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Ontario Roads, where vessels are well protected from the prevailing storms of this region. The water near the shore is not deep, and should it ever be desirable to build a wharf at this point it would require one several thousand feet in length to reach three fathoms at low water. The entrace to this roadstead from the Straits of Fuca is through a very narrow but deep channel, known as Little Belt Passage, separating this island from Lopez Island. It is a very convenient and favorite resort for vessels escaping from storms which often in winter season, very suddenly arise on Fuca Straits. On the northwestern end of the island are several bays, well protected by Henry Island, forming good harbors for vessels of light draught.
IV. PROF. Cook's NEW MAP OF NEW JERSEY. We have received from Prof. Geo. H. Cook, of Rutgers College, a reduced copy of the new Geological map of New Jersey.
The geographical information is compiled and drawn by G. M. Hopkins, C. E., from data furnished by the State Geological Survey, the U. S. Coast Survey, and other official and private
The coasts, the river courses, the civil boundaries, the roads, and other horizontal features of the country are elaborately delineated. The elevations or vertical features are not so distinctly brought out. As the reproduction of a larger map by a new photographic process, the map is exceedingly interesting to cartographers. The copies we have seen are printed in a single tint; others colored geologically are probably published. V. C. C. PARRY'S REPORT ON THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF
THE Kansas Pacific RAILWAY ROUTE, (35th Parallel.) Dr. C. C. Parry, Geologist of the Survey, has published a preliminary report (Philadelphia, 20 pp., 1868) on the route from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean, of the Kansas Pacific R. R. We make the following extract.
All the features of "the Plains” are changed on reaching the great barrier constituting the eastern outlier of the Rocky mountain range: instead of uniform slopes, the elevations exhibit abrupt rocky declivities; the valleys are cut deeply through the rocky strata, forming chasms and prolonged cañons; the sheltered recesses, irregular character of soil, and more abundant moisture, favor the growth of trees and shrubbery, while the variety of rock exposures, including volcanic, metamorphic and sedimentary, serve still farther to vary the general features of the country.
On crossing this first range of mountains near the line of the 35th parallel, at an elevation of about 7000 feet above the sea, we descend into the valley of the Rio Grande, 2000 feet lower, and from this point westward to the Colorado, a distance of 575 miles, the principal drainage is to the south, the intervening water-sheds between the different valleys, presenting ridges of moderate elevation, as exhibited in the general profile of the surveys.
The region under special consideration, comprises three very distinct sections, which may be briefly referred to in regular order, proceeding westward from the Rio Grande.
1st. From the Rio Grande to the Colorado of the West.
2d. From the Colorado to the summit of Tehachapa Pass in the Sierra Nevada.
3d. The western slope of the Sierra Nevada, descending into the Tulare valley, and thence over the Californian coast range or down the Tulare and San Joaquim valleys to the Pacific.
I From the Rio Grande to the Colorado of the West, the country presents the character of a vast upland, crossed by a succession of mountain ridges, and basin-shaped valleys, interrupted by the product of recent volcanic eruptions in the form of extinct craters, cones, and streams of lava, which have overflowed and buried up the lower sedimentary rocks. The principal mountain axes exhibit a granitic nucleus, which at certain points is exposed to view in irregular mountain ranges, trending northwest and southeast, and constituting the general frame-work of the country, as exhibited in the Sierra Madre, the Mogollon range and the Pinaleno mountains of Central Arizona. Intermediate to these is the great table-land or mesa formation of Western New Mexico and Eastern Arizona, comprising the sedimentary strata of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks, which spread out into broad uplands, abruptly terminated by steep mural declivities, bounding valleys of erosion, or presenting isolated butes and fantastically castellated rocks, that serve to give a peculiar aspect to the scenery The principal foci of extinct volcanic action are represented by the elevated cones of San Mateo, and San Francisco, attaining an elevation of over 12,000 feet above the sea, whose alpine slopes, reaching above the timber line, present in their covering of snow, the only wintery feature pertaining to this latitude.
It is in the eastern section of this district that we meet with the most populous and flourishing of the interesting tribes known as Pueblo Indians; here they secure not only defensive positions for their towns on the tabled summits of isolated hills, but also fertile valleys adjoining, suited to their rude agriculture, and a wide scope of grazing country, limited only by the necessity of protection from the thievish and roving Navajo and Apache.
What is known as the Navajo country, extending still further to the west and north, comprises a similar character of broken country with fertile valleys, grassy slopes, and deeply sheltered cañons, especially adapted to their mode of life as nomadic and at the same time partially agricultural; still, better suited, however, to the wants of an energetic civilized community, who can properly appreciate the advantages of a healthful climate, combined Am. JOUR. 801.—SECOND SERIES, VOL. XLVII, No. 139.-JAN., 1869.
with a useful variety of soil, and that picturesque beauty of scenery, which adds such a charm to rural life.
In passing to the valley of the Colorado, we descend by a succession of irregular mountain ranges and basin valleys, becoming more arid as they reach a lower elevation, and finally passing into the valley of the Colorado, characterized by its bare mountain ranges, desert uplands, and broad alluvial bottoms, supporting their peculiar semi-tropical vegetation.
II. From the Colorado to the summit of Tehachapa Pass in the Sierra Nevada.-After leaving the valley of the Colorado, and crossing the first range of mountains, bounding the valley on the west, we come upon that peculiar section of country properly characterized as the southern continuation of the Great Basin. In all its external features of isolated mountain ridges, separated by stretches of desert plain, and valleys with intermittent flowing streams, terminating in saline or fresh water lakes or sinks; in its numerous dry water-courses or washes, which convey the product of summer rains, in sudden floods to the lower plains, it is an exact counterpart of the settled mining district of Nevada, characterized, however, by milder winters and greater summer heats. It is also much narrower in its eastern and western extension, the entire desert tract being comprised within little over 200 miles, the valley of the Mojave occupying in its easterly course more than half of the distance.
On reaching the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, here much reduced in elevation, and affording a number of practical railroad passes, we reach a well-watered country with frequent springs and small water-courses flowing from the adjoining mountains, and toward the dividing ridge, good grazing and agricultural lands are interspersed with groves of timber, presenting all the desirable features of an inhabitable country
III. The western slope of the Sierra Nevada, descending into the Tulare valley, and thence across the coast range of California, or down the Tulare and San Joaquim valleys to the Pacific.—This section of country comprising the southern extension of the great valley of California, is too well known to require any detailed description.
Further information respecting this region is given under seven heads, viz: Climate, Supply of Water, Vegetation, Adaptation to Agriculture, Minerals, and Facilities for railroad connections. The recapitulation is as follows.
The general comparative advantages of this trans-continental route along the 35th parallel may be thus briefly summed up:
A salubrious climate favorable to health and activity, accessible to the moist southerly currents, while at the same time protected from the severe northern blasts, receiving along the higher elevations precipitation of rain and snow sufficient to favor the growth of natural forests and upland grasses, without forming any obstruction to winter travel.
A pleasant variety of atmospheric temperature, connected with differences of elevation or exposure in closely adjoining districts, which can be selected to suit the requirements of the season, or the particular taste of individuals.
An agricultural capacity that in its proper development can be made ample to supply the prospective wants of this region, and in the production of fruits and garden vegetables, can afford the delicacies that enter into the essential wants of civilized communities.
A pastoral region unequalled in the extent or quality of its grasses, which in adjoining districts keeps up a constant supply of nutricious fodder through the year, requiring only the light labor of herding to secure the remunerative returns of this branch of industry.
A mining region yet undeveloped but sufficiently known to be characterized as second to none on the continent in the extent and variety of its mineral products, only waiting for the facilities of railroad transportation to invite and retain permanent capital and industrious labor.
A location of route which presents the special advantages of a main trunk line in being naturally connected with adjoining rich districts that will thus seek an outlet by branch roads to central commercial points. VI. EARLY AMERICAN MAPS. DISCOVERY OF AN IMPORTANT
MANUSCRIPT OF HAKLUYT.
College, in a recent visit to Europe, secured through Mr. J. G. Kohl reduced copies of thirty-two early maps relating to the discoveries on the northeastern coast of America, during the first half of the sixteenth century. They are to be reproduced in the forth-coming volume of the collections of the Maine Historical Society, probably in the course of January, 1869.
He has also had the good fortune to discover among the manuscripts of Sir Thos. Philips, at Cheltenham, a manuscript of Richard Hakluyt, drawn up in 1584 by request of Sir Walter Raleigh, and giving an account of the results of the “ Western Discoveries, lately attempted.” Dr. Woods was allowed to bring home with him a copy of this curious manuscript, made with scrupulous care, and this will be printed in a second volume soon after the first. We shall make further comment on these interesting volumes when they appear from
VII. THE BAHAMAS HURRICANE OF 1866. The destructive hurricane which passed over the Bahamas in October, 1866, disabling many American steamers, * furnished a remarkable illustration of the theory of cyclones often
* Among them the “Evening Star" foundered.
expounded in this Journal by the late Mr. William C. Redfield. His son, Mr. John H. Redfield of Philadelphia, has drawn a diagram, illustrating the direction of the winds at noon on the first day of October, availing himself not only of the marine reports of our newspapers, but especially of the abstract of observations officially reported by His Exc. R. W. Rawson, Governor of the Bahamas. This diagram is so striking that we reproduce it with the following extract from Mr. Redfield's letter to Governor Rawson. It originally appeared in connection with the latter's Report, recently printed as a pamphlet at Nassau, N. P. The general course of the hurricane through the Atlantic is indicated on another map by Capt. W. 8. Stuart. The cyclone was five days in progress from the Eastern Bahamas, to the latitude of Cape Hatteras.
Philadelphia, March 23, 1868. It was this consideration that suggested to me to employ your abundant data for mapping out the actual winds of the storm, in the different portions of its area, at a definite period of time, and thus coördinating the facts of the case. This mode of analysis had been a favorite one with my father (Wm. C. Redfield, of New York), and was employed most elaborately, and with signal success in his Memoir upon the Cuba Hurricane of Oct., 1844. (See Am. Jour. Sci., II, vol. i, ii, Jan. to Nov., 1846.) Some embarrassment, which I experienced from an occasional 'want of more definite information from some of the points of observation as to the precise direction of the wind at the hour selected, has been removed by the kindness of Capt. W. H. Stuart, Deputy Inspector of Lighthouses, Bahamas, who, at your suggestion, has sent me all needed facts in the table subjoined. From this table the accompanying small chart is constructed, showing the directions of the wind at noon of Oct. 1, at 34 different points in various portions of the storm area. In regard to this chart, I have few annotations to make, preferring that it should tell its own story:
The center of the hurricane, at the hour named, was evidently but a few miles southeastward from Shroud Cay, the wind at that Cay being from N.E. until 1 P. M., when there was a lull of an hour, followed by the gale from S.W. At the points 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which lie beyond, or just within, the retreating limb of the cyclone, we find, as might be expected, that the storm's violence was abating, while at points 31 to 35, just covered by the advancing limb, the tempest was increasing gradually as its vortex was approaching.
Observation No. 18 (Sch. Violin), seems somewhat anomalous in its character, and as no log was kept, and the crew could neither read nor write, it is not too much to suppose, either that they reported the wind too much to the S. of W., or else that the vessel's position was really farther to the eastward. [It is believed that the master and crew only guessed their position.-R. W. R.]