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the purpose.

assume

Stevenson may bear the impress of mates protested against it on the predecessors, there is a sunniness in ground that they were forbidden this little volume which is all its by their religion to eat in a garown ;

and which makes the few ment with a seam in it; and the hours spent in its company

refresh

Mohamedans on the ground that ing and delightful. In spirit we they were commanded by theirs to pass over the quiet river penetrat- cover their heels with their garing the simple country life; we revel ment when they prayed, and the

the deliciously humorous jacket was not long enough for picture of the Royal Nauticals who

Possibly our Eng. are all employed in commerce lish" prisoners would not calmly during the day; but in the evening, acquiesce if they were ordered to voyez vous, nous sommes serieux."

the « dhotee' of the Having got thus far it is impos- Hindoo, or the flowing robe of the sible not to read the volume tender- Mohamedan. Trial by jury does ly to the end, rejoicing that there not seem to have been inore suc. is yet an author who can view cessful. life with such delicate and philo- “ There is a story that on the sophic merriment. And in the end occasion of the first trial by jury when the voyagers come “back

in the Patna district, the judge, to the world” we cannot but regret who was somewhat proud of his that the spell is broken, that we too fluency in the vernacular, made a must come back to the world from long and elaborate charge to the our brief holiday of the spirit and jury of seven members, pointing say farewell to the joyous Cigarette out that the decision rested with and Arethusa.

them, and that it was only his

business to explain the law, ending Life in the Mofussil: or the Civilian up with the usual form, ' And now, in Lower Bengal. By an ex-Civilian. gentlemen of the jury, what is London: C. Kegan Paul and Co. your verdict ?'

The seven jury1878.

men all stood up, put their hands This is a record of a few years palm to palm, the attitude of passed in the Indian Civil Service respect assumed by natives in the in Lower Bengal. It is written presence of a superior, and replied pleasantly enough, though perhaps with one voice, Jaise huzoor ke a little superficially. It abounds rai,' which is, when interpreted, in amusing anecdotes, some of • Whatever your highness thinks which strikingly exemplify the ab- right!' Somewhat discouraging surdity of engrafting European this." manners and customs on an Eastern The long descriptions of the population. For instance, there is business transacted in the law à long account of the difficulty courts become

very wearisome. attending the introduction of a Much of this might with aduniform suit of clothing into a vantage have been omitted from convict prison. The Hindoo in

such a work as the present.

THE

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

AUGUST, 1878.

CHRISTIANITY IN FACE OF THE NINETEENTH

CENTURY.

It is now, according to the only but founded on and permeated by extant narrative, 1837 years since direct Divine revelation, and to certain Cypriot and Cyrenian Jews, those who hold that in every form involved in some unexplained man- of faith there is a blending of error ner in the troubles that arose as with truth, and a reflection of the to the lapidation of Stephen, ar- social and tribal instincts of race riving at Antioch, addressed their and of age, to inquire gravely into arguments to the Hellenising Jews the position which this faith of resident in that Syrian city. The eighteen centuries' growth occupies small church at Jerusalem that in face of the positive knowledge held to the doctrine of the Apostles attained by civilised Europe in this sent the Levite Barnabas to instruct nineteenth century. The inquiry new disciples. Barnabas called in proposed is not one into the spiritual Paul of Tarsus, who had himself nature of the religion. It is not become a sudden convert to the one as to the historic basis, as new opinions which he had been regards any evidence producible as commissioned by the Sanhedrim to to the facts relied on as fundaextirpate. In the ancient capital mental to its doctrines. It is not of the Greek Kings, amid a small even one as to its moral influence knot of foreign Jews,

first on those who profess, and on those uttered that word which has been whose oppose, its dogmas. On adopted as a title of

each of these momentous questions brotherhood by great part of the impartial statement of what is Aryan race. The whole hierarchy actually known is a desideratum. of the Catholic Church, its purple. It is the aim of the following pages clad cardinals, its royal and apos- to inquire into the philosophy, tolic Emperors and Kings, its infal- rather than into the religion of the lible Vicar, have been developed Christian faith; to examine the from the disciples who were first form, and the influence of the form, called Christians at Antioch.

rather than the intimate nature It is important, alike to those and Divine doctrine, of Chriswho hold that Christianity is a tianity; to search what changes religion, not only of Divine origin, have occurred in that form, tending

9

was

common

to bring it more thoroughly into statements of the narrative of the unison into the progress of scientific New Testament, and yet to fail to truth, or the reverse; and to in- trace the connection between the quire how far the mental propor- occurrence, as set forth, and the tions of a group of Hellenistic Jews formal dogmas associated with the can adequately occupy the vast statement. What is desired is to canvas of human faith and morals. trace, not the tradition of belief in

It would betray an uneasy con- facts, but the origin and intersciousness of a conclusion dispro- dependence of positive dogma. portionate to its premises to shun It is of course impossible, within such an inquiry. The truth of the limits of anything but a work Christianity is not to be dissevered of considerable magnitude, to from its history. To trace the investigate the corpus of the formal origin of its cardinal formulæ must teaching of modern Christianity, be of essential service to any one and to refer the several elements who inquires into their authority to their respective cradles. All and weight. That statement of that can be now attempted is to the problem which derives the inquire into a few of the main great Aryan creed of modern times, positions on which the entirety of in its full integrity, from the teach- the case ordinarily presented by ing of a small band of brethren, the theologian depends. An inthe first of whom were provincial, quiry of this nature, if impartially and the later associates foreign, or conducted, ought to be hailed with Hellenising, Jews, involves difficul

equal sympathy by the honest ties well nigh insuperable to the apologist and by the honest assailcandid student. And the more ant of theological dogma. deep may be the conviction that In the minds of the earliest the Divine or supernatural element Christians, according to the brief has to be appealed to, in order to account given by the historian of solve the problem, the more funda- the apostles, two main elements, or mental is the necessity to show the classes of opinion, must have been ground on which such an appeal is present. Of these, the first was based. To say that the failure to the Semitic element; which is most trace any main feature of the distinctly apparent in the first and system to its human and natural in the third Gospel, and in the source is a proof of its Divine epistles bearing the names of Peter origin, is to negative the highest and of James. The second is the functions of human intelligence. Aryan or Pagan element, which is Whatever be the profound truth or implied by the use of the term absolute wisdom that has become Hellenist, which so often becomes concrete in the formulæ we may apparent in the epistles of Paul, investigate, it can only become in- and which, under the well-known telligible and authoritative by being form of Alexandrian Judaism, is so faithfully traced to its source. On fully and so eloquently manifest in that foundation rests the claim to the Epistle to the Hebrews. Of human acceptance of every form of the existence of these two strands monotheistic religion.

of thought, as distinct as are those By tracing a doctrine to its

of the warp and the woof of a source is not to be understood the woven fabric, there can be no mere citation of details which, on question. And the inquiry now sufficient or insufficient evidence, before us may be said to consist in are asserted to be historic. It is

the tracing of any particular strand possible to admit all the positive to its original spindle.

Is any

dogma, couched in language taken the lapse of a definite period of from Semitic doctors, so purely time, to remove. The sacrifice of Aryan in its essence that error and the red heifer is commanded, in the confusion must arise from attribut- Pentateuch itself, as preparatory ing it to a Jewish origin? Is any to the purification of those defiled dogma, essentially Aryan or Pagan by contact with the dead; and the in its origin, now a portion of special rules by which the oral law formal Christianity ? And, if so, designated the details of the prehow was it imported into a faith paration of the water of separation, professedly founded by Jews? and the whole ritual of defilement

Questions of this nature bristle of this nature, show how deeply beneath the feet of the student. this part of the law of Moses They may be divided into two great entered into the very life of the groups — those of doctrine, and Jew. those of rite. In each of these the Had the apostles, or their Master, task of tracing the descent of taught that the purity thus enjoined Catholic orthodoxy from the teach. by the law of Moses was a matter ing and the witness of the twelve of idle ceremony not thereafter to chosen apostles at Jerusalem, is be regarded, it might have been one that encounters difficulties of a difficult to understand how such an very formidable nature. And it innovation could have been procannot be denied that the general posed or tolerated by any pious failure to acknowledge the exist- Jew; but a sequence of doctrines, ence of these difficulties, and the now absent, would have existed. consequent ignoring of the neces- From the commencement to the sity of any attempt to explain close of the New Testament not a them, is due to the prevailing hint occurs of the possibility of so ignorance, at once absolute and tremendous a revolution as this contemptuous, of the habits of must have appeared to the Jew. thought of those people of whom On the other hand, the most recent the apostles formed a part, whom investigations of the catacombs at they directly addressed, and whose Rome not only enable us to trace the modes of language they exclusively normal type of the Christian church employed.

to that of these subterraneous sepulIf we look, for example, at the 'chral recesses, but show how a very form of a Christian church, species of legal organisation was with its altar tomb, or its several permissible to the early Christians altars, standing in a cemetery, and (even when the open observance of paved with the memorials of the their faith was prohibited) as formdeparted, we have a type, not only ing associates in those existing condirectly opposed to that of a Jewish fraternities which were held in temple or synagogue, but of the honour in ancient Rome, and which most offensively and sacrilegiously still exist in every Italian city. hostile aspect, from a Semitic point The Pagan origin of the whole of view. No feature of the ancient altar rite of Christianity is patent; law is more

distinct than the but the connection of that rite horror it inculcates of defilement with the teaching or the practice by contact, even the most remote, of any writers of the New

Testament with the relics of mortality. To

is

ob

than touch a bier, a tomb, a fragment

Down to the of human bone of the size of an the Acts of the Apostles, Paul is olive, involved a defilement, which it

represented as declaring his adrequired a special purification, and herence to “ the customs of the

more

close of

scure.

942

fathers," and the writer of the usual assumption is not primâ facie Epistle to the Hebrews prohibits probable. The filiation of the the abandonment of the synagogue, Christianity of the fourth century though the sense of the Greek is, with that of the twelve apostles no doubt purposely, obscured by

is, to say

the least, obscure. the translators. There can be no

Judaism has no representative, reasonable doubt that neither such as was the early Essene, in Peter, nor John, nor Paul would the Aryan churches. And yet the have willingly entered a basilica primary, sweeping, unhesitating such as Constantine erected, even assertion that the Jews misunderto shun the pain of martyrdom. stood their own Law and sacred

A reference to such a total and books, and that the Christian unexplained contrast between the doctors, few of whom could even Christianity of the New Testament read the Hebrew character, or knew and that which emerged from the number of the tractates comthe persecutions of the Roman prising the Oral Law, thoroughly emperors under the fostering care comprehended the books of which of Constantine, should be enough they had translations, underlies to show that the mere arbitrary every attempt at theological reference of a rite or of a doctrine argument. A petitio principii so to a Jewish law or custom cannot universal is probably without a be satisfactory, except to those

parallel.

Nor is it only on men who will be satisfied with any. such as the second Moses (Ben thing they wish to hear. In Maimon) that the reproach of times when ignorance was pro- ignorance as to the main study of found, any opinion that could be a life is so readily levelled. The supported by citation from some first and the third Evangelist, in father of the Church was held to those

passages

in which they be adequately proved. As the represent their master as insisting study of history has advanced, and on the immutability of the Law, as we have become aware, not only must be expurgated or explained of the profound ignorance of the away, before the assumption of the early theological writers, but of Catholic theologian as to his own much of the laws, customs, and true reading of the ancient Scrippopular life with which they were ture

can have elbow room unacquainted, it becomes evident breathing space. that the basis of the entire corpus The first point to which we have of formal Christianity has to to call attention as an instance of undergo a searching revision. Not, the opposite meanings attached by by any means, that it is to be

Christian and by Jewish doctors to assumed to be false ; but in order a Jewish book is one which might that that assumption, either for or à priori have been thought of little against, should be replaced by importance as a religious question. critical and honest investigation.

In a certain state of ignorance it Unless this is done the endurance is a matter which might be reof the superstructure is a question garded as historically obscure. only of time, and apparently of no With the advance of our knowlong time.

ledge of written history, and of The first question that arises as existing monuments, as well as of to the genesis of Christian dogma the natural history of our planet, is as to the real relation which it it becomes obscure no longer. It bears to the law of Moses. As to is a matter as to which no doubt this, it is to be observed that the is possible, except in the wholly

or

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