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con would chill the principles of life, and destroy | Tully has observed that a lamb no sooner falls from the young one, she grows more assiduous in her at- its mother, but immediately and of its own accord tendance, and stays away but half the time. When it applies itself to the teat. Dampier, in his Travels, the birth approaches, with how much nicety and tells us, that when seamen are thrown upon any of attention does she help the chick to break its prison ! the unknown coasts of America, they never venture dot to take notice of her covering it from the inju- upon the fruit of any tree, how tempting soever it ries of the weather, providing it proper nourishment, may appear, unless they observe that it is marked and teaching it to help itself; not to mention her for- with the pecking of birds; but fall on without any saking the nest, if after the usual time of reckoning fear or appression where the birds have been bethe young one does not make its appearance. Afore them. chemical operation could not be followed with greater But notwithstanding animals have nothing like art or diligence, than is seen in the hatching of a the use of reason, we find in them all the lower chiek; though there are many birds that shew an parts of our nature, the passions and senses, in their infinitely greater sagacity in all the forementioned greatest strength and perfection. And here it is particulars.
worth our observation, that all beasts and birds of But at the same time the hen, that has all this prey are wonderfully subject to anger, malice, reseeming ingenuity (which is indeed absolutely neces- venge, and all the other violent passions that may sary for the propagation of the species), considered animate them in search of their proper food : as in other respects, is without the least glimmering of those that are incapable of defending themselves, or thought or common sense. She mistakes a piece of annoying others, or whose safety lies chiefly in their chalk for an egg, and sits upon it in the same man- fight, are suspicious, fearful, and apprehensive of ner. She is insensible of any increase or diminu- every thing they see or hear; whilst others that are tion in the number of those she lays. She does not of assistance and use to man, have their natures softdistinguish between her own and those of another ened with something mild and tractable, and by that species; and when the birth appears of never so means are qualified for a domestic life. In this case different a bird, will cherish it for her uwn. In all the passions generally correspond with the make of these circumstances, which do not carry an immedi- the body. We do not find the fury of a lion in so ate regard to the subsistence of herself or her spe- weak and defenceless an animal as a lamb: por the cies, she is a very idiot.
meekness of a lamb in a creature so armed for battle There is not, in my opinion, any thing more mys- and assault as the lion. In the same manner, we terious in nature than this instinct in animals, which find that particular animals have a more or less exthue rises above reason, and falls infinitely short of quisite sharpness and sagacity in those particular it. It cannot be accounted for by any properties in senses which most turn to their advantage, and in matter, and at the same time works after so odd a which their safety and welfare is the most concerned. manner, that one cannot think it the faculty of an Nor must we here omit that great variety of arms intellectual being. For my own part, I look upon with which nature has differently fortified the bodies it as upon the principle of gravitation in bodies, of several kinds of animals—such as claws, hoofs, which is not to be explained by any known qualities borns, teeth, and tusks, a tail, a sting, a trunk, or inherent in the bodies themselves, nor from the laws a proboscis. It is likewise observed by naturalists, of mechanism, but, according to the best notions of that it must be some hidden principle, distinct from the greatest philosophers, is an immediate impres- what we call reason, which instructs animals in the sion from the first mover, and the divine energy act- use of these their arms, and teaches them to manage ing .o the creatures.-L.
them to the best advantage; because they naturally
defend themselves with that part in which their No. 121.1 THURSDAY, JULY 19, 1711.
strength lies, before the weapon be formed in it: as
is remarkable in lambs, which, though they are bred Jovis omnia plena.-Viro. Ecl. iii. 66. within doors and never saw the actions of their own All things are full of Jove.
species, push at those who approach them with their As I was walking this morning in the great yard foreheads, before the first budding of a horn appears. that belongs to my friend's country house, I was I shall add to these general observations an inwonderfully pleased to see the different workings of stance, which Mr. Locke has given us, of Proviinstinct in a hen followed by a brood of ducks. The dence even in the imperfections of a creature which young, upon the sight of a pond, immediately ran seems the meanest and most despicable in the whole into it; while the step-mother, with all imaginary animal world.“ We may," says he," from the anxiety, hovered about the borders of it, to call them make of an oyster, or cockle, conclude, that it has out of an element that appeared to her so dangerous not so many nor so quick senses as a man, or seveand destructive. As the different principle which ral other animals ; nor if it had, would it, in that seted in these different animals cannot be termed state and incapacity of transferring itself from one * reason, so when we call it instinct, we mean some place to another, be bettered by them. What good thing we have no knowledge of. To me, as I hinted would sight and hearing do to a creature that cannot in my last paper, it seems the immediate direction move itself to or from the object, wherein at a disof Providence, and such an operation of the Supreme tance it perceives good or evil? And would not Being as that which determines all the portions of quickness of sensation be an inconvenience to an matter to their proper centres. A modern philo- animal that must be still where chance has once sophers quoted by Monsieur Bayle in his learned placed it, and there receive the afflux of colder or. dissertation on the Souls of Brutes, delivers the same warmer, clean or foul water, as it happens to come opinion, though in a bolder form of words, where he to it?" says, Deus est anima brutorum,“ God himself is the I shall add to this instance out of Mr. Locke, ansoul of brutes." Who can tell what to call that other out of the learned Dr. More, who cites it from seeming sagacity. in animals, which directs them to Cardan, in relation to another animal which Provisuch food as is proper for them, and makes them nadence has left defective, but at the same time has wrally avoid whatever is noxious or unwholesome ? shewn its wisdom in the formation of that organ in
which it seems chiefly to have failed. “What is more species of creatures which are not to be seen more obvious and ordinary than a mole; and yet without, nor indeed with, the help of the finest what more palpable argument of Providence than glasses, than of such as are bulky enough for the she ? the members of her body are so exactly fitted naked eye to take hold of. However, from the con o her nature and manner of life: for her dwelling sideration of such animals as lie within the compass being under ground where nothing is to be seen, of our knowledge, we might easily form a conclu. nature has so obscurely fitted her with eyes, that na- sion of the rest; that the same variety of wisdom and turalists can scarce agree whether she have any sight goodness runs through the whole creation, and puts at all, or no. But for amends, what she is capable every creature in a condition to provide for its safety of for her defence and warning of danger, she has and subsistence in its proper station. very eminently conferred upon her; for she is ex- Tully has given us an admirable sketch of natural ceeding quick of hearing. And then her short tail history, in his second book concerning the Nature and short legs, but broad fore-feet armed with short of the Gods; and that in a style so raised by metaclaws; we see by the event to what purpose they are, phors and descriptions, that it lifts the subject above she so swiftly working herself under ground, and raillery and ridicule, which frequently fall on such making her way so fast in the earth as they that be- nice observations when they pass through the hands hold it cannot but admire it. Her legs, therefore, of an ordinary writer.-L. are short, that she need dig no more than will serve the mere thickness of her body; and her fore-feet are broad, that she may scoop away much earth at a time; and little or no tail she has, because she No. 122.) FRIDAY, JULY 20, 1711. courses it not on the ground, like the rat or mouse, Comes Jucundus in via pro vehiculo est.-Publ. Syr. Frag. of whose kindred she is; but lives under the earth, An agreeable companion upon the road is as good as a coach. and is fain to dig herself a dwelling there. And she inaking her way through so thick an element, which A MAN's first care should be to avoid the rewill not yield easily, as the air or the water, it had proaches of his own heart; his next, to escape
the been dangerous to have drawn so long a train be- censures of the world. If the last interferes with the hind her; for her enemy might fall upon her rear, former, it ought to be entirely neglected; but otherand fetch her out, before she had completed or got wise there cannot be a greater satisfaction to an full possession of her works.”
honest mind, than to see those approbations which I cannot forbear mentioning Mr. Boyle's remark it gives itself, seconded by the applauses of the pubupon this last creature, who I remember somewhere lic. A man is more sure of his conduct, when the in his works observes, that though the mole be not verdict which he passes upon his own behaviour is totally blind (as it is commonly thought) she has not thus warranted and confirmed by the opinion of all sight enough to distinguish particular objects. Her that know him. eye is said to have but one humour in it, which is My worthy friend Sir Roger is one of those who supposed to give her the idea of light, but of nothing is not only at peace within himself, but beloved and else, and is so formed that this idea is probably pain-esteemed by all about him. He receives a suitable ful to the animal. Whenever she comes up into tribute for his universal benevolence to mankind, in broad day, she might be danger of being taken, the returns of affection and good-will which are paid unless she were thus affected by a light striking upon him by every one that lives in his neighbourhood. her eye, and immediately warning her to bury her. I lately met with two or three odd instances of that self in her proper element. More sight would be general respect which is shown to the good old useless to her, as none at all might be fatal. knight. He would needs carry Will Wimble and
I have only instanced such animals as seem the myself with him to the county assizes. As we were most imperfect works of nature ; and if Providence upon the road, Will Wimble joined a couple of plain shews itself even in the blemishes of these creatures, men who rid before us, and conversed with them for how much more does it discover itself in the several some time; during which my friend Sir Roger acendowments which it has variously bestowed upon quainted me with their characters. such creatures as are more or less finished and com- “ The first of them,” says he, “that has a spaniel pleted in their several faculties, according to the by his side, is a yeoman of about a hundred pounds condition of life in which they are posted.
a-year, an honest man. He is just within the gameI could wish our Royal Society would compile a act, and qualified to kill a hare or a pheasant. He body of natural history, the best that could be ga- knocks down a dinner with his gun twice or thrice thered together from books and observations. If the a week; and by that means lives much cheaper than several writers among them took each his particular those who have not so good an estate as himself. He species, and gave us a distinct account of its origi- would be a good neighbour if he did not destroy so nal, birth, and education ; its policies, hostilities, many partridges. In short, he is a very sensible and alliances, with the frame and texture of its in- man-shoots Aying and has been several times ward and outward parts, and particularly those that foreman of the petty-jury. distinguish it from all other animals, with their pe- “ The other that rides along with him is Tom culiar aptitudes for the state of being in which Pro- Touchy, a fellow famous for taking the law of vidence has placed them, it would be one of the best every body. There is not one in the town where he services their studies could do mankind, and not a lives that he has not sued at a quarter-sessions. The little redound to the glory of the all-wise Contriver. rogue had once the impudence to go to law with the
It is true, such a natural history, after all the widow. His head is full of costs, damages, and ejectdisquisitions of the learned, would be infinitely short ments. He plagued a couple of honest gentlemen and defective. · Seas and deserts hide millions of so long for a trespass in breaking one of his hedges, animals from our observation. Innumerable artifices till he was forced to sell the ground it enclosed to and stratagems are acted in the “howling wilder. defray the charges of the prosecution. His father ness” and in the “great deep,” that can never come left him fourscore pounds a year; but he has cast to our knowledge. Besides that there are infinitely and been cast so often, that he is not now worth
I suppose he is going upon the old business | few touches, and that he himself would be at the of the willow-tree."
charge of it. Accordingly they got a painter by the As Sir Roger was giving me this account of Tom knight's directions to add a pair of whiskers to the Touchy, Will Wimble and his two companions face, and by a little aggravation to the features to stopped short till we came up to them. After having change it to the Saracen’s Head. I should not have paid their respects to Sir Roger, Will told him that known this story, had not the inn-keeper, upon Sir Mr. Touchy and he must appeal to him upon a dis- Roger's alighting, told him in my hearing that his pute that arose between them. Will, it seems, had honour's head was brought last night with the alterbeen giving his fellow-traveller an account of his ations that he had ordered to be made in it. Upon angling one day in such a hole; when Tom Touchy, this, my friend, with his usual cheerfulness, related instead of hearing out his story, told him that Mr. the particulars above-mentioned, and ordered the Such-a-one, if he pleased, might "take the law of head to be brought into the room. I could not forhim," for fishing in that part of the river. My bear discovering greater expressions of mirth than friend Sir Roger heard them both upon a round trot; ordinary upon the appearance of this monstrous face, and after having paused some time, told them with under which, notwithstanding it was made to frown the air of a man who would not give his judgment and stare in a most extraordinary manner, I could rashly, that “much might be said on both sides.” still discover a distant resemblance of my old friend. They were neither of them dissatisfied with the Sir Roger, upon seeing me laugh, desired me to tell knigbt's determination, because neither of them him truly if I thought it possible for people to know found himself in the wrong by it. Upon which we him in that disguise. I at first kept my usual silence; made the best of our way to the assizes.
but upon the knight's conjuring me to tell him The court was sat before Sir Roger came; but whether it was not still more like himself than a notwithstanding all the justices had taken their Saracen, I composed my countenance in the best places upon the bench, they made room for the old manner I could, and replied, “ that much might knight at the head of them; who for his reputation be said on both sides." in the country took occasion to whisper in the judge's These several adventures, with the knight's beear, that he was glad his lordship had met with so haviour in them, gave me as pleasant a day as ever much good weather in his circnit. I was listening I met with in any of my travels.-L. to the proceedings of the court with much attention, and infinitely pleased with that great appearance of solemnity which so properly accompanies such a publie administration of our laws; when, after about an
No. 123.] SATURDAY, JULY 21, 1711. hour's sitting, I observed, to my great surprise, in
Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, the midst of a trial, Sir Roger was getting up to
Rectique cultus pectora roborant :
Utcunque defecere mores, speak. I was in some pain for him, until I found he Dedecorant bene nata culpæ.—Hor. 4, Od. iv. 33. had acquitted himself of two or three sentences with
Yet ihe best blood by learning is refin'd, a look of much business and great intrepidity.
Upon bis first rising the court was hushed, and a Whilst vice will stain the noblest race, general whisper ran among the country people, that
And the paternal stamp efface.-OLDISWORTH. Sir Roger "was up.” The speech he made was so As I was yesterday taking the air with my kitle to the purpose, that I shall not trouble my friend Sir Roger, we were met by a fresh-coloured readers with an account of it; and I believe was not ruddy young inan who rid by us full speed, with a so much designed by the knight himself to inform couple of servants behind him. Upon my inquiry the court, as to give him a figure in my eye, and who he was, Sir Roger told me he was a young genkeep up his credit in the country.
tleman of a considerable estate, who had been eduI was highly delighted, when the court rose, to see cated by a tender mother that lived not many miles the gentlemen of the country gathering about my old from the place where we were. She is a very good friend, and striving who should compliment him lady, says my friend, but took so much care of her most; at the same time that the ordinary people son's health, that she has made him good for nothing. gazed upon him at a distance, not a little admiring She quickly found that reading was bad for his eyes, his courage, that he was not afraid to speak to the and that writing made his head ache. He was let judge.
loose among the woods as soon as he was able to ride In our return home we met with a very odd acci- on horseback, or to carry a gun upon his shoulder. dent; which I cannot forbear relating, because it To be brief, I found, by my friend's account of him, shows how desirous all who know Sir Roger are of that he had got a great stock of health, and nothing giving him marks of their esteem. When we were else; and that if it were a man's business only to arrived upon the verge of bis estate, we stopped at a live, there would not be a more accomplished young little inn to rest ourselves and our horses. The man fellow in the whole country. of the house had, it seems, been formerly a servant The truth of it is, since my residing in these parts, in the knight's family, and to do honour to his old I have seen and heard innumerable instances of master, had some time since, unknown to Sir Roger, young heirs and elder brothers who, either from put him up in a sign-post before the door; so that their own reflecting upon the estates they are born the knight's head hung out upon the road about a to, and therefore thinking all other accomplishments week before he himself knew anything of the matter. unnecessary, or from hearing these notions freAs soon as Sir Roger was acquainted with it, finding quently inculcated to them by the flattery of their that his servant's indiscretion proceeded wholly from servants and domestics, or from the same foolish affection and good-will, be only told him that he had thought prevailing in those who have the care of made him too high a compliment; and when the their education, are of no manner of use but to keep fellow seemed to think that could hardly be, added up their families, and transmit their lands and with a more decisive look, that it was too great an houses in a line to posterity. honour for any man under a duke; but told him at This makes me often think on a story I have the same time, that it might be altered with a very heard of two friends, which I shall give my readers
And virtue arms the solid mind;
at large, under feigned names. The moral of it may, sight of Eudoxus, who visited his friend very fre-
esteemed and beloved by Florio. The boy was now Eudoxus and Leontine began the world with small old enough to know his supposed father's circumestates. They were both of them men of good sense stances, and that therefore he had to make his way and great virtue. They prosecuted their studies to in the world by his own industry. This consideragether in their earlier years, and entered into such a tion grew stronger in him every day, and produced friendship as lasted to the end of their lives Eudoxus, so good an effect, that he applied himself with more at his first setting out in the world, threw himself into than ordinary attention to the pursuits of every thing a court, where by his natural endowments and his which Leontine recommended to him. His natural acquired abilities, he made his way from one post tn abilities, which were very good, assisted by the di. another, until at length he had raised a very consi- rections of so excellent a counsellor, enabled him to derable fortune. Leontine, on the contrary, sought make a quicker progress than ordinary through all all opportunities of improving his mind by study, con the parts of his education. Before he was twenty versation, and travel. He was not only acquainted years of age, having finished his studies and exercises with all the sciences, but with the most eminent with great applause, he was removed from the uniprofessors of them throughout Europe. He knew versity to the inns of court, where there are very perfectly well the interests of its princes, with the few that make themselves considerable proficients in customs and fashions of their courts, and could scarce the studies of the place, who know they shall arrive meet with the name of an extraordinary person in at great estates without them. This was not Florio's the Gazette whom he had not either talked to or case ; he found that three hundred a year was but a seen. In short, he had so well mixed and digested poor estate for Leontine and himself to live upon, so his knowledge of men and books, that he made one that he studied without intermission till be gained a of the most accomplished persons of his age. During very good insight into the constitution and laws of the whole course of his studies and travels he kept up his country. a punctual correspondence with Eudoxus, who often I should have told my reader that, whilst Florio made himself acceptable to the principal men about lived at the house of his foster-father, he was always court, by the intelligence which he received from an acceptable guest in the family of Eudoxus, where Leontine. When they were both turned of forty (an he became acquainted with Leonilla from her inage in which, according to Mr. Cowley, “there is fancy. His acquaintance with her by degrees grew no dallying with life"), they determined, pursuant into love, which in a mind trained up in all the sento the resolution they had taken in the beginning of timents of honour and virtue became a very uneasy their lives, to retire, and pass the remainder of their passion. He despaired of gaining an heiress of so days in the country. In order to this, they both of great a fortune and would rather have died than atthem married much about the same time. Leontine, tempted it by any indirect methods. Leonilla, who with his own and wife's fortune, bought a farm of was a woman of the greatest beauty, joined with the three bundred a year, which lay within the neigh-greatest modesty, entertained at the same time a sebourhood of his friend Eudoxus, who had purchased cret passion for Florio, but conducted herself with an estate of as many thousands. They were both of so much prudence that she never gave him the least them fathers about the same time-Eudoxus having intimation of it. Florio was now engaged in all a son born to him, and Leontine a daughter; but to those arts and improvements that are proper to raise the unspeakable grief of the latter, his young wife a man's private fortune and give him a figure in (in whom all his happiness was wrapt up) died in a his country, but secretly tormented with that pas. few days after the birth of her daughter. His af- sion which burns with the greatest fury in a virtufliction would have been insupportable, had not he ous and noble heart, when he received a sudden been comforted by the daily visits and conversations summons from Leontine to repair to him in the of his friend. As they were one day talking toge-country the next day: for it seems Eudoxus was so ther with their usual intimacy, Leontine, consider-filled with the report of his son's reputation, that he ing how incapable he was of giving his daughter a could no longer withhold making himself known to proper education in his own house, and Eudoxus re- him. The morning after his arrival at the house of flecting on the ordinary behaviour of a son who his supposed father, Leontine told him that Eudoxus knows himself to be the heir of a great estate, they had something of great importance to communicate both agreed upon an exchange of children, namely, to him; upon which the good man embraced him, that the boy should be bred up with Leontine as his and wept. "Florio was no sooner arrived at the great
and that the girl should live with Eudoxus as house that siood in his neighbourhood, but Eudoxus his daughter, until they were each of them arrived took him by the hand, after the first salutes were at years of discretion. The wife of Eudoxus, know- over, and conducted him into his closet. He there ing that her son could not be so advantageously opened to him the whole secret of his parentage brought up as under the care of Leontine, and con and education, concluding after this manner: "1 sidering at the same time that he would be perpetu- have no other way left of acknowledging my gratially under her own eye, was by degrees prevailed tude to Leontine, than by marrying you to his daughupon to fall in with the project. She therefore took ter. He shall not lose the pleasure of being your Leonilla, for that was the name of the girl, and edu- father by the discovery I have made to you. Leopcated her as her own daughter. The two friends on nilla, too, shall be still my daughter: her filial piety, each side had wrought themselves to such an habitual though misplaced, has been so exemplary, that it tenderness for the children who were under their di. deserves the greatest reward I can confer upon it. rection, that each of them had the real passion of a You shall have the pleasure of seeing a great estate father, where the title was but imaginary. Florio, fall to you, which you would have lost the relish of the name of the young heir that lived with Leontine, bad you known yourself born to it. Continue only though he had all the duty and affection imaginable to deserve it in the same manner you did before you for his supposed parent, was taught to rejoice at the were possessed of it. I have left your mother in the
lest room, Her heart yearns towards you. She is use of in this way by news-writers, and the zealots making the same discoveries to Leonilla which I of parties; as if it were not more advantageous to have made to yourself.” Florio was so overwhelmed mankind, to be instructed in wisdom and virtue, with this profusion of happiness, that he was not than in politics; and to be made good fathers, busable to make a reply, but threw himself down at his bands and sons, than counsellors and statesmea. father's feet, and, amidst a flood of tears, kissed and Had the philosophers and great men of antiquity, embraced his knees, asking his blessing, and express who took so much pains in order to instruct man. ing in dumb show those sentiments of love, duty, kind, and leave the world wiser and better than they and gratitude, that were too big for utterance. To found it; had they, I say, been possessed of the conclude, the happy pair were married, and half Eu- art of printing, there is no question but they would doxus's estate settled upon them. Leontine and have made such an advantage of it, in dealing out Eudoxus passed the remainder of their lives together; their lectures to the public. Our common prints* and receiving in the dutiful and affectionate beha- would be of great use were they thus calculated to viour oi Florio and Leonilla the just recompense, as diffuse good sense through the bulk of a people, to well as the natural effects, of that care which they clear up their understandings, animate their minds had bestowed upon them in their education.-L. with virtue, dissipate the sorrows of a heavy heart,
or unbend the mind from its more severe employ
ments, with innocent amusements. When knowNo. 124] MONDAY, JULY 23, 1711.
ledge, instead of being bound up in books, and kept
in libraries and retirements, is thus obtruded upon A great book is a great evil.
the public; when it is canvassed in every assembly, A MAN who publishes his works in a volume, has and exposed upon every table, I cannot forbear rean infinite advantage over one who communicates Aecting upon that passage in the Proverbs : " Wishis writings to the world in loose tracts and single dom crieth without, she uttereth her voice in the pieces. We do not expect to meet with any thing streets; she crieth in the chief place of concourse, in a bulky volume, till after some heavy preamble, in the openings of the gates. In the city she uttereth and several words of course, to prepare the reader her words, saying, How long, ye simple ones, will ye for what follows. Nay, authors have established it love simplicity? And the scorners delight in their as a kind of rule, that a man ought to be dull some
scorning? And fools hate knowledge ?" times; as the most severe reader makes allowances
The many letters which come to me from persons for many rests and nodding-places in a voluminous of the best sense in both sexes (for I may pronounce writer. This gave occasion to the famous Greek pro little encourage me in the prosecution of this my
their characters from their way of writing) do pot a verb which I have chosen for my motto, that," great book is a great evil.”
undertaking: besides that my bookseller tells me, On the contrary, those who publish their thoughts the demand for these my papers increases daily. It in distinct sheets, and as it were by piece-meal, have is at his instance that I shall continue my rural spenone of these advantages. We must immediately culations to the end of this month; several having fall into our subject, and treat every part of it in a made up separate sets of them, as they have done of lively manner, or our papers are thrown by as dull those relating to wit, to operas, to points of morality, and insipid. Our matter must lie close together, or subjects of humour. and either be wholly new in itself, or in the turn it
I am not at all mortified, when sometimes I see receives from our expressions. Were the books of my works thrown aside by men of no taste or learning. our best authors thus to be retailed by the public, There is a kind of heaviness and ignorance that and every page submitted to the taste of forty or hangs upon the minds of ordinary men, which is too fifty thousand readers, I am afraid we should com- thick for knowledge to break through. Their souls plain of many flat expressions, trivial observations, are not to be enlightened. beaten topics, and common thoughts, which go off Fery well in the lump. At the same time, notwithstanding some papers may be made up of broken
Black night enwraps them in her gloomy shade. bints and irregular sketches, it is often expected that every sbeet should have been a kind of treatise, To these I must apply the fable of the mole, that, and make out in thought what it wants in bulk : after having consulted many oculists for the bettering that a point of humour should be worked up in all of his sight, was at last provided with a good pair of its parts; and a subject touched upon in its most spectacles ; but upon his endeavouring to make use essential articles, without the repetitions, tautolo. of them, his mother told him very prudently, " That gies, and enlargements, that are indulged in longer spectacles, though they might help the eye of a man, labours. The ordinary writers of morality prescribe could be of no use to a mole." It is not therefore to their readers after the Galenic way; their medi- for the benefit of moles that I publish these my eines are made up in large quantities. An essay: daily essays. writer must practise in the chemical method, and But besides such as are moles through ignorance, give the virtue of a full draught in a few drops. there are others who are moles through envy. As Were all books reduced thus to their quintessence, it is said in the Latin proverb, " That one man is a many a bulky author would make his appearance in wolf to another;" so, generally speaking, one author a penny-paper. There would be scarce such a thing is a mole to another. "It is impossible for them to in nature as a folio; the works of an age would be discover beauties in one another's works; they have contained on a few shelves; not to mention millions eyes only for spots and blemishes : they can indeed of volumes that would be utterly annihilated. see the light, as it is said of the animals which are
I cannot think that the difficulty of furnishing their namesakes, but the idea of it is painful to out separate papers of this nature has hindered au-them; they immediately shut their eyes upon it, thors from communicating their thoughts to the and withdraw themselves into a wilful obscurity. I world after such a manner : though I must confess I am amazed that the press should be only made
-Xox atra cava circumvolat umbra.
VIRG. Æn. il. 360.