eyes, and not through the mehere set forth :

dium of others. The premiums that

shares in projects may bear in the marProjects

ket, are not even a shadow of criterion For supplying London with cattle. whereon to found a judgment for investFor supplying London with hay.

ment. This is well known to every discreet For breeding and feeding cattle.

man who has an odd hundred to put out; For making pasteboards.

and he who cannot rely on his own disFor improving the paper manufacture. crimination for a right selection from among For dealing in lace, hollands, &c.

the various schemes that are proffered to For a grand dispensary.

his choice, will do well to act as if none For a royal fishery.

of them existed, and place his cash where For a fish pool.

the principal ill at least be safe, and the

interest, though small, be certain. This quently declared frustrated; and there month presents schemes for

being only £10,000 in the bankers' hands Twenty Rail Road Companies,

to pay " Mr. Hop-the-twig's bill of Twenty-two Banking, Loan, Investment, 10,0731. 138. 4d. that respectable soliand Assurance Companies,

citor is defrauded of the sum of 731. 138.4d. Eleven Gas Companies,

This is the rise and fall of a respectable Eight British and Irish Mine Companies, bubble.Seventeen Foreign Mine Companies, Undoubtedly, among these various Nine Shipping and Dock Companies, schemes afloat, some will be productive and

of great benefit to the country; but it is Twenty-seven Miscellaneous Companies, seriously to be considered whether the Including

estimation of some of them in a money A London Brick Company,

view be not too high, and forced to an A Patent Brick Company,

undue price by the arts of jobbing : A London Marine Bath Company, A Royal National Bath Company,

Haste instantly and buy, cries one A Great Westminster Milk Company,

Real Del Monte shares, fur none

Will hold a richer profit ; and

Another cries—No mining plan A Metropolitan Water Company.

Like ours—the Anglo-Mexican • An Alderney Dairy Company,

As for Del Monte, scoff it. A Metropolitan Alderney Dairy Com

This grasps my button, and declares pany, A South London Milk Company,

There's nothing like Columbian shares, An East London Milk Company,

The capital a million ;

That, cries La Plata's sure to pay ; A Metropolitan Milk Company.

Or bids me buy without delay

Hibernian or Brazilian. A correspondent in the “ London Magazine " declares, that“ if we named the se 'Scaped from the torments of the mine, veral divisions of the year after the French

Rivals in Gas, an endless line,

Arrest me as I travel; revolutionary fashion, by the phenomena observable in them, we should, from our

Each sure my suffrage to receive,

If I will only give him leave, experience of January, 1825, call it

His project to unravel. Bubblose-it has been a month of most flagitious and flourishing knavery." He

By Fire and Life insurers next pleasantly assumes that Mr. Jeremiah I'm intercepted, pester’d, vex'd, Hop-the-twig, attorney at law, benevo Almost beyond endurance ;

And though the schemes appear unsound, lently conceives the idea of directing

Their advocates are seldom found “sui plus capital ” to the formation of “a

Deficient in assurance. joint stock company for the outfit of air-balloons, the purchase of herds of

Last I am worried, shares to buy

lu the Canadian company, swine, and the other requisites for a flou

The Milk Association, rishing lunar commerce; Capital One

The Laundry-men who wash by steam, Million, divided into 10,000 shares of

Rail-ways, Pearl-fishing, or the scherne, 1001. each.” The method is then related For Island Navigation. of opening an account with a respectable

New Monthly Mag. banking-house, obtaining respectable directors, appointing his son-in-law the respectable secretary, the son of a respected director the respectable standing counsel, Stalkless moss. Phascum muticum. and the self-nomination of the respectable Mr. Jeremiah H. and Co. as the respectable solicitors. Afterwards come the

January 25. means of raising the bubble, to the admiration of proper persons who pay a de- Holiday at the Public Officer ; except the Excise,

Stamps, and Customs. posit of 5l. per share; who, when the shares “ look down,” try to sell, but there CONVERSION OF St. Paul. Sts. Juvenare “no buyers,” the “quotations are tinus and Maximinus, A. D. 363. St. nominal;" a second instalment called Projectus, A. D. 674. St. Poppo, A. D. for, the holders hesitate ; “ their shares 1048. St. Apollo, A. V. 393. St. are forfeited;" the speculation is conse Publius, a. D. 369.


In an

wars :

The Conversion of St. Paul.

will be pretty hard to find out.” This is a festival in the calendar of the ancient Romish calendar, much used by church of England, as well as in that of Brand, the vigil of St. Paul is called the Romish church.

Dies Ægyptiacus;" and he confesses his ignorance of any reason for calling it

“ an Egyptian-day.” Mr. Fosbroke exSt. Paul's Day.

plains, from a passage in Ducange, that

it was so called because there were two On this day prognostications of the unlucky days in every month, and St. months were drawn for the whole year. Paul's vigil was one of the two in If fair and clear, there was to be plenty; January. if cloudy or misty, much cattle would die; Dr. Forster notes, that the festival of if rain or snow fell then it presaged a the conversion of St. Paul has always dearth; and if windy, there would be been reckoned ominous of the future wea

ther of the year, in various countries re

mote from each other. If Saint Paul's Day be fair and clear. It does betide a happy year ;

According to Schenkius, cited by Brand, But if it chance to snow or rain,

it was a custom in many parts of GerThen will be dear all kinds of grain : many, to drag the images of St. Paul and If clouds or mists do dark the skie,

St. Urban to the river, if there was foul
Great store of birds and beasts shall die; weather on their festival,
And if the winds do fly aloft,
Then wars shall vex the kingdome oft.

Willsford's Nature's Secrets.

St. Paul's day being the first festival of These prognostications are Englished an apostle in the year, it is an opportunity from an ancient calendar: they have for alluding to the old, ancient, English likewise been translated by Gay, who custom, with sponsors, or visitors at enjoins,

christenings, of presenting spoons, called Let no such vulgar tales debase thy mind, apostle-spoons, because the figures of Nor Paul nor Swithin rule the clouds and the twelve apostles were chased, or carved wind.

on the tops of the handles. Brand cites The latter lines are allusive to the

several authors to testify of the practice.

Persons who could afford it gave the set popular superstitions, regarding these

of twelve; others a smaller number, and days, which were before remarked by bishop Hall, who observes of a person

a poor person offered the gift of one, with under such influences, that “ St. Paule's

the figure of the saint after whom the day, and St. Swithine's, with the twelve,

child was named, or to whom the child are' his oracles, which he dares believe saint of the good-natured donor.

was dedicated, or who was the patron against the almanacke.” It will be recollected that “ the twelve" are twelve

Ben Jonson, in his Bartholomew Fair, days of Christmastide, mentioned on a

has a character, saying, “ And all this far preceding day as believed by the ignorant and a cup to eat caudle in.”.

the hope of a couple of apostle-spoons,

In the to denote the weather throughout the

Chaste Maid of Cheapside, by Middleton, year. Concerning this day,Bourne says.


Gossipinquires, “What has he given it came to have this particular knack of her ? What is it, Gossip?" Whereto the foretelling the good or ill fortune of the

answer of another“ Gossip" is, “A faire following year

no easy matter to find high-standing cup, and two great postleout. The monks, who were undoubtedly and Fletcher, likewise, in the Noble

spoons-one of them gilt." Beaumont the first who made this wonderful obser

Gentleman, say: vation, have taken care it should be handed down to posterity ; but why, or for

“ I'll be a Gossip. Bewford, what reason, they have taken care to con

I have an odd apostle-spoon." ceal. St. Paul did indeed labour more The rarity and antiquity of apostleabundantly than all the apostles; but spoons render them of considerable value never that I heard in the science of as as curiosities. A complete set of twelve trology: and why this day should there is represented in the sketch on the fore be a standing almanac to the world, opposite page, from set of the rather than the day of any other saiat, spoons themselves on the writer's table


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The apostles on this set of spoons are enings, or on visiting the “ lady in the somewhat worn, and the stems and straw;" though they are not now adorned bowls have been altered by the silver with imagery. smith in conformity with the prevailing fashion of the present day; to the eye of Winter hellebore. Helleborus hyemalis. the antiquary, therefore, they are not so interesting as they were before they un

January 26. derwent this partial modernization : yet in this state they are objects of regard.

St. Polycarp. St. Paula. St. Conan, Their size in the print is exactly that of On winter comes—the cruel north the spoons themselves, except that the Pours his furious whirlwind forth stems are necessarily fore-shortened in Before him—and we breathe the breath the engraving to get them within the Of famish'd bears, that howl to death : page. The stem of each spoon measures Onward he comes from rocks that blanch exactly three inches and a half in length O'er solid streams that never flow, from the foot of the apostle to the com

His tears all ice, his locks all snow, mencement of the bowl ; the length of Just crept from some huge avalanche. Incog. each bowl is two inches and nine-sixteenths of an inch; and the height of

M. M. M. a traveller in Russia, comeach apostle is one inch and one-six- municates, through the Gentleman's Mateenth : the entire length of each spoon is gazine of 1785, a remarkable method of seven inches and one-eighth of an inch. cultivating bees, and preserving them from They are of silver; the lightest, which is their housebreakers, the bears. The RusSt. Peter, weighs 1 oz. 5 dwts. 9 gr.; the sians of Borodskoe, on the banks of the heaviest is St. Bartholomew, and weighs river Ufa, deposit the hives within exca1 oz. 9 dwts. 4 gr.; their collective weight vations that they form in the hardest, is 16 oz. 14 dwts. 16 gr. The hat, or fat strongest, and loftiest trees of the forest, covering, on the head of each figure, is at about five-and-twenty or thirty feet usual to apostles-spoons, and was pro- high from the ground, and even higher, if bably affixed to save the features from the height of the trunk allows it. They effacement. In a really fine state they hollow out the holes lengthways, with are very rare.

small narrow hatchets, and with chisels It seems from “ the Gossips," a poem and gouges complete their work. The by Shipman, iu 1666, that the usage of longitudinal aperture of the hive is stopped giving apostle-spoons' at christenings, by a cover of two or more pieces exactly was at that time on the decline :

fitted to it, and pierced with small holes, “ Formerly, when they us'd to troul, to give ingress and egress to the bees. Gilt bowls of sack, they gave the bowl ; No means can be devised more ingenious Two spoons at least; an use ill kept ; or more convenient for climbing the high"Tis well if now our own be left."

est and the smoothest trees than those An anecdote is related of Shakspeare practised by this people, for the construcand Ben Jonson, which bears upon the tion and visitation of these hives. For usage: Shakspeare was godfather to one this purpose they use nothing but a very of Jonson's children, and, after the christ- sharp axe, a leathern strap, or a common ening, being in deep study, Jonson cheer- rope. The man places himself against ingly asked him, why he was so melan- the trunk of the tree, and passes the cord choly? “ Ben," said he, “ I have been round his body and round the tree, just considering a great while what should be leaving it sufficient play for casting it the fittest gift for me to bestow upon my higher and higher, by jerks, towards the godchild, and I have resolved it at last. elevation he desires to attain, and there to "I prithee, what?" said Ben, “ l' faith, place his body, bent as in a swing, his Ben," answered Shakspeare, “ I'll give feet resting against the tree, and preservhim a dozen good latten spoons, and thou ing the free use of his hands. This done, shalt translate them.” The word latten, he takes his axe, and at about the height intended as a play upon latin, is the name of his body makes the first notch or step for thin iron tinned, of which spoons, and in the tree; then he takes his rope, the similar small articles of household use, are two ends whereof he takes care to have sometimes made. Without being aware tied very fast, and throws it towards the of the origin, it is still a custom with top of the trunk. Placed thus in his rope many persons, to present spoons at christ- by the middle of his body, and resting

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