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each side of the rear of every train, as markers, to indicate the rear of the train:

By day, green flags; by night, green lights to the front and side and red lights to the rear; except when the train is clear of the main track, when green lights must be displayed to the front, side, and rear.

20. All sections except the last will display two green flags, and in addition, two green lights by night, in the places provided for that purpose on the front of the engine.

21. Extra trains will display two white flags and in addition, two white lights by night, in the places provided for that purpose on the front of the engine.

22. When two or more engines are coupled, the leading engine only shall display the signals as prescribed by Rules 20 and 21.

23. One flag or light displayed where in Rules 19, 20, and 21 two are prescribed will indicate the same as two; but the proper display of all train signals is required.

24. When cars are pushed by an engine (except when shifting or making up trains in yards), a white light must be displayed on the front of the leading car by night.

25. Each car on a passenger train must be connected with the engine by a communicating signal appliance.

26. A blue flag by day and a blue light by night, displayed at one or both ends of an engine, car, or train, indicates that workmen are under or about it. When thus protected it must not be coupled to or moved. Workmen will display the blue signals and the same workmen are alone authorized to remove them. Other cars must not be placed on the same track, so as to intercept the view of the blue signals, without first notifying the workmen.

Use of Signals

27. A signal imperfectly displayed, or the absence of a signal at a place where a signal is usually shown, must be regarded as a stop signal, and the fact reported to the

28. A combined green and white signal is to be used to stop a train only at the flag stations indicated on its schedule. When it is necessary to stop a train at a point that is not a flag station on its schedule, a red signal must be used.

29. When a signal (except a fixed signal) is given to stop a train, it must, unless otherwise provided, be acknowledged as prescribed by Rule 14 (g) or (h).

30. The engine-bell must be rung when an engine is about to move.

31. The engine-bell must be rung on approaching. every public road crossing at grade, and until it is passed; and the whistle must be sounded at all whistling-posts.

32. The unnecessary use of either the whistle or the bell is prohibited. They will be used only as prescribed by rule or law, or to prevent accident.

33. Watchmen stationed at public road and street crossings must use red signals only when necessary to stop trains.

Superiority of Trains 71. A train is superior to another train by right, class, or direction. Right is conferred by train order; class, and direction by time-table.

Right is superior to class or direction.

Direction is superior as between trains of the same class.

72. Trains of the first class are superior to those of the second; trains of the second class are superior to those of the third; and so on.

Trains in the direction specified by the time-table are superior to trains of the same class in the opposite direction.

73. Extra trains are inferior to regular trains.

Movement of Trains 82. Time-table schedules, unless fulfilled, are in effect for 12 hours after their time at each station.

Regular trains 12 hours behind either their schedule arriving or leaving time at any station lose both right and schedule, and can thereafter proceed only as authorized by train order.

83. A train must not leave its initial station on any division (or sub-division); or a junction, or pass from double to single track, until it has been ascertained whether all trains due, which are superior or of the same class, have arrived or left.

84. A train must not start until the proper signal is given.

85. When a train of one schedule is on the time of another schedule of the same class in the same direction, it will proceed on its own schedule.

Trains of one schedule may pass trains of another schedule of the same class, and extras may pass and run ahead of extras.

86. An inferior train must clear the time of a superior train in the same direction, not less than five minutes; but must be clear at the time a first-class train, in the same direction, is due to leave the next station in the rear where time is shown.

87. An inferior train must keep out of the way of opposing superior trains and failing to clear the main track by the time required by rule must be protected as prescribed by Rule 99.

Extra trains must clear the time of regular trains - minutes unless otherwise provided, and will be governed by train orders with respect to opposing extra trains.

88. At meeting points between trains of the same class, the inferior train must clear the main track before the leaving time of the superior train.

At meeting points between extra trains, the train in the inferior time-table direction must take the siding unless otherwise provided.

Trains must pull into the siding when practicable; if necessary to back in the train must first be protected as prescribed by Rule 99, unless otherwise provided.

89. At meeting points between trains of different classes the inferior train must take the siding and clear the superior train at least five minutes, and must pull into the siding when practicable. If necessary to

back in the train must first be protected as prescribed by Rule 99, unless otherwise provided.

NOTE TO RULES 88 AND 89.—The Committee recommends that where greater clearance is necessary, Rule 88 should require a clearance of FIVE minutes, and Rule 89 of TEN minutes.

90. Trains must stop at schedule meeting stations, if the train to be met is of the same class, unless the switch is right and the track clear.

When the expected train of the same class is not found at the schedule meeting station, the superior train must approach all sidings prepared to stop, until the expected train is met.

Trains must stop clear of the switch used by the train to be met in going on the siding.

91. Unless some form of block signals is used, trains in the same direction must keep at least five minutes apart, except in closing up at stations.

NOTE TO RULE 91.—The Committee recommends, that where greater clearance is necessary, Rule No. 01 should allow a clearance of TEN minutes or more.

92. A train must not arrive at a station in advance of its schedule arriving time.

A train must not leave a station in advance of its schedule leaving time.

93. Within yard limits the main track may be used, protecting against — class trains. — class and extra trains must move within yard limits, prepared to stop unless the main track is seen or known to be clear.

94. A train which overtakes another train so disabled that it cannot proceed will pass it, if practicable,

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