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operate on 110-volt circuit, a 16-candle-power carbon filament lamp will permit one-half ampere to pass; to 32-candle-power will allow 1 ampere to pass. If it is desired, therefore, to pass three amperes through the battery, one could use 3 32-candle-power lamps, or 6 16-candle-power lamps. If the lamps are to burn on 220 volts, it should be remembered that when the voltage is doubled the amperage is cut in half, therefore the 32-candlepower, 220-volt carbon filament bulbs will only pass half an ampere. The method of wiring is very simple, as may be readily ascertained by referring to Fig. 48. The line wires are attached to a fuse block and then to a double knife switch. The switch and fuse block are usually mounted on a panel of insulating material such as slate or marble. One of the wires, the positive of the circuit, runs from the switch directly to the positive terminal of the storage battery. The negative wire from the switch passes to the lamp-bank resistance. The lamps are placed in parallel connection with respect to each other, but in series connection in respect to the battery. When coupled in this manner the current must overcome the combined resistance of the storage battery, which is very low, and that of the lamps. This prevents the battery being charged with current of too high voltage.
A water resistance is easily constructed by using a small wooden tub or half barrel. Two sheet-lead plates are suspended from wood sticks resting on top of the tub, the supports being movable to bring the lead plates closer together or separate them, as desired. A wire is brought from the battery, as shown in Fig. 49, to one side of the switch, then to one of the plates in the water resistance, then from the other plate of the water resistance to an ammeter; to the other side of the switch and from there to the opposite pole of the battery. Such a resistance is used for making a test discharge of a vehicle battery; it would not be a very practical way of charging batteries because of the great absorption of current by the water. Before starting a discharge, care should be taken to have the lead plates and wires separated. The tub can then be filled with clean water and the swiťch closed. A small quantity of electrolyte should then be poured in the water, a very little at a time, until the ammeter shows that the proper
amount of current is flowing. The farther apart the plates are, the greater the resistance. As more electrolyte is added, even if the plates are not disturbed, the resistance becomes less. Never let the plates touch each other.
The points to be especially emphasized in connection with the charge are:
First-On regular charges keep the rates as low as practical and cut off the current promptly. It is preferable to cut off a little too soon rather than to run too long where there is any question.
Second-Overcharges must be given at stated intervals and continued to a complete maximum. They should be cut off at the proper point, but when in doubt it is safer to run too long, rather than to cut off too soon.
Third-Do not limit the charge by fixed voltage.
Fifth-Keep naked flames away from cells while charging, as the gas given off is inflammable. Always see that gas vents are clear before charging.
Winter Care of Storage Batteries. It would not do simply to leave the battery in the car for a period of, say, four or five months without giving it any care or attention, for in that case at the end of that time it would be found to have its plates so thickly covered with lead sulphate as to make it practically useless. For storage batteries “to rest is to rust” and become ruined, unless special precautions are taken. Automobile storage batteries are all or nearly all of the sealed-in type, from which the elements cannot be removed without a great deal of trouble. Therefore, the only method of keeping the plates intact consists in charging the battery at intervals of about two weeks. The following advice concerning the care of batteries during a protracted period of idleness of the car is due to the Willard Storage Battery Company, and refers especially to the batteries of starting-and lighting systems.
At intervals of two weeks the engine should be run until the electrolyte shows a specific gravity of 1.280. If this is done regularly the engine need be run only about an hour each time. But if the owner should not be in possession of an hydrometer, it is better to run the engine two or three hours each time, for the sake of safety. To charge the battery properly the engine should be run at a speed corresponding to a car speed of about 20 mph ini
WHEN ONLY ONE CIRCUIT IS CON
NECTED, ENGINE MAY OR MAY NOT
IF MORE THAN ONE
CIRCUIT IS CONNECTED, IT IS BEST TO
STORAGE BATTERY IS NOT FULL.
Fig. 50.—Diagram Outlining Necessary Connections for Using Delco Battery
CONNECT ALL BATTERIES BEING CHARGED, IN SERIES,
AS SHOWN BELOW
CHARGE FOR A PERIOD OF 2 HOURS AFTER THE
on the direct drive. There may be cases, however, where the owner is compelled to store his car in a space where it is practically impossible to run the engine. Where this is the case, it is recommended, if electric current is available, that the owner purchase a rectifier or small charging machine. A charge over night, or for about twelve hours, every two weeks with this apparatus, will be sufficient to keep the battery in a healthy condition. Before beginning the charging the battery should be inspected to see if it is filled with solution. If the solution needs replenishing, distilled water should be added until the solution fully covers the plates, which may be determined by removing the vent plugs and looking down into the cells. In case it is impossible to run the engine for charging and the owner does not care to incur the expense of purchasing a rectifier, he should remove the battery from the car and arrange for its storage at a garage which has charging facilities, stipulating that it must be charged every two weeks. The cost of having it so cared for will be nominal and will prove excellent insurance against deterioration.
To care for storage batteries of a type that is easily taken apart the following method is recommended: First charge the battery until every cell is in a state of complete charge. If there should be any short-circuited cells they should be put into condition before the charge is commenced, so that they will receive the full benefit of the charge. Then remove the elements from the jars, separating the positive from the negative groups, and place in water for about one hour to dissolve out any electrolyte adhering to the plates. Then withdraw the groups and allow them to drain and dry. The positives when dry are ready to be put away. If the negatives in drying become hot enough to steam, they should be rinsed or sprinkled again with clean water and then allowed to dry thoroughly. When dry, the negatives should be replaced in the electrolyte (of from 1.275 to 1.300 specific gravity), care being taken to immerse them completely and allow them to soak for three or four hours. Two groups may be placed in a jar and the jar filled with electrolyte. After rinsing and drying the plates are ready to be put away.
The rubber separators should be rinsed in water. Wood sepa