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with regard to the cardinal 'doctrine of Justification by faith. The language which he ascribes to Jeremy Taylor, concerning abatements for unavoidable infirmities how cast into the ac
counts of the Cross,' is such as we should not have expected to meet with from any Protestant that had not stood godfather to two of mother Rome's own children, at the baptismal font at wbich ber own priests presided, and himself adored the Pope's toe. Io Mr. Evelyn's religious sentiments at this period, however, there is visible that strong tincture both of the theology and of the superstition of Rome, which characterised the Church of Eng. landism of the times. It was natural, therefore, that from Sectarianism and Independency he should recoil with instinctive aversion ; especially, connected as they were, in his mind, with civil disorder as well as ecclesiastical insubordination. Mr. Evelyn was not an illiberal man : his prejudices were strong, because his information was deficient, while his feelings were warm. His attachment to the Church of England proceeded froin his piety; it was not the substitute for it: and his very superstition was connected with a certain simplicity of mind. How is it possible to judge more harshly of a man in whose private diary we find it noted, that “there was much envy and uncharity in the world—God of his mercy amend it !'
One cannot but smile at the proof which is given of the sharpness of the persecution against the Clergy, Dr. Wild preaching to a great meeting in a private house in Fleet-street, and the Liturgy being used at St. Gregory's by connivance of the Ruling Powers! A persecution of a very different quality of sharpness was subsequently set on foot, when those who afterwards became the Ruling Powers, took up the work of suppressing conventicles in right earnest. But of this, Mr. Evelyn is not the journalist. No justification, however, can be offered of the infringement of religious liberty to which Cromwell lent his authority; and the issue shewed that it was not less impolitic than it was unrighteous. We see how it alienated from the Goveroment some of the most virtuous members of the community, and gave a sanctity to what was in itself a po. litical cause, while it afforded the most plausible pretext for the retaliation it was certain sooner or later to provoke. There is reason to believe that Cromwell was very far from being personally infected with the spirit of intolerance; and he appears to have been tardy in giving into the evil policy of laying restrictions upon the Episcopal clergy; but the edicts in question must be considered as a foul stain, perhaps the greatest stain, upon his administration of the sovereignty. Of this unjustifiable interference with the rights of conscience, there is given the following instance.
• 1657. 25 Dec. I went to London with my wife, to celebrate
Christmas day, Mr. Gunning preached in Exeter Chapell, on 7 Michah, 2. Sermon ended, as he was giving us ye Holy Sacrament, the chapell was surrounded with souldiers, and all the communicants and assembly surpriz'd and kept prisoners by them, some in the house, others carried away. It fell to my share to be confin'd to a roome in the house, where yet I was permitted to dine with the master of it, ye Countesse of Dorset, Lady Hatton, and some others of quality who invited me. In the afternoone came Col. Whaly, Goffe, and others, from White-hall, to examine us one by one; some they committed to ye Marshall, some to prison. When I came before them they tooke my name and abode, examin’d me why, contrarie to an ordinance made that none should any longer observe ye superstitious time of the Nativity (so esteem'd by them), I durst offend, and par. ticularly be at Common Prayers, which they told me was but ye masse in English, and particularly pray for Charles Steuart, for which we had no Scripture. I told them we did not pray for Cha. Steuart, but for all Christian kings, princes, and governors. They replied, in so doing we praied for the K. of Spaine too, who was their enemie and a papist, with other frivolous and ensnaring questions and much threatning; and finding no colour to detaine me, they dismiss'd me with much pitty of my ignorance. These were men of high Aight and above ordinances, and spake spiteful things of our Lord's Nativity. As we went up to receive the Sacrament, the miscreants held their muskets against us as if they would have shot us at the altar, but yet suffering us to finish the office of Communion, as perhaps not having instructions what to do in case they found us in that action. So I got home late the next day, blessed be God.'
If Mr. Evelyn had not expressly affirmed that some of the audience were carried to prison, we should have been apt to suspect that the whole transaction was a wanton frolic of the officers, rather than an act emanating from the Governinent. They must have been strange orders indeed, under which the soldiers acted, that authorized them, if we understand Mr. Evelyn's expression, to level their muskets at the persons assembled, but left them in utter uncertainty what to do next, further than to stand by and let the service proceed. Nor was the conduct of the officers less singular, supposing that they had any other object than to divert themselves most un warrantably at the expense of the congregation. It is clear that there was precisely the same colour for detaining Mr. Evelyn that there was for detaining any other individual present, except the officiating clergyman, whose fate is not mentioned; and yet, after a sort of mock examination, (for the charge of praying for the King of Spain must surely have been a jest,) he is dismissed with an affected commiseration of bis ignorance! ! It is a great pity Mr. Evelyn has not let us know what became of Mr. Gunning, as well as of the individuals who were committed to prison,--how many were so committed, how long they lay there, and what was the means or price of their discharge. It
could not surely be the case, that Mr. E. never thought it worth while to inquire further about the matter. To us, we confess, it appears extremely doubtful whether any of the party were sent to prison at all. There is a looseness in the whole narration, which shews how much the Writer suffered himself to take for granted, as to that part of the affair which did not immediately involve bimself. In any point of view, however, the disturbance created by the soldiers, was a very nefarious aggression. If it was dictated by the wish to intimidate, and the officers really acted in pursuance of state orders, it was one of those half-measures which tend to throw useless discredit on the Government that has recourse to them; and the affair would serve to shew the folly of enactments of which policy and humanity alike forbid the carrying into effect. Those who had the management of such matters in the reign of Charles IJ. knew better than to deal in half-measures : their pity of the ignorance they undertook to enlighten, demonstrated itself in a somewhat different way.
The Annus Mirabilis was just at hand. On the 3rd of September of the ensuing year, died that arch rebell Oliver • Cromwell, cald Protector.' Mr. Evelyn witnessed his superb funeral; "the joyfullest,' he says, ' I ever saw, for there were none that cried but dogs, which the soldiers hooted away with a barbarous noise, drinking and taking tobacco in the streetes
as they went.' Had Cromwell been the most legitimate inheritor of royalty that ever wore a crown, the dogs, we suppose, would not have made less noise, nor the soldiers have made less merry with drink and tobacco on the occasion of the pageant. We transcribe the brief references which are made to the subsequent political changes, and to the part which Mr. Evelyn bimself took in the Restoration.
• 1659. 25 April. A wonderfull and suddaine change in ye face of ye publiq; ye new Protector Richard slighted; several pretenders and parties strive for ye government: all anarchy and confusion; Lord have mercy on us !!
• 29 May. The Nation was now in extreame confusion and unsettl'd, between the Armies and the Sectaries, the poor Church of England breathing as it were her last, so sad a face of things had overspread us.'
• 11 Oct. The Armie now turn'd out the Parliam'. We had now no Government in the Nation : all in confusion; no magistrate either own’d or pretended but ye Souldiers, and they not agreed. God Almighty have mercy on us and settle us !!
•7 Nov. Was published my bold Apologie for the King in this time of danger, when it was capital to speake or write in favour of him. It was twice printed, so universaly it took.'
• 10 Dec. I treated privately with Col. Morley, then Lieutenant of the Tower, and in greate trust and power, concerning delivering it to ye King and the bringing of him in, to the greate hazard of my life, but ye Col. had been my scholefellow, and I knew would not betray me.
• 12. I spent in publiq concerns for his Majesty, pursuing the point to bring over Coll. Morley, and his brother in law Fay, Governor of Portsmouth.
• ANNUS MIRABILIS 1660. Jan. 12. Wrote to Col. Morley againe to declare for his Majesty.
• 22. I went this afternoone to visit Coll. Morley. After dinner I discours’d with him, but he was very jealous, and would not believe Monk came in to do the King any service; I told him he might do it without him, and have all the honour. He was still doubtfull, and would resolve on nothing yet, so I tooke leave.'
* 3 Feb. Kept ye Fast. General Monk came now to London out of Scotland, but no man knew what he would do, or declare, yet he was met on all his way by the Gentlemen of all the Counties which he pass’d, with petitions that he would recall the old long interrupted Parliament, and settle the nation in some order, being at this time in most prodigious confusion and under no government, every body expecting what would be next and what he would do.
10. Now were the gates of the Citty broken down by Gen'. Monke, which exceedingly exasperated the Citty, the Souldiers marching up and down as triumphing over it, and all the old army of the phanatics put out of their posts, and sent out of towne.
• 11. A signal day. Monk, perceiving how infamous and wretched a pack of knaves would have still usurped the supreame power, and having intelligence that they intended to take away his commission, repenting of what he had don to ye Citty, and where he and his forces quartered, marches to White-hall, dissipates that nest of robbers, and convenes the old Parliament, the Rump Parliament (so calld as retaining some few rotten members of ye other) being dissolv'd; and for joy whereoff were many thousand of rumps roasted publiqly in ye streetes at the bonfires this night, with ringing of bells and universal jubilee. This was the first good omen.'
"3 May. Came the most happy tidings of his Majesty's gracious declaration and applications to the Parliament, Generall, and People, and their dutiful acceptance and acknowledgment, after a most bloudy and unreasonable rebellion of neere 20 years. Praised be for ever the Lord of Heaven, who onely doeth wondrous things, because His mercy endureth for ever!
• 8. This day was his Majestie proclaim'd in London, &c.
" 24. Came to me Col. Morley, about procuring his pardon, now too late seeing his error and neglect of the counsel I gave him, by which if he had taken it he had certainly done ye great work with ye same ease that Monk did it, who was then in Scotland, and Morley in a post to have done what he pleas'd, but his jealousie and feare kept
a him from that blessing and honor. I address'd him to Lord More daunt, then in greate favour, for his pardon, wil he obtain'd at the cost of 10001, as I heard. O ye selfish omission of this gentleman ! what did I not undergo of danger in this negotiation, to have brought him over to his Majesty's interest, when it was intirely in his hands."
The active part which Mr. Evelyn took in this business, is almost the oply instance of his busying himself in political affairs. A detailed account of his communications with Col. Morley, is given in the Appendix, Morley had much in his power : as Lieutenant of the Tower, he was absolute master of the city; he was Lieutenant of the confederate counties of Sussex, Surrey, Hampshire, &c.; his brother-in-law was Governor of Portsmouth, and bis own brother, Governor of Arundel castle. But his fatal diffidence of Monk, who at that time was not suspected of having any design to bring in the King, if indeed he had conceived the project, is assigned as the reason of Morley's vacillating and temporizing conduct. The knowledge of Morley's sentiments, however, had no doubt some influence on Monk's decision, whose task was in fact one which required little cunning and involved little difficulty. Finding how the people and . magistrates were disposed,' says the MSS. account drawn up by Sir Thomas Clarges, ' (whatever bis general intentions were,
or first seemed to be,) he boldly and fortunately brought to 6 pass that noble Revolution, following it to his eternal honour
by restoring a banished Prince and the People's freedom.' We again transcribe from Mr. Evelyn's diary.
• 29 May. This day his Majestie Charles the Second came to London, after a sad and long exile and calamitous suffering both of the King and Church, being 17 yeares. This was also his birthday, and with a triumph of above 20,000 horse and foote, brandishing their swords and shouting with inexpressible joy; the wayes strew'd with flowers, the bells ringing, the streetes hung with tapissry, fountaines running with wine; the Maior, Aldermen, and all the Companies in their liveries ; chaines of gold and banners ; Lords and Nobles clad in cloth of silver, gold, and velvet; the windows and balconies all set with ladies; trumpets, music, and myriads of people flocking, even so far as from Rochester, so as they were seven houres in passing the Citty, even from 2 in ye afternoone till 9 at night.
• I stood in the Strand and beheld it, and bless’d God. And all this was don without one drop of bloud shed, and by that very army which rebell'd against him; but it was ye Lord's doing, for such a Restauration was never mention'd in any history antient or modern, since the returne of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity ; nor so joyfull a day and so bright ever scene in this Nation, this hapning when to expect or effect it was past all human policy:
Mr. Evelyn's parallel is quite in the taste of the times; and some extravagance of expression may reasonably be allowed to the first paroxysms of joy wbich the re-establishment of a settled government, the anticipated gratitude and moderation of
Vol. XIV. N. S.