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The many accidents by fire, which have happened in this neighbourhood, have constantly been the means of addi

abbot of Waltam, at the wich masse did offer, for a masse penny, the Lord Ros a crowne of gold, and no man els; the wiche masse fynyschid, the abbot, with them of the quyer, came and buried the body in his chappell, under a tombe of whyte marbell, wiche both hit and the chappell were founded by hym, and it stondeth on the southe syde of the quyre of the sayde churche : and that service ended, the masse of the Trynytye was songin by the foresaid suffragans; and at the offerynge, the Lord Ros offered 3s. 4d.; and when the morners had offered, brought hym to his place agen, each of them offered 4d. ; wich offryng and masse doon incontynent, the masse of requiem was begon, songen by the bushop of London, the suffragan, gospiler, and the abbot, Pistoler; and when it came to the offryng, the Lord Ros offred 6s. 8d. ; and after that the cotte of armes was offred by Sir Olyver Manners and Sir Francis Lovel, knyghts, and morners; and bycause there was nobler men in the lyverey of blak present then the other morners were, hit was advysed by garter and clarenceulx to desier them to offer the other hachements, wiche was doon; and after all that was doon and offred, they were sent on the aulterende as accustumed, and then offred; all the other morners offred accordyngly; and next after them came the lord steward erl of Shrewsbury, havyng the maior of London on his lefte arme, and the said lord steward caused the said lord maior to offre affore him; after them offrid lord of Saynt John's, Sir Henry and Sir Edward Guldeford, with many other noblemen, and crafts of London, with gentilmen, and his own servaunts; wiche offryng done, there was a sermond made by Doctor William Goderick; and the sermond finisched, and the masse, at the gospell of Seynt John, when he said, et verbum caro factum est, the banner of his armes was offrid; and all things full fynyshid, every man went to dynner: and thus endid the seremonies doon at the buryall of the most noble knyght Sir Thomas Lovell, banneret and knyght of the most noble order of the garter-on whose soule God pardon.


Item. It is to be remembered, that the day that he came from Enfyld to Holywell, ther folowed a carte with ale and torches, for to refresche the poore people; and the torches were often renued by the way.

Item. There was every day whiles he was at Enfield, two hundred poore folks, and them that had pense apece, and bread and meat.

Item. There was said the day of his buriall at Holiwell one hundred and forty masses.

Item. There was servid that day, to people that were there, four hundred messes of mete and above."

tional improvement; not that the effect can compensate the cause.

This induces us to add, that on part of the site which oc. casioned the litigation between the rectors of St. Michael and St. Peter, as before mentioned, stands THE IMPERIAL FIRE OFFICE. The undoubted responsibility of the company to which this office belongs is a capital of one million, two hundred thousand pounds sterling, subscribed in shares of 500. each, and no member is a subscriber for more than 50001.

When any loss or damage has been duly proved, the company pay the amount without any discount or other deduce tion whatever; and cheerfully propose paying all expences attending the removal of goods, &c. from houses or premises adjoining those on fire.

We have been diffuse upon these useful and public minded establishments, considering them worthy of praise adequate to the vast and essential benefits they produce.

LEADENHALL STREET is a continuation of Cornhill towards the east, and the first object of notice is the site of the struc. ture whence it takes its name. LEADENHALL, an antient fabric, one side of which stood in the front of the street, within memory, but now forming a handsome row of houses, antiently constituted a manor, which, in 1309, belonged to Sir Hugh Nevil, knt. lady Alice, his widow, made a feoffment thereof, by the name of Leadenhall, to Richard earl of Arundel and Surrey, in 1362. After his attainder and cruel execution, at which Richard II. was a malicious witness, this estate reverted to the family of Nevil; for in 1380, Alice, widow of Sir John Nevil, knt. of Essex, confirmed the manor to Thomas Cogshall and others; in 1384, it was part of the possessions of Humfrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, who had married Joan, daughter of the attainted earl of Arundel, by whom he had two daughters, Eleanor, married to Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and Mary, wife to Henry duke of Lancaster, afterwards Henry IV.

It seems that this manor had been disposed of by De Bohun; for in 1408, Robert Ripeden, of Essex, and Margaret his wife, confirmed to Richard Whittington and other citizens of Vol. II, No. 33,



London, the said manor, with all its attingent advowsons and appurtenances; and in the year 1411, Sir Richard Whittington and others, transferred the premises to the mayor and commonalty.

Having thus come into the possession of the citizens, it was converted into a common granary; and in 1443, licence was given by purchase from Henry VI. to John Hatherley, mayor, by which he was empowered to take up two hundred fodder of lead for building of water-conduits, a granary, and the cross in Westcheap, more richly for the honour of the city. But in the following year, a truly liberal magistrate stepped forward ; and with a munificence only equalled by his piety, rendered to the city an essential and praise-worthy benefaction. Sir Simon Eyre formed the whole site into a spacious granary, against all cases of scarcity.

For this use it was appropriated till the reign of Henry VIII. Previously to the creation of this granary, it was customary for the inhabitants of Stratford-le-Bow, to bring bread to places appointed, where it was disposed of every day except Sabbaths and holidays; the penny wheaten loaf being two ounces heavier than what was sold in the city. The bread was brought in long carts, and their stations were, three carts in Cheap, from the end of Gutter Lane to the end of Foster Lane; one near the conduit in Cornhill; and one in Gracechurch Street *. An exemplary punishment was in


* An act of philanthrophy which has been before hinted at in the preceding history, is worthy of more particular detail under this article. Sir Roger Acheley, mayor, in 1512, when he entered into his mayoralty, found not an hundred quarters of wheat in all the city, its liberties, and neighbourhood ; the scarcity indeed, was so great,th at when the Stratford bakers came into the city, they were in danger of their lives from the great pressure of the famished populace. But, to his lasting honour be it recorded, Sir Roger made such immediate and effectual exertions, for ample supply, that the wheat came in amazing quantities, so as to weary both the London and Stratford bakers by their labour in housing it, at the same time that he compelled them to take inore than they were willing. What remained, the mayor purchased, and stowed it in Leaden


flicted by Richard Reffeham, mayor, in the reign of Edward II. on a baker named John of Stratford, for making bread less than the assize. The culprit was placed on a hurdle, his head ornamented by a fool's hood, and the deficient loaves hung round his neck ; thus decorated, he was drawn through the streets of the city. The Stratford bakers left their former occupation in 1568.

To return to our subject. By the memorial that was presented to the mayor and commonalty in 1519, it is evident, that this place had degenerated from its primary design. This is proved from the purport of the following memorial, which also recites the antient and accustomed uses to which the fabric was appropriated :

“ Meekly beseeching, Sheweth unto your good lordship, and masterships, divers and many citizens of this city, which, with your favours, under correction, think, that the great place called the Leadenhall, should, nor ought not to be let to farm, to any person or persons, and especially to any fellowship or company incorporate, to have and hold the same hall for term of years, for such inconveniencies as thereby may ensue, and come to the hurt of the cominon-weal of the said city, in time to come, as somewhat more largely may appear in the articles hereafter following:

“ First, If any assembly, or hasty gathering of the commons of the said city, for oppressing or subduing of misruled people within the said city, hereafter shall happen to be called or commanded by the mayor, aldermen, and other governors, and counsellors of the said city, for the time being ; there is none so convenient, meet, and necessary a place to assemble in, within the said city, as the said Leadenhall, both for largeness of room, and for their sure defence

hall, and the other city granaries. The benevolence of this excellent magistrate went farther; he kept the market so well, that he was constantly at Leadenhall, at four o'clock in the morning, during the summer, whence he proceeded to the other markets, and imposed such regularity, that the year of his mayoralty was a year of comfort to his sellow citizens. Such actions may be recorded; because they are seldom imitated.

in time of their counselling together about the premises. Also, in that place have been used the artillery guns, and other common armour of the said city, to be safely kept in readiness, for the safeguard, wealth, and defence of the said city, to be had and occupied at times when need required ; as also the store of timber, for the necessary reparations of the tenements belonging to the chamber of the said city, there commonly hath been kept.

Item, If any triumph or noblesse were to be done or shewed by the commonalty of the said city, for the honour of our sovereign lord the king, and realm, and for the worship of the city; the said Leadenhall is the most meet and convenient place to prepare and order the said triumph therein, and from thence to issue forth to the places therefore appointed.

Item, If any largesse or dole of any money, made unto the poor people of this city, by or after the death of any worshipful person within the said city, it hath been used to be done and given in the said Leadenhall for that the said place is most meet therefore.

" Item, The honourable father, that was maker of the said Leadenhall, had a special will, intent, and mind, as it is commonly said, that the market men and women, that came to the city with victuals and other things, should have their freestanding within the said Leadenhall, in wet weather, to keep themselves and their wares dry; and thereby to encourage them, and all others, to have the better will and desire the more plenteously to resort to the said city, to victual the same: and, if the said hall should be let to farm, the will of the said honourable father should never be fulfilled, nor take effect.

Item, If the said place, which is the chief fortress, and most necessary place within all the city, for the tuition and safeguard of the same, should be let to farm, out of the hands of the chief heads of the same city, and especially to any other body politic, it might at length by likelihoods be occasion of discord and debate, between the said bodies politic—which God defend. “ For these, and many other great and reasonable causes,

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