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at all events, we thought, Surely good him that even Jesus taught the people Mr. Meanwell, the parish minister, in parables. It will not appear astowould direct the distracted mind of nishing after this, if the worthy clergypoor Tom to this subject. But, alas! | man expresses a strong desire to supthe utmost we could discover, was a port the Cheap Magazine;" and agrees solitary reference to the mercy of God, with the author as to the great utility without any attempt to shew how that of a series of works like unto “ Tom mercy flows to the guilty. What a Bragwell.feast to read Inglis's “ Letter to six We shall only tax the patience of our men under sentence of death,” or his readers with a remark or two respecting "Account of William Mills," after this! Bragwell's execution. This was, of

We are quite at a loss to make out course, an event of no common kind, we who our author has in view, when he can assure them. Nature exerted herso frequently speaks of fanatical de- self to the utmost to add to the solemclaimers; but we hope, for the credit of nity of the scene: the sun arose in his own knowledge, he does not thus clouds; a gloomy darkness, and undenominate the Scotch dissenters from usual stillness in the atmosphere markhis favourite “ Parochial Establishments."| ed the approach of the hour at which He does, it is true, mention the names Tom Bragwell was doomed to pay the of Johanna Southcott, Mrs. Buchan, and forfeiture of his crimes. It is true, the Richard Brothers; but all the world fountains of the great deep were not knows, that the people of Scotland need broken up on tbis occasion; but the Do “Beacon in a blaze" to warn them windows of heaven were opened, and against the nonsense of those characters. the rain descended in torrents. Poor We fancied, however, that we got a Tom had been always, it would appear, little into the secret, when we arrived, sadly terrified at thunder; and when almost breathless, at the hundred and led out for execution, although so comseventy sixth page, where we found our pletely overcome with fear as to be author very angry with those who dare unable to stand, a loud peal of thunder to think that they know any thing which shook the very heavens, was better than their parish minister. We necessary to make him sink from the are often much disgusted to hear boys grasp of the officers of justice, who had of eighteen or nineteen years of age borne him forward, and just placed him taking pains to inform their audience beneath the halter. Matters could that they are “ Ambassadors of God,” not, however, long remain thus; Tom because they are privileged, by the in- must be roused from this state of insendulgence of their hearers, to address sibility. This resuscitation was not to them from what they call the “ sacred be effected by odoriferous applications eminence." Those who can deliberately to his olfactories; cold water, it would assume such epithets to themselves, seem, was ineffectual: there was only will not, at the same time, allow that one thing that could produce any effect they raise themselves to the rank of on Tom; and that was sufficient first to apostles; but the author of “Tom frighten him to death, and then to BRAGWELL" hesitates, not to say, that restore him to life; and accordingly, those who " set themselves above their“ another peal from heaven's dread minister, consequently, make themselves artillery awoke the criminal from his wiser than the apostle.After this, we fit;" and then, O reader! Tom died as expected to find our author's conduct other murderers die! But oh! what a an illustration of his own doctrine; and spectacle! Tom's “ lifeless body bleachto see him, like the parishioners of ing in the storm, and the blood mingling whom Dr. G. Campbell informs us, that with the rain as it flowed;" giving to they dofft off their hats, and made their his clothes a“ Robespierrian appearance." bow to their minister at sight, what- | This new adjective appears to have ever distance he might be from them: been invented expressly for the occasion; but no; he ventures to “set himself but with what propriety it is applied above" good Mr. Meanwell, the worthy to Bragwell, we cannot conceive. If minister who attended poor Tom from Robespierre attempted suicide by shootthe time of his condemnation till his ing himself in the head, and was led to exit from the world; and actually suc- the scaffold with his head bound up, ceeds in convincing him of the pro- his body certainly did not hang bleachpriety and the superiority of the alle ing in the rain, while the blood flowed gorical mode of teaching, by informing' from the wound in his head; for he suffered decapitation. Could not our , which he has devoted to the compilation author have contrived to render his of them. We do not doubt, indeed, comparison a little more accurate, by that had he taken more time, and been making Tom's body drop from the head more at leisure from other pursuits, he after suspension? This would have been might have polished his periods, and very plausible, since he had been cutting rendered them more smooth in the his throat the night before.

reading; but after all, this is a matter We appeal to the common sense of of very inferior consideration. Dr. our readers, whether all this be not Johnson finds fault with Robertson's mere triAling!--and trifling, too, on sub- Historical Works, as being chiefly conjects of the highest importance to man, posed of varnish and colouring. He as a guilty creature before God. Such draws a comparison between him and apparatus may be very necessary for Goldsmith, as writers of History, and producing the mawkish stories that are gives the preference decidedly to the daily issuing from the press, for the latter, for this important reason, that edification of the admirers of the mar. Goldsmith fills his pages with facts, vellous; but alas ! how are the sub- without wasting his time in dressing limely simple truths of Christianity them up; while, with Robertson the distorted, when they are made to pass case is quite the reverse. “A writer through such a medium!

of History," says he, “ should put as

much into his book as it will hold." Memoirs of Her Majesty, Queen Caroline

We take this to have been Mr. Wilks's Amelia Eliz. Consort of George IV.life

object in compiling these Memoirs; and King of Great Britain.

| if so, he has succeeded in a very high

By John de Wilks, Jun. London, printed for

degree. The Queen was really an ex· Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, two

traordinary woman; she possessed more

mind than falls to the lot of any ten vols. 8vo. pp. 960, price 21s. boards, ordinary females: and it is impossible 1822.

to trace her history in these pages, The history of this illustrious female without sighing over her unhappy fate. can never cease to interest the inha. bitants of the British Isles; and when the pen of the future historian shall | Village Sermons, on Interesting Subjects. commit to writing a faithful record of! BY THE Rev. THOMAS MILLER. the times that are passing over us,

London, R. Baynes, Ivy Lane, 1821, these volumes will supply him with a pp. 136, 12mo. price 2s. profusion of facts and documents of no The Reverend Thomas Miller is, we ordinary value. In their present state, believe, of the College of Steppey" they form a very proper supplement to though he has omitted to apprise his the History of the Reign of GeoRGEIII. readers of the important fact in the title or of England, continued to the com page of his pamphlet;—and we are the mencement of the present reign; and more surprised at this, as he has as such, the work deserves a place in thought proper to present himself beevery Englishman's library. In fact, fore the world in the character of a it is the only authentic narrative yet clergyman! We cannot praise his se! before the public, of this interesting mons; for we think them crude in their portion of our national concerns; and statements of the truths of the gospelthough some circumstances which took carelessly and incorrectly written and place at the time the publication was | by no means equal to Beddome's or first announced, led us to expect that it | Burder's Village Serinons. We wish would be furiously assailed by the enve-well to Mr. Miller, but his clerical pride nomed shafts of party scribblers, we disgusts us; and we cannot offer him. believe it has had the good fortune, better piece of advice, than to study hitherto, to escape every thing of this and make himself master of the follow kind,

ing text; “How can ye believe which Mr. Wilks apologizes, in his Preface, receive honour one of another, and seed for any imperfections of style, or in the not the honour which cometh from digesting of his materials, that may be only?" Mr. M. has placed in his this found in his volumes, on the ground, I page, as a motto, the following words that he was compelled to snatch from The Spirit of the Lord is upon my the discharge of the duties of a labo- | because he hath anointed me to preac rious profession, (the law,) the hours "the gospel to the poor!!!”.

121

Religious and Literary Intelligence.

PROFANATION OF THE SABBATH. Without entering into an historical view

of the progress of Christianity in this MR. EDITOR,

country, and of the connection between By the insertion in your very excel that progress and the enactinent of laws for lent Magazine of the enclosed observations the regulation of this sacred day, it is neceson the Profanation of the Sabbath, and on sary to refer to those laws which are now in the means proposed to be adopted for its operation, and to develope their inade. prevention, and now under discussion by quacy. the clergy and laity of the Establishment, The laws of Athelstan forbade all merand the ministers and laity among Dis chandiziug on the Lord's day, under very senters, residing in or near London, you

severe penalties. It appears that such will greatly oblige,

restrictions were then peculiarly necessary,

and they were eminently useful. Your devoted, obedient servant,

In the 27th year of the reign of Henry 36, New Broad St. John Wilks, Jun. VI, an act was passed, declaring “ that all March 20, 1822.

fairs and markets upon feast days or on Sundays, the four Sundays in harvest ex.

cepted,) should clearly cease, on pain of Observations on the Profanation of the Sab

forfeiture of the goods exposed to sale; and bath in England; the present state of the

fairs holden theretofore on solemn festi

vals, should thereafter be holden three days Laws; and on their proposed Alteration.

before, or three days after such festivals." In every civilized country, especially in the reign of QUEEN ELIZABETH three where the mild and salutary influence of statutes were passed, which are still unreChristianity has been permitted to operate, pealed, but which are wholly incompatible the observation of the Sabbath-day has with those principles of religious liberty, been justly deemed of the last importance. which, happily for this country, all parties “The profanation of the Lord's day," there- unite to recognize, and under whose benigfore, says Judge Blackstone, in his inva-nant influence the cause of Christianity has luable Commentaries, (vol. iv. p. 63,)“ is rapidly advanced. Reference is now made an offence against God and religion, punish- to 1 Elizabeth, c. 2; 23 Elizabeth, c. 1, ed by the municipal law of England. For, s. 8, 11; and 29 Elizabeth, c. 6, s. 7. besides the notorious indecency and scandal By the first of these acts, it is declared, of permitting any secular business to be “ That all persons not having a reasonable publicly transacted on that day, in a coun. excuse, shall resort to their parish church try professing Christianity, and the corrup or chapel (or to some congregation of redition of morals which usually follows its pro gious worship allowed by law,) on every fanation, the keeping one day in seven holy, SUNDAY, on pain of punishment by the as a time of relaxaiion and refreshment, ascensures of the church, or of forfeiting one well as for public worship, is of admirable shilling to the poor for every such offence.” service to a state, considered merely as a By the two last acts, it is declared, " That civil institution. It humanizes, by the help every person above sixteen years of age of conversation and society, the manners of who shall not repair to some church, chapel, the lower classes, which would otherwise or usual place of common prayer, being degenerate into a sordid ferocity, and convicted thereof before the judges of savage selfishness of spirit; it enables the assize, or justices in sessions, shall forfeit industrious workman to pursue his occupa £20 a month; one third to the king; one tion in the ensuing week with health and third to the maintenance of the poor of the cheerfulness; it imprints on the minds of parish, and the houses of correction, and of the people that sense of their duty to God, impotent and maimed soldiers, as the Lord so necessary to make them good citizens, Treasurer, Chancellor, and Chief Baron of but which yet would be worn out and de the Exchequer shall order; and one third to faced by an uoremitted continuance of him who shall sue in any court of record :" labour, without any stated time of recalling and the latter statute further declares, them to the worship of their Maker.” The “ That if the penalty be not paid in three remarks of this celebrated man especially months after judgment, he shall be imprideserve regard, not merely from their in soned till he pay, or conform himself to go trinsic excellence, but from his kuown pro to church." The penalty imposed by bity and wisdom.

these latter statutes, it was also determined, YOL. VIII.

did aos dispense with the forfeiture of one or horses, nor waggon-men with any shilling a Sunday: and the shilling was de- waggoo or waggons, nor carmen with any clared to be immediately forfeited upon the cart or carts, Dor wainsmen with any wain absence of each particular day.

or wains, nor drovers with any cattle, shall By the 29th Elizabeth, c. 6, 3rd James, by themselves or agy other, travel on the e. 4, s. 8, 9, the method of levying the Lord's day on pain of twenty shillings; or payment of the penalties is specified; and s if any butcher, by himself or any other the latter statote also declares, “ Tbat with his privity and consent, shall kill or every person who shall retain in bis service, sell any vicipals on the Lord's day, he shall or shall relieve, keep, or harbour in his forfeit 6s. 8d." Notwithstanding this sta. house, ang servant, sojourner, or stranger, tote and another on the same subject, no who shall not repair to church, but shall offences are more frequently committed. forbear for a month together, not having Through the whole country cattle are per. reasonable excuse, shall forfeit £10 for (mitted to be driven; and in large towns, esery month he shall continue in his house and especially in the metropolis, butchers such person so forbearing.”

now regularly open their shops on Sunday To these statntes reference is now seldom morning, and frequently dorinz disine sermade. It is righty admitted, that attend- vice, to pursue their callings, and openly ance at a place of religious worship is violate the laws of God and their country. solely a RELIGIOUS DUTY; and that, on the These penalties were, however, limited one band, no service can be acceptable to to but a few descriptions of persons, until, God which is only rendered to avoid the by the 29th CHARLES II. c. 7, it was penalties inflicted by human laws; and, on enacted, that “Do drover, horsecourser, the other band, that Du human tribunal has waggoner, butcher, higgler, or any of their any right to interfere between God and servants, shall travel, or come into his ina man, and to legislate on matters that are or lodging on the Lord's day, or any part above and beyond all such legislation. The thereof, on pain of twenty shillings; and in repeal of such statutes wonld, therefore, be general, that no tradesipan, artificer, work. important, if bigotry and intolerance should man, labourer, or other person, shall do or venture to enforce them; but the genius of exercise any worldly labour, business, or the age renders it not essential, any farther work of their ordinary callings on the Lord's than that all laws which are useless and day; except works of necessity and chaimproper should be repealed. These, how. rity; and except dressing of meat in famiever, appear to be the only statutes which lies, or dressing or selling of meat at inds, are unnecessary or unwise; and those which cook-shops, or victualling houses, for such will be hereafter referred to, whilst some as cannot otherwise be provided;" (and by are inefficient, all are in principle correct, the 9th Ado, c. 23, s. 20, except licensed though the penalty may be disproportioned hackney coachmen and chairnen withio to the offence, or the mode of recovery the bills of mortality :) " on pain of every tiresome and vexatious.

offender above fourteen years of age for: As a contrast to the statutes just referred | feiting five shillings; and also that no perto, King James the First disgraced bimself son shall publicly cry, shew forth, or expose and his country by bis Book OF SPORTS, - 1 to sale, any wares, merchandizes, fruit, by declaring to his subjects, “ that dancing, herbs, goods, or chattels whatsoever, on the archery, leaping, saulting, May-games, i Lord's day," (** except crying and selling of Whitsun-ales, and morris dances were law. milk before nine in the moroing, and after ful; and did coinmand, that no such honest four in the afternoon, and except mackarel, mirth or recreation should be forbidden to which may be sold on Sundays, before or his subjects on SUNDAYS, after evening | after divide service," by the 10th and Ilth service."

of William, c. 24, s. 14:) " on pain of for. In the first year of the reign of CHARLES feiting the same; and also that no person I. e. ), such improper and indecent conduct shall use, employ, or trasel on the Lord's was, however, prohibited; and it was de- day, with any boat, wherry, lighter, or clared, “ that every person indulging in barge," ("* unless allowed by a justice of such games, should for every offence forfeit peace, &c, on extraordinary occasions; apa the sum of 3s. 4d, or be set publicly in the except forty watermen who may ply on the stocks for three hours."

Thames on Sundays, between Vauxhall and The inadequacy of this penalty, and the Limehouse," by the Ilth and 12th of negligence of the police are, however, at William, c. 21, s. 13:) " on pain of one present so lamentable, that in many places shillings; and if any person offending In in London, and throughout the country, / any of the premises shall thereof be com games of the most improper character are victed in ten days after the offence, befor indulged with impunity. To this fact | one justice, on view, or confession, or oacur attention should be paid,

of one witness, the justice shall give warrant In the third year of the reign of this to the constables or churchwardens to se monarch, a beneficial statite was passed, the goods cried, shewed forth, or put declaring that no carrier with any "horse sale, and to sell the same, and to levya

other forfeitures by distress, to the use of bake any meat, puddings, pies or tarts, or the poor, except that the justice inay out in any other manner exercise the trade of a of the same reward the informer with any baker on the Lord's day, on pain of forfeitsom not exceeding one third part; and for ing ten shillings, &c." In this act was, want of distress, the offender shall be set | however, inserted a salutary proviso, that publicly in the stocks for two hours.” meat, puddings or pies, might be baked

If the penalties thus inflicted be sought | between nine in the morning and one in the for, they are, first, very trivial, and second, I afternoon, so as the persons requiring the they are difficult to be recovered. The baking thereof, carry or send the same to Christian and sirnames of the parties must and from the place where baked. be ascertained ;-the person who actually By 50th Geo. III. c. 73, further regulabuys; the money must be seen to pass :- and tions as to the trade of a BAKER vere imvarious other formalities must be attended posed, but the penalties are as usual too to, before five SAILLINGS can be recovered small and foo difficult to be recovered. of a man whose profits on a Sunday morn. That act declares that “no person exering are frequently Five Pounds!

cising or employed in the trade of a Baker In one parish in London, the church-beyond the City of London or the Liberties wardens, with laudable assiduity, repeated thereof, or beyond the said ten miles of the their exertions to recover the penalty, in Royal Exchange, shall on the Lord's day or spite of all the difficulties which presented any part thereof, make or bake any bread themselves; until, at length, subdued by or cake of any sort or kind, or shall on any their energy and perseverance, the butchers part of the said day, except between the requested that the beadle might attend on hours of ten in the forenoon, and half past one them every Monday morning for five in the afternoon, on any pretence whatever, shillings, which should be regularly paid, sell or expose to sale, or suffer to be exposed and save THEMSELVES the trouble of attend. I to sale, any bread or cake of any sort or ing at a police office.

kind, or bake or deliver, or suffer to be Another example of such flagrant con- baked or delivered, any meat, pudding, pie, duct is also worthy of attention. In the or victuals at any time after half past one parish of COVENT GARDEN is held a market, in the afternoon of that day, or in any and the FRUITERERS and GREEN GROCERS other manner exercise the trade of a Baker, inhabiting it are equally pertinacious. The save and except so far as may be necessary churchwardens in that parish have also in setting and superintending the sponge to interfered. They have had much trouble, prepare the dough for the following day's and been put to considerable expence; baking; and that no meat, pudding, pie, till, at length, they have succeeded against &c, shall be brought to or taken from any the legal objections made to the various bakehouse, during divine service in the forms of warrant, conviction, and distress ; church of the Parisb were the same is and when thus defeated, the offenders also situate, nor within a quarter of an hour of directed that the beadle should call on the commencement thereof," Conviction them every Monday for the penalty of to be before one justice on view, or oath FIVE SBILLINGS. The only possible method of one witness, or on confession ; penalty of preventing so shameful a breach of this for first offence five shillings; for a second wholesome Statute, is by VERY CONS[- offence not exceeding ten shillings; and for DERABLY increasing the penalty, and by every subsequent one not exceeding fifteen facilitating its recovery. This measure is shillings, with the costs and expences of now in contemplation, and to it the altention prosecution to be assessed by the Justice, of the religious publöc is thus invited.

&c. Before this measure is more distinctly By the 55th Geo. III. c. 99, it is further mentioned, it is necessary to specify the provided, that“ no Bakers within the Bills acts which have been passed as explanatory of Mortality, or ten miles of the Royal of the last mentioned statute.

Exchange, shall bake bread or rolls on By the 9th Anne, c. 23, s. 20, it has been Sundays, nor sell bread, nor bake meat, already stated, that licensed hackney &c. except from nine to two o'clock, under coachmen and chairmen within the Bills of the penalty of ten shillings for the first Mortality are allowed to ply

offence, twenty shillings for the second, and By the 10th and Ilth William, c. 24, s. forty shillings for the third and every sub14; it has also been stated that the crying sequent offence." This statute extends the and selling of milk before nine in the time of delivering bakings until half-past morning, and after four in the afternoon; two o'clock; but which, unfortunately, in and also mackarel are allowed to be sold London is often extended till five o'clock. on Sunday before or after service.

Notwithstanding the various statutes' which By the 54th Geo. III. c. 61; it was de- have been thus recapitulated; and notclared that “ No Baker in the City of Lon- withstanding the 21st Geo, III. c. 49, which don or within twelve miles thereof, should declares that no house, room, or other place, on any pretence whatsoever, make, bake, shall on the Lord's day be open for public or expose to sale any bread or rolls; or entertainment or for any debcting societies ;

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