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placed upon the Altar : but in Victoria there is prefixed to the first paragraph, apparently because there was no procession bearing these ornaments from Westminster Hall, the following : The Bible, Paten, and Cup being brought by the Bishops who had borne them, and placed upon the Altar, the Archbishop goeth to the Altar, &c.
In Geo. III.* immediately after the Recognition there is :
“Then the Choir sung the 20 : Anthem Psal. 21. v. 1. 2. 5. 6. In the mean time the Bible, Paten and Cup, were brought and placed on the Altar ; And the carpets and cushions spread for the offering &c.” But at the word “Cup” there is a footnote which neutralises what has been said in the text, for it says: “The Bible Paten and Chalice were carried directly to the Altar as soon as the King sat down.” (p. 207.)
In Geo. II. III. and Wm. IV. where there was a queen consort, the following rubric is inserted after the offering of the king : Then the Queen ariseth from Her Chair, and being likewise supported by two bishops, and the Lords which carry Her Regalia going before Her, goeth down to the Altar, and kneeling upon the Cushions there layd for Her, on the left Hand of the King's, maketh Her Oblation, which is a Pall, to be received also by the Archbishop, and layd upon the Altar.
The prayer"O God who dwellest” is a following of Deus humilium of the Liber regalis. Up to Car. II. a word for word version was used; but alterations set in with James II.'s coronation. In Jac. II.* the following is the form :
“O God who dwellest in the high & holy place, with them also, who are of an humble Spirit ; Look down graciously vpon these thy servants JAMES our King, and MARY our Queen, here prostrate before thee at thy Footstool ; and mercifully receive these Oblations, which in humble acknowledgement of thy Soveraignty over all, thy bounty to them in particular, they have now offered vp unto thee. Thine O Lord, is the power, and the Glory, and the mãtie ; Thine is the Kingdom ; & thou art exalted, as head above all Both Riches, & honour, & all things come of thee ; and of thine owne have they given thee. Accept, Wee beseech thee, this their free will offering ; and let it be an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, and well pleasing vnto thee; through the merits [originally merritts] & Intercession of Jesus Christ, our only mediator and Advocate. Amen."
This prayer may be also found, as above, in Sancroft's notes for the coronation of King James II. opposite the old text struck out. (Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Tanner 31. fo. 98. b.)
After the first few words the whole of the prayer is new. The sentence beginning : “Thine O Lord is the power” down to “Accept we beseech thee” is a quotation, not verbal, from I Chron. xxix. 10-12. is used at the presenting of the alms in the Liturgy of the Scottish Episcopal Church, and was a part of one of the sentences for the offertory in the Scottish Prayer Book of 1637. The passage from Chronicles is left out in W. and M.
The last sentence “Accept" &c. has been left out in Geo. III. and later orders, only “through Jesus Christ” &c. remaining.
The prayer is also repeated at the offertory from W. and M. and later orders. (Ch. 18. see above, p. 33.)
Cap. 4. The Litanie.
Up to Jac. II. the sermon followed here ; in that order the Litany was moved from its old place after Veni Creator and before the blessing of the oil and inserted here immediately before the sermon.
The text of the Litany does not appear until Geo. II. and it continues in the later orders.
In Liber regulis, Jac. I. and Car. I. four prayers, Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, Benedic Domine, Deus ineffabilis, and Deus qui populis concluded the Litany. In Car. II. the first, second, and fourth only were said. In Jac. II. the first and last. In W. and M. only the last, Deus qui populis, has survived. It continued in Anne, Geo. I. II. and III. and Victoria, but it was omitted in Geo. IV. and Wm. IV. In Geo. III. Deus qui populis was preceded by the prayer" in time of War and Tumults” of the Book of Common Prayer. It was the time of the seven years' war.
The Deus qui populis of W. and M. is the same as that of Jac. II.* and is like that of other Stewart orders. But Omnipotens sempiterne Deus has been shortened in Jac. II.* and is as follows :
"Almighty and Everlasting God, Creator of all things, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords ; Give ear, wee besecht thee unto [these two words are altered] Our humble Praiers and multiply thy Blessings upon this thy Servant JAMES; whom in thy name with lowly Devotion wee Consecrate Our King : That being strengthened with ye Faith of Abraham, indued with the mildness of Moses, arm’d with the Fortitude of Joshua, exalted with the humility of David, adornd with the wisdom of Solomon, and established with thy principal+ Spirit ; He may walk vprightly in ye way of Righteousness; nourish, instruct, & Defend thy Church, and People ; and please thee in all things, through Jesus Christ Our Lord, who liveth and Reigneth with the+ and the Holy Ghost, now, and for ever. Amen."
There can be little doubt that this dislocation of the Litany is due to the refusal of King James II. to receive Communion at his coronation. No part of the Communion service appears in James II.'s order.
In W. and M.* : “Then the Litany was Sung by the Bishops of St. Asoph and Bangor ; which ended, the Communion Service began."
In Geo. III.* we have: “The Litany was sung by two Bishops, at a Desk on the East side the Theatre, during which the Regalia were severally deliver'd (except the Swords) by the Lords who carryd them, and placed them on the Altar, the Lords retiring to their seats.” (p. 207.)
Cap. 5. Beginning of the Communion Service.
The introit in Liber regalis, Car. I. and II. was Protector noster, Behold O God our defender. No anthem is sung from W. and M. to Geo. III. but in Geo. IV. and Wm. IV. there is a rubric: A Sanctus, which form is printed in full in Victoria. In the first half of the nineteenth century Sanctus was often sung as an Introit.
There is no evidence that the Lord's prayer, collect for purity, or the commandments were read in Jac. I. Car. I. and II. but it would rather seem that immediately after the introit there was said the special collect for the king, Quaesumus omnipotens Deus (Liber regalis 713.) i.e. O Almighty God we beseech thee that this thy servant &c.
In W, and M. however, the two opening prayers of the communion service certainly appear, but the commandments are not given ; and they do not appear until Geo. II. whence they continue to Victoria. In W. and M. instead of the old collect a conflation of the two collects for the king is said. (p. 13.) Happily this did not last. From Anne to Victoria the collect Almighty God whose kingdom is everlasting is said.
The epistle in Liber regalis begins Subiecti estote and ends with Haec est enim gratia. In Christo Iesu domino nostro; that is, I. Peter ii
. 13-19. Car. II. and W. and M. begin with Dearly beloved and end with Honour the K’ing. Car. I. Anne and the later orders begin with Submit yourselves, and end with Honour the King.
"The Epistle ... was read by the Bishop of Carlisle." (W. and M.*)
The gospel in Liber regalis begins with Abeuntes pharisaei and ends with quae sunt Dei Deo, that is, Matth. xxii. 15–22. The ders in English have the same with the addition of a verse : When they had heard these words &c.
“The Gospel ... was read by the Bishop of St. Asaph.” (W. and M.*) Then the Abp. beginneth] This rubric continues to Geo. I. In Guo. II. it stands : The Nicene Creed, by the Archbishop, the King and Queen with the People standing, as before, In Geo. III. it stands : Then the Arch.bishop beginneth the Nicene Creed, and the Choir singeth it, the King and Queen with the People standing, as before. In Geo. IV. it is altered to : Then the Archbishop readeth the Nicene Creed; the King with the People standing, as before. With some necessary verbal alterations it is the same in Wm. IV. and Victoria.
At the end of the Creed, a strange rubric appears in Victoria, and in no other : The Service being concluded, the Bishops who assisted will return to their seats. Can Service possibly be a misprint for Creed ?
Cap. 6. The Sermon. The substance of these rubrics appears in all the later orders. They may be seen in an early form in Car. II. (94) and fully in Jac. II. (87).
At James i I.'s coronation, “Then Sermon begins & ye King puts on his Cap, being bare till now.” (B.M. Harl. 6815. f. 107.)
"After which followed the Nicene Creed; which ended, the Bishop of Salisbury being ready in the Pulpit, repeated the Lords yer, and took his Text 2. Sam. xxiii. 3 and 4 ter. The God of Israel said: The Rock of Israel Spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the Sun riseth, even a Morning without Clouds; as tħe tender grass springing out of the Earth by clear shining after Rain. Upon which words he made an excellent Discourse. Their Majesties sitting in their Chairs on the South side of the Area, and hearing the same with great Attention. After Sermon, which lasted just half an Hour, Their Majesties took the New Establisht Oath.” (W. and M.*)
The queen here certainly takes an inferior position to the king, as she sits on his left hand.
Dr. Gilbert Burnet was consecrated bishop on Easter Day, March 31, immediately before. At the end of the sermon he tells the Sovereigns that
from You we expect the Glorious Reverse of all cloudy days. You have been hitherto our Hope and our Desire : You must now become our Glory and Crown of rejoycing : Ordinary Vertues in You, will fall so far short of our hopes, that we shall be tempted almost to think them Vices.” (A sermon preached at the Coronation of William III. and Mary II. ... by Gilbert, Lord Bishop of Salisbury, London, Starkey and Chiswell
, 1689. p. 28.) I am indebted to our Treasurer, Mr. Dewick, for the loan of this remarkable production. We are told that “One Grey, Late Chaplain to ye Bishop of Durham pleade[d] to an Information in ye King's Bench for turning the Coronation Sermon into a virulent Ballad.” (Greenwich Hospital Newsletters, 3, No. 76, Public Record Office, quoted in Oct. 29. 1689. Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1689. 1690, Stationery Office, 1895, p. 308.)
In Geo. IÍ. III. and Wm. IV. where there was a queen consort there is a rubric about her based on the third in this chapter. In Geo. II. it is :
The two Bishops that support the Queen are to stand on either hand of Her, and the great Lady Assistant, and she that bears up the Trains, constantly attend Her Majesty during the whole Solemnity. The other great Ladies go to the seats prepared for Them.
Cap. 7. The Oath, The Declaration against Transubstantiation, Invocation of Saints, and the sacrifice of the mass, as now used in the Church of Rome, was made here in Anne, Geo. I. II. and III. In the later coronations the Declaration had been already made before Parliament.
The Coronation Oath of the kings of England has been the subject of so much discussion that no attempt will be made to deal with it here. For the convenience of comparison, the Coronation Oath of James II. has been printed as an Appendix. (See p. 65.)
The history of the oath is given in Arthur Taylor, The Glory of Regality, London, 1820. p. 329. See also William Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglicanae, Oxford, 1882. vol. ii. pp. xlv. and 109.
The text of the oath given in W. and M. agrees word for word with that in Statutes of the Realm, Lond. 1819. vol. vi. p. 56.
The final rubric persists to Victoria, even with the mention of the great bible carried in the procession. Though in Wm. IV. and Victoria there was no procession from Westminster Hall, yet bishops carrying the regalia received the sovereign at the west door of the collegiate Church, and went in procession to the altar. (See Wm. IV.*)
The signing of the oath appears at the end in Geo. I. and continues in later orders.
Cap. 8. The Anointing. This rubric before Veni Creator appears with the necessary verbal alterations in all the orders after W. and M.
The Archbishop begins the hymn in Jac. I. and Car. I. but the Quire only are spoken of in Car. II. and Jac. II. In W. and M. and all orders after the Archbishop begins the hymn.
This version, or rather variant, of Veni Creator appears first in W. and M. and continues in the later orders with some few verbal changes : such as. “Anoint our hearts and chear our face” in the ninth line, which are in Geo. III. and continue after.
In the text of Car. I. (25) there is the version of Veni Creator now second in the ordering of priests in the Book of Common Prayer, while at the end of Car. I. (57.) is given the version now first in the ordering of priests. It is this version that was used in Jac. II. though in W. and M. the variant. printed in the text was adopted.
In Liber regalis and the Stewart orders there is inserted, between Veni Creator and the consecratory preface for the blessing of the oil, the Litany and certain prayers mentioned above. (See p: 138.) The seven penitential psalms said in Liber regalis with the Litany do not appear in the Stewart orders.
In Jac. II. there is inserted between Veni Creator and the consecratory preface a version of Te invocamus, somewhat altered at the end. It was said immediately after Veni Creator in the Stewart orders and Liber regalis. It is one of the most ancient of the Coronation prayers, being found in Egbert's Pontifical. (Surtees Society, 1853, p. 100.) But it disappears from this place in W. and M. and is not restored in any later order.
Sursum Corila before the preface appears in Liber regalis and the Stewart orders ;
but it is left out for the first time in W. and M. and it does not appear again in any later order.
This form for blessing the oil is derived indirectly from the preface in Liber regalis and the Stewart orders, which is made up of reminiscences of the preface for the blessing of the oil on Maundy Thursday in the Gelasian and Gregorian Sacramentaries. (L. A. Muratori, Liturgia Romana Vetus, Venetiis, 1748. i. 556. ii. 55.). The mediæval preface persisted until the coronation of James II., when it took the shape given below, the allusion to Noah's flood and the olive branch in the mouth of the dove being left out ; but the mention of the anointing of Kings, Priests, and Prophets being pre:served. This form is now printed, it is believed for the first time, from Jac. II.* It may be noted that there is no direction for the Archbishop to lay his hand upon the Ampulla.
ArchBp. It is very meet, right, and Our bounden Duty, that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks vnto thee O Lord, Holy Father Almighty Everlasting God, the Exalter of the humble, and the strength of thy Chosen : who by the anointing with Oil, didst make & consecrate Kings, Priests & Prophets to Govern thy people Israel. We beseech thee to bless & Sanctifie this thy Servant JAMES Our King now to be anointed with holy oil [this word is interlined over an erasure] by our Office & Ministry ; And plenteously to endue him with all the Gifts, and Graces, of thy holy Spirit, which thou didst of old Conferr vpon thy Chosen Servants by this ministry; through him who was anointed with the Oil of Gladness above his Fellows, Jesus Christ Our Lord Amen.
This Preface being ended the Quire sing
In the corner of the leaf on which the preface is written, and thus immediately under the preface, encircled by a black line, are the copies of signatures of six bishops, thus :
Thos : Roffeñ : The place of the last three words of the preface has clearly been influenced by these signatures ; and it may thus be inferred that they were written by the scribe before he finished the concluding lines of the preface. They are all the names of bishops who took some part in the coronation of King James II. The Archbishop of Canterbury consecrated the King. The Bishop of London with the Bishop of Winchester supported the Queen. The Bishop of Durham with the Bishop of Bath and Wells supported the King. The Bishop of St. Asaph sang the Litany, with the Bishop of Oxford. The Bishop of Ely preached the sermon, and the Bishop of Rochester was Dean of Westminster. I think they have been copied from the end of MS. L. 14. in St. John's College, Cambridge, Sancroft's own manuscript of James II.'s coronation, where they are real signatures.
With the alterations in W. and M. the consecration of the oil took the form which it has in the text. The earlier half preserves some of the older ideas, while the latter half is almost new for this office, being derived from the form of confirmatio
The Exalter of the Humble, and the Strength of thy Chosen.] These words are survivals from the old consecratory preface in Liber Regalis and the Stewart orders. They continued until Geo. III. when they were omitted, and they have not reappeared since.