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Mackenzie, Esq. of Jamaica, and sister of the late widow of the late Charles Maitland, Esq. younger Sir Alexander Sinclair, of Dunbeath, Bart.

of Rankeilour. May 22. At Dysart, Mrs Grace Reddie, relict of June 11. At Edinburgh, Thomas Ferguson, Esq. Lieut. James Black, R. N.

of Baledmund, in the 230 year of his age.' 23. At Alloa, Captain Robert Henderson.

- At Stirling, the Rev. Archibald Bruce, one At Florence,

William Crosbie, Esq. his Ma- of the ministers of that parish. jesty's Secretary of Legation at the Court of Tus- 13. At Dumfries, Mr James Gibson, merchant. cany.

At Edinburgh, in the 50th year of his age, 25. At Ayr, Mrs Crawford, senior of Ardmil. Mr James Souter, slater to his Majesty. lan.

- At his house, Blythswood Place, Glasgow, 26. At Edinburgh, Miss Janet Hutton, eldest William Monteith, Esq.. daughter of the late John Hutton, Esq. merchant 14. At Waulkmills of Letham, Mr Patrick Stir. in Edinburgh.

ling, aged 82 years. – In East Reech, Taunton, Mr John Taylor, - Ai Thurso, Mrs Pringle, wife of Mr Robert in the 109th year of his age. He was a butcher, Pringle, collector of Excise. and regularly attended the markets of Taunton, 16. At Weymouth, in his 30th year, George Wellington, and Wyviliscombe, upwards of sixty Mellis, Esq. of Perthshire, having arrived in Eng. years. He has left two sons, the eldest of whom land from Calcutta, in the Kingston, only twelve is 87, and the youngest 64.

days before. - At Montcallier, near Turin, Capel Lofft, Esq. At 2, Arniston Place, Major Colin Campbell,

27. In Lower-Brook Street, London, Mrs Rat- of Strachur. tray, widow of the late Colonel John Rattray, of 17. At his residence in Lower Grosvenor Street, Craighall, Perthshire.

London, the Right Hon. Lord Henry Thomas 28. At his seat, Hawkstone, Salop, Sir John Howard Molyneux Howard, Deputy Earl Mar. Hill, Bart. in the 81th year of his age.

shal of England, and brother to hís Grace the At Banff, Mrs Gordon, widow of the Rev. Duke of Norfolk. His Lordship was a Protest. Abercromby Gordon, minister of Banff.

ant. He represented the city of Gloucester in se - At London, John Locke, M.D. late of Glas- veral Parliaments, and sat in the present Parliagow.

ment for Steyning: 29. At the Lairg Cottage, near Tain, Lieutenant 19. At her residence, No. 13, Seymour Place, J. P. Gordon, half-pay 71st regiment.

Little Chelsea, Donna Maria Theresa del Riego y - At his house in Forth-Street, Edinburgh, Riego, widow of General Don Rafael del Riego David Kinnear, Esq. banker.

y Riego. At Hastings, in Sussex, Robert Alexander 20. At Edinburgh, Lieut. John Fraser, formerly Paterson Wallace, Esq. only son of the deceased of the 71st, thereafter of the 87th regiment of Major Robert Wallace, of the 17th foot, and foot-Lieut. Fraser entered the 71st regiment grandson of the late Alexander Wallace, Esq. at the youthful age of 16. He passed with ap. banker in Edinburgh.

probation through the grades from private to of30. At Square Point of Crossmichael, William ficer in the short space of eight years. His sig: Rae, Esq. fate of Dunjarg, aged 85 years.

nal bravery at the taking of the Cape of Good - At Coats House, Major-General Nicholas Hope induced the commanding officer to report Carr e zie, of the Hon. East-India Company's Ben- him for an officer's commission; for he was one gal establishment.

of a party of thirty, who, on that occasion, vo31. At Bath, the Lady of Sir George Abercromby lunteered to storm a battery, and the only one of Robinson, Bart.

the party who survived (but not unwounded) - At .Bilbow, parish of Troqueer, Miss Elea- the capture of it. The regiment went from the nor Lidderdale, daughter of the late Robertson Cape upon the expedition to Buenos Ayres, in Lidderdale, Esq. of Castlemilk.

which country Mr Fraser did good service, al. At Star Bank, Fife, Mr Thomas Erskine though in the condition of a prisoner. This was Pattullo, aged 19, third son of Robert Pattullo, reported by the then Colonel of the regiment, Esq,

Colonel, afterwards Lieutenant-General Sir Denis June 1. At his house in Queen-Street, Edin- Pack, to the Secretary of the Commander in burgh, Alexander Wylie, doctor of medicine. Chief, in the following very handsome terms

2. At Edinburgh, Samuel Watson, Esq. solici- “By his exemplary behaviour, when far in the intor at law.

terior of South America, he acquired such an as- At Fintry, Stirlingshire, Janet Waters, aged cendancy over a number of men, as to be ac100. She had 13 children, 53 grand children, and knowledged by them as their commanding officer: 40 great-grand-children-total, 106. Eight of her and by his manner throughout, materially tended children died in infancy, of course only five of to uphold the allegiance they have shewn; and her children have any offspring.

was such as to induce the Spaniards to offer him 3. At Fyvie, the Hon. Mrs Gordon, relict of the a large sum and a commission in their service." lato General the Hon. William Gordon of Fyvie, Mr Fraser was with the same distinguished corps, in the 81st year of her age.

and was again wounded, when it formed part of - At Edinburgh, Daniel Ramsay, of Falla, aged the army under General Sir John Moore, and at 64 years.

the glorious epoch of Vimeira and Waterloo. 4. At Edinburgh, Mrs Abercrombie, widow of When the peace came he was put upon half pay, the late Rev. George Abercrombie, one of the and had engaged successfully in business. But ministers of Aberdeen.

the meed of just praise is of perilous attainment. 5. At Lauder, Alexander Dawson, Esq. surgeon, His arduous military duties had planted the seeds Chief Magistrate of the burgh of Lauder.

of early dissolution in a frame both originally ro- At Bogton, Cathcart, Miss Pagan of Bogton, bust, and fortified by sober habits. His prema aged 66 years.

ture death, at the age of forty-two, is to be traced - In Mortimer Street, Cavendish Square, Lon to that cause; while it will long be deplored by don, Lieut.-General Simon Fairley, aged 78. all those who knew him in civil life, as having

6. At Kirkconnel manse, in the 18th year of her deprived society of a valuable man, and his wife age, Mrs Elizabeth M'Lean, wife of the Rev. and numerous infant family of a most affectionJames Richardson, minister of that parish. ate and exemplary husband and father.

- At Edinburgh, Mrs Jean Johnston, wife of Lately. At París, General John Murray, aged William Johnston, Esq. of Lathrisk, and only sur- 86. He had served his Majesty 60 years in difvivirg daughter of Mr S. Douglas.

ferent parts of the world, and was twelve years a 7. At his house in York Place, Edinburgh, prisoner in France under Napoleon's Government. John Blackwell, Esq. advocate.

His eldest son, Major-General Murray, was late 8. At Malvern, Lieut-Colonel Hugh Houstoun. Governor of Demerara. 9. In South Audley Street, London, Thomas - At Vienna, the Austrian Finance Minister, Chevalier, Esq. surgeon extraordinary to the King, Count Von Stadion. and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the In Rutland Street, Cheltenham, Sarah Pool, Royal College of Surgeons in London.

at the extraordinary age of 110 years. At Kirkwall, in Orkney, the Rev. Robert At Shalden Lodge, Hants, aged 45, Lieut. Yule, minister of the Gospel there.

Colonel Arthur Johnston, late Assistant-Com10. At Rankeilour House, Mrs Mary Maitland, mandant at the Royal Military College, Farnham.

J. Ruthven & Son, Printer3, Edinburgh,

THE

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

AND

LITERARY MISCELLANY,

BEING A NEW SERIES OF

The Scots Magazine.

AUGUST 1824.

CONTENTS:

PAGE

Italy,".

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PAGE Extracts from the Portfolio of a A Defence of the Literary and Scien. Scholar, ow...wowana 129

tific Institutions of Scotland gramom 184 State of the Latin Language Sketches of the Early History of the

from the termination of the General Assembly of the Church first Punic War till the death of Scotland.-No. III.common

reconocoon 198 of Sylla, (78, B. C.)............ ib. Teagmomano

wamewww.... 201 Plagiarisms of Virgih,mww.om... 133 Daniel M‘Millan,.....

promom.wroom... ib. Character of Ennius gan.com..... ib. To an Infantgummm..................... 209 On the derivation of the word Walks in Edinburgh, by Dick Pep

134

permint.-Walk II.............. 210 Identity of the Thracians and Scottish Military Education.com...... 214

Illyrians,...wow... wow... 135 Six Months' Residence and Travels
The Pelasgizonorowowow...
ib. in Mexico,

www.sancon 218
Cicero de Republicâ,www.o. 136 The Family of Glenhowangwa...
The Scenery of the Clyde gammomon... 139
Farewell to the Rose.................. 147

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. Additional Instances of Fatal Pre.

Works preparing for Publication,... 233 sentiments,"

comowana 148

Monthly List of New Publications.g. 234 Death goo....common www.wondoa 151

MONTHLY REGISTER. Letter from the Privy Council of Foreign Intelligence ,.................. 237

Scotland, to King James VI., Proceedings in Parliament, more...... 241 anent publishing the Workis of Mr British Chronicle, .....marcow.cow. 243

Thomas Graig, 1610............. 152 Appointments, Promotions, &c........ 217 The Auto-Biography of Gilbert Markets, camac.com

........... 249 Greenwood.- Part 1.................. 153 Meteorological Table,.......merown 250 Harvest-Home...ocesoromanse woonoon. 163 Agricultural Report,non cooww. ib. Travelling Reminiscences.No. II. 171 Course of Exchange-Bankruptsgomo 251 Lyons.- Theodore and Ade. Obituary,

"...oran 252 laide.commons mammaricon no... ib. Births—Marriages,

concorrencommomom 254 www.wo... 183 Deaths................

cronow 255

Beatrice Cenciganom

EDINBURGH:
I'RINTED FOR ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & COMPANY

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Classical Reveries, No. VII,"_" Forty Yeurs Since," the Review of Hender. son's History of Wines,--and a number of other Articles, are unavoidably postponed.

Printed by J. Ruthven & Son.

THE

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

AND

LITERARY MISCELLANY.

AUGUST 1824.

EXTRACTS FROM THE PORTFOLIO OF A SCHOLAR.

State of the Latin Language from the termination of the first Punic War till the death

of Sylla, (78, B. C.) The history of this noble form of speech naturally arranges itself into five periods or epochs: Ist, From the building of Rome till the Conquest of Magna Graecia, or rather, till the termination of the first Punic War: 2d, From the close of the first Punic War till the death of Sylla : 3d, From the demise of the Dictator till that of Augustus : 4th, From the death of Augustus till the age of the Antonines; and, 5th, From the age of the Antonines till the transference of the seat of the empire from Rome to Byzantium. It is of the second and most remarkable of these periods that we propose to exhibit a few characteristics. Every scholar knows that the conquest of Magna Graecia was followed by an almost instantaneous improvement in the structure, rythm, and harmony of the Latin language. The learned men of that colony were either carried to Rome as prisoners, or attracted thither by bopes of honour and advancement; while, on the other hand, a great number of Romans, allured by the delicious climate and high refinement of the south, speedily settled in the conquered province. In conformity with a maxim which regulated the policy of Rome, so long as her arms continued victorious, no pains were spared to effect a speedy and entire amalgamation of the victors and the vanquished. Circumstances, in the present case, were eminently favourable to the accomplishment of this wise object. Justly proud of their superiority in arms, the Romans were at the same time sensible of their vast deficiency in the arts which embellish life, and give splendour to martial achievement, and disdained not to become the pupils and scholars of those whom they had subdued. The Greek colonies in Italy had long maintained a generous rivalship with the mother country in genius and in art, in which, at the period of their conquest, they were little, if at all, inferior. In proof of which, it is sufficient to mention, that Plato visited Italy in order to make himself acquainted with the discoveries of Pythagoras, and converse with Archytas of Tarentum, and Timæus the Locrian; from whom the illustrious founder of the Academy derived no small portion of that sublime philosophy which he has bequeathed to us in his eloquent and immortal works*.

Audisse te, credo, Tubero, Platonem, Socrate mortuo, primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse ut Pythagoræ inventa perdisceret ; eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino, et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse ; cumque eo tempore in his locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Pythagoreis, et studiis illis dedisse." Cicero de Republica, I. 10. ed. Ang. Maio, Item confer De Fin. v. 29.; Quaest. Tusc. I. 17. ; De Senec. XII. ; Lucan. X. 181. ; Val. Max. VIII. 7. ext. 3. VOL. XV.

Q

By the fall of Tarentum, and the conquest of Sicily, which followed at a short interval, the Romans were, therefore, brought in direct contact with the philosophy and literature of Greece at the period when both had attained their maximum of expansion and improvement, and when five centuries of social existence had prepared their minds to become recipients of whatever was fitted to enlighten and refine. The most remarkable moral revolution recorded in the annals of mankind almost immediately ensued; and in nothing was that revolution more strikingly evinced than in the change that took place in the language. The first poets of Rome were natives of Magna Graecia ; and though, after the conquest of their native country, they had to learn the language of their conquerors, the improvement which they effected must still be matter of surprise and astonishment. To satisfy his mind of the amount of this improvement, it is only necessary for the classical reader to compare the monuments of an elder date, preserved in the Monumenti degli Scipioni, or the Roma Antica, with the existing fragments of Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Ennius, writers in whose hands the language passed from a rude, uncouth, semibarbarous dialect, incessantly varying and fluctuating, into a regular form, and assumed much of that severe and majestic dignity by which it was ever after characterized.

Still, however, many archaisms, which it was reserved for the writers of the Augustan age to remove, continued in use, and the language was deformed by the frequent recurrence of sesquipedalia verba, compounded on the analogy of the Greek, but hostile to the genius of the Latin, which reluctantly admits triplicate, and seldom or never quadruplicate combinations. These and other peculiarities we propose now to exemplify; and as some arrangement is convenient, we shall do so under the following heads:

1. WORDS.—The writers anterior to the time of Cicero employed a number of substantives which the Augustan authors generally rejected ; such as anquinae, apludae, aqualis, aquula, axicia, bucoeda, bucco, bulga, bustirapus, capronae, capulum, carinarius, casteria, colluthea, conchita, conspicillum, cordolium, cuppes, dividia, estric, fula, famigerator, flammearius, grallator, hamista, illex for exler, lectisterniator, legirupa and legirupio, lenullus, a diminutive from leno, limbolarius, linteo, Lucas bos for elephantus, mando for helluo, mantellum, (whence the English word mantle,) mantisa, meddir, an Oscan word, equivalent to magistratus, mellinia, mosculus, a diminutive of mos, mulleus, ocris, offerumentum, petimen, perlecebra, petro, portisculus, proseda, sedentarius, statutus for procerus, struix, stultiloquentia, subulo, Summunus for Dis, suppromus, suras, sutela, tama, temetum, terginum, trico, vesperugo ; cum multis aliis quae nunc perscribere longum est. In this enumeration we have omitted words applicable to certain parts of dress, to trades, and to objects of natural history, because, though not to be met with in compositions of the Augustan age, they are not properly to be considered as having fallen into desuetude from any amelioration of the language, but as having become unnecessary or meaningless by the change which time and fashion had introduced. The writers of this period also employed substantives in a sense in which they are not found in the works of their successors; as flagitium for flagitatio, hæres for dominus, labor for morbus, nugae for naenia; and introduced a great number of vocables, which are either Greek, or closely imitated from that language; as, architecton for architectus, batiola from Bétrov, gaulus from yažnos, halophanta from Shopávrns, horoenum from spamov, lepada from 27es, miccotrogus from μικκος, and τρώγειν, pasceolus from φασκώλιον, pithecium from πιθήκιον, schoemum from σχοίνος, stalagmium from σταλαγμός, trapezita from τραπεζίτης. Compound words of prodigious length, and utterly abhorrent to the genius of the language, are likewise frequently to be met with, as argentienterce bronides, damnigeruli, dentifrangibula, feritribaces, flagritribae, gerulifigue lus, nucifrangibula, oculicrepidae, perenticidae, plagipatidae, subiculumfragri, and other combinations equally monstrous, in which Plautus particularly delights to indulge. In fact, the Umbrian baker appears to have taken a pleasure in sporting an occasional and notorious barbarism ; at least we

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